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600062207M 




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«... ■ * 



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-•■■^■«— ^»"^^i" 



NATURAL 
HISTORY OF MAN; 



AS ACCOUST OF THE MANNEHS AND crSTOMS OF THE 
UNCIVILIZED RACES OF MEN. 



BY THE REV. 

J. G. WOOD, M.A. P.L.S. 



WITH NEW DESIGNS 
BY ZWECKER, ANGAS, DANBY, HANDLEY, ETC. ETC. 




AUSTKALIA, NEW ZEALAND, POLYNESIA. A.MEHICA, ASIA, 
AND ANCIENT EUIiOPE. 



LONDON: 

GEOEOE UOUTLEDGE AND SONS, THE BKOADWAY, LUDGATE. 

KEW YORK; «e, BROOME STREET. 

1870. 



2.Z^. / /S. 



LONDON : 

R. CLAY« 80K8, AND TAYLOR, PKIXTEU8, 

BREAD 8TRERT BILL. 



PREFACE. 



In this volume will be found a selection of the most interesting uncivilized 
tribes that inhabit, or once inhabited, America and the vast number of 
islands which lie between that country and the eastern coast of Asia, 
including among them the great groups of Australia and New Zealand. 
A short notice is given of the long-perished Lake-dwellers of Switzerland, 
and the partial civilization of India, China, Japan, and Siam is also 
represented. 

My best thanks are due to the Geographical and Anthropological 
Societies for the constant access permitted to their libraries, and to the 
Curator of the " Christy Collection " for the assistance which he rendered 
in the illustration of the work. 






CONTENTS. 



AUSTRALIA. 

I. The NatiTe Australians 1 

II. ^lAnnf^rs and Customs 11 

III. Weapons 28 

IV. Weapons (cotitinued) 37 

V. War and Dances 58 

VI. Domestic Life 70 

VII. From Childhood to Manhood . ... 75 

VIII. Medicine, Surgery, Disposal of the Dead 82 

IX. Architecture and Boat-huilding ... 98 

NEW ZEALAND. 

I. General Remarks 106 

IL Dress 114 

III. Dress (continued) 121 

IV. Domestic Life 131 

V. Food and Cookeiy 143 

VL War 155 

VIL Canoes 171 

VIIL Religion 176 

IX, The Tapu 183 

X. Funeral Ceremonies and Architecture . 190 

NEW CALEDONIA. 

L Appearance, Dress, Warfare, and 

Weapons 202 

ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS. 

I. General Remarks 210 

NEW GUINEA. 

I. Papuan Race 221 

II. Social Customs 228 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

CMAP. VAOK 

I. The Ajitas or Ahitas 243 

FIJI 

I. Appearance and Dress 246 

II. Manufactures 254 

III. Government and Social Life .... 262 

IV. War and Omiunents 274 

V. Religions and Funeral Rites .... 290 

SOLOMON ISLANDS AND NEW HEBRIDES. 

I. Character of the Natives 299 

TONGA. 

I. Government and Scales of Rank . . 308 

II. War and Ceremonies 316 

III. Sickness, Burial, Games 328 

SAMOA, OR THE NAVIGATORS' ISLANDS. 

I. Appearance, Character, Dress . . . 343 

II. War 352 

III. Amusements, Hunting, Cookery . . . 362 

HERVEY AND KINGS.MILL ISLANDS. 

I. Hervf y Islanders 370 

II. Eingsmill Islanders 377 

Marquesas 383 

NIUE, OR SAVAGE ISLAND 393 

SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

I. Appearance, Dress, and Social Customs 398 

IL Religion 408 

III. History, War, Funerals, and Legends . 416 



VIU 



CONTENTS. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

CHAV. 

I. General Character .... 
II. War, Sport, and Religion . . 



PAOB 

427 
435 



CAROLINE ARCHIPELAGO. 



I. Marshall Islands 
II. Pelew Islands . 



444 
447 



BORNEO. 

I, The Dyaks — their Appearance and 

Dress 

II. War 

III. War (continwd) 

IV. Social Life 

V. Architecture and Manufactures . . . 

VI. Religion, Omens, Fimerala .... 



453 
464 
475 
486 
498 
508 



I. 

IL 
III. 
IV. 

V. 
VI. 

VIL 

vin. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XIL 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 



AMERICA. 

Tierra del Fuego 

Patagonians and their Weapons . . . 
Domestic Life of the Patagonians . . 
Araucanians — General Description . . 

Domestic Life .... 

Games and Social Cus- 



» 



toms 

Gran Chaco ..... 

Munduruciis 

Guiana — General Description 
Effect of Poison . 

War 

Domestic Customs 
Dress and Games 
Religion . . . 

Mexico 



513 i 

524 

536 

543 

550 

560 
568 i 
573 . 
580 
589 
600 I 
606 I 
618 ' 
621 ' 
637 



CRAP. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIIL 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXL 

XXIL 

XXIIL 

XXIV. 



AMERipA — continued. 

North - American Indians — General 

Notice 

„ War . . . 

„ Hunting . 

Religion 

Social Life . 

Esquimaux — Appearance and Dress . 

„ Domestic Life .... 

Vancouver's Island — Appearance and 

Dress 

Domestic Customs 



)» 



»> 



» 



» 






w 



>» 



«» 



» 



PAGE 

640 

649 

661 

671 

685 

696 

703 

723 
732 



ASIA. 

INDIA. 

I. Sowrahs and Khonds 746 

II. Weapons 759 

III. Sacrificial Religion 772 

IV. Indians with relation to Animals . . 785 

TARTARY AND CHINA. 

I. Mantchu Tartars 794 

II. Appearance and Dress 800 

in. War 820 

JAPAN. 

I. General Description 832 

II. Miscellaneous Customs 840 

SIAM 855 

ANCIENT EUROPE 860 



y 



CHAPTER I. 



AUSTRALIA. 



THE XATIVK AUSTBALIAN8 — THB OENBBAL CONFORMATION OP THK HEAD AND PEATUBK8 ^THBIB 

AVKRAGB 8TATT7BK AND FOBM — THE WOMEN AND THEIB APPEABANCE — CHABACTEB OP THB 

NAXTVKS ^THBIB THIBVI8H PB0PENSITIE8 THEIB CUNNING, AND POWEB OF DISSIMULATION 

A PAIB OF CLBVEB THIBVES — THE " GOOD NATIVE " A CLEVEB OLD WOMAN INCENTIVES TO 

BOBBEBY HIDEOUS ASPECT OF THE OLD WOAFEN — A BEPULSIVB SUBJECT FOB AN ABTIST— 

YOUKGKB WOMEN OP SAMB TBIBE — THEIB STBANGE DBESS — THB CIBCULAB MAT CLOAK AND 

ITS USES ^THE NATIVE BASKET TBEACHEB0U8 CHABACTEB OF THE NATIVES MB. BAINES'S 

NABBATTVB ^THB OUTBIOGEB CANOE OP NOBTH AU8TBALIA, AND ITS PBOBABLE OBIGIN PIPE, 

AND MODE OF SMOKINfl ^THE MAMMALS OF AUSTBALIA, AND THEIB MABSUPIAL CHABACTEB 

CONFUSION OF NOMENCLATUBE — EFFECT OP THE ANIMALS ON THB HUMAN INHABITANTS OP 
THB COUNTBY ^FBIMABY USB OF WEAPONS. 

FoLLOWiNO up the principle of taking the least civilized races in succession, we naturally 
pass to the great continent of Australia and its adjacent islands. 

This wonderful country holds a sort of isolated position on the earth, owing to the 
curious contrast which reigns between it and all the lands with which we are familiar. 
It is situated, as my readers will see by reference to a map, just below the equator, and 
extends some forty degrees southwaixis, thus having at its northern extremity a heat 
which is tropical, and at its southern point a climate as cold as our own. But there is 
perhaps no country where the temperature is so variable as Australia, and there is one 
instance recorded where the thermometer registered a change of fifty degrees in twenty- 
five minutes. This sudden change is owing to the winds, which if they blow from the 
sea are cool, but if they blow towards the coast, after passing over the heated sand-wastes 
of the interior, raise the temperature in the extraordinary manner which has been 
mentioned. Still, the climate, changeable though it be, is a pleasant one ; and the colonists 
▼ho visit England nearly always grumble at the damp cUmate of the mother country, 
and long to be back again in Australia. Both the animal and vegetable products of this 
conntry are strangely imlike those of other lands, but, as we shall have occasion to 
describe them in the course of the following pages, they will not be mentioned at present ; 
aod we will proceed at once to the human inhabitants of Australia. 

It is exceedingly diflElcult, not to say impossible, to treat of the aborigines of Australia 
with much accuracy of system. Differing as do the tribes with which we are acquainted 
in many minor particulars, they all agree in general characteristics ; and, whether a native 
be taken from the north or south of the vast Australian continent, there is a similitude 
rf habits and a cast of features which point him out at once as an Australian. 

Tlie plan that will be adopted will therefore be to give a general sketch of the natives, 
together with an account of those habits in which they agree, and then to glance over 
IB much of Australia as travellers have laid open to us, and to mention briefly the most 
ikteresting of the manners and customs which exist in the several tribes. 

T0L.IL B 



2 AUSTRALIA. 

In colour the Australians are quite black, as dark indeed as the negro, but with nothing 
of the ne\iro character in the face. The forehead does not recede like that of the negro; 
and tliough the nose is wide, the mouth large, and the lips thick, there is none of that 
projection of jaw which renders the pure nejjro face so repulsive. The eye is small, darl^ 
and, hciny deeply sunken, it gives to the brows a heavy, oveihanging sort of look. The 
hair is by no means close and woolly like that of the negro, but is plentiful, rather long, 
and disposed to curl, mostly undulating, and sometimes even taking the form of ringleta. 
In texture it is very coarse and harsli, but cannot be describe<l as wool. 

The heard and moustache aro very thick and full, and the men take a pride in these 
ornaments, sometime.^ twisting the beard into curious shapes. Indeed, as a rule they 
are a hairy race. TJiere is now before me a large collection of photographs of native 
Australians, in many of which tlie men are remarkable for the thickness of the beard, 
end some of ttiein have their faces so heavily bearded that scarcely the nose is perceptible 




>; SUN AXD WOMAN', 



among the mass of hair that covers the cheeks nearly up to the eyes. Several of the elder 
men are very remarkable for the development of the bnir, which covers the whole of the 
breast and arms with n thick coating of pile, and looks as if they were clothed with a 
tightly -fitting fur garment. The above illustration wilt give a good idea of the features 
of the Australian. It is exactly copied from photogi-apjiic jwrtraits; and although the 
Buhjects have disfigured themselves by putting on Kuropoan dress, and the woman lias 
actually comlM'd her hair, tlie general east of the features is well preserved. 

In stature the Australian is about equal to that of the average KngliRhman — say 
five feet eight inches, although individuals much below and above this height may be 
BcciL The bodily ffirni of the AuMti-idian savages is good, and their limbs well niada 
Tlicrv are several well-known drawings of Australians, which have been widely eircuhitcd ■ 
on accfumt of their grotcs(|ueneHH, and which have been accepted as the oixlinary form of ' 
this euriona ii<v>]ile, ami they have given the idea that the native Australian is dis- 
tinguished by a very largo head, a very small body, and very long and attenuated limbs ; 
in fact, that he is to the European what the spider-monkey is to the baljoon. 

Such drawings are, however, only taken from exceptional cases, and give no idea of 
the real contour of the native Australian. Indeed, Mr. Pickering, who traversed the - 



/ 



PHYSICAL CHAEACTERISTICS. 3 

greater part of the world in search of anthropological knowledge, writes in very strong 
terms of the beautiful forms which can be seen among these natives. " The general form, 
thongh sometimes defective, seemed on the average better than that of the negro, and I 
did not find the undue slendemess of limb which has been commonly attributed to the 
Aostralians. Strange as it may api^ear, I would refer to an Australian as the finest 
model of human proportions I have ever met with, in muscular development combining 
perfect symmetry, activity, and strength ; while his head might have compared with an 
antique bust of a philosopher." 

Those of my readers who happen to have seen the native Australians who came over 
to England as cricketers and athletes in general must have noticed the graceful forms for 
which some of tlie men were remarkable, while all were possessed of great elegance 
of limb. 

The disadvantageous effect of European clothing on the dark races was well shown 
in these men, who seemed to undergo a positive transformation when they laid aside 
their ordinary clothes for a costume which represented, as far as possible, the light and 
airy apparel of the native Australian. Dressed in grey, or clad in the cricketer's costume, 
there was nothing remarkable about them, and in fact they seemed to be veiy ordinary 
persfins indeed. But with their clothes they threw off their common-place look, and, 
attired only in tight " fleshings," dyed as nearly as possible the colour of their black 
skins, with a piece of fur wrapped round their loins and a sort of fur cap on their heads, 
they walked with a proud, elastic step that contrasted strangely with their former gait. 

It may perhaps be said that this change of demeanour was only the natural result of 
lemoving the heavy clotliing and giving freedom to the limbs. This was not the case, for 
several professional English atldetes contended with the Australians, and, when they 
came to nm or leap, wore the usual light attire of the professional acrobat. In them, 
however, no each improvement took place, and, if anything, they looked better in their 
ordinary dress. 

The women are, as a rule, much inferior to the men in appearance. Even when 
young, although they possess symmetrical forms, their general apj)earance is not nearly 
so pleasing as that -of the young African ghl, and, when the woman becomes old, she is, 
if possible, even more hideous and hag-like than the African. This deterioration may 
partly be due to the exceedingly hard life led by the women, or " gins " — in which word, 
by the way, the g is prouoimced hard, as in " giddy." That they have to do all the hard 
work, and to carry all the heavy weights, including tlie children, while their husbands 
sit or sleep, or, if on the march, burden themselves with nothing more weighty than their 
weapon?, is to be expected, as it is the universal practicre among natives. But it is not 
Eo much the hard work as the privation which telb upon the woman, who is treated with 
the same contemptuous neglect with which a savage treats his dog, and, while her husband, 
father, or brother, is feasting on the game which she has cooked, thinks herself fortunate 
if they now and then toss a nearly cleaned bone or a piece of scorched meat to her. 

like most savages, the Australian natives are adroit and daring thieves, displaying an 
amount of acuteness in carrying out their designs which would do honour to the most 
expert professional thief of London or Paris. In his interesting work entitled 
" Savage Life and Scenes," Mr. G. F. Angas has related several anecdotes respecting 
this prc»pensity. 

** Leaving liivoli Bay, we fell in with two very droll natives, the only ones who had 
made ])old to approach our camp ; both were in a state of nudity. One of these fellows 
was a perfect supplejack ; he danced and capered about as though he were tilled with 
quicksilver. We mounted them on horses, from which they were continually tumbling 
off. and they travelled with us all day. 

"When we encamped at an old resting-place, near Lake Ilowden, they, by signs, 
requested permission to remain by our fires, which we allowed them to do, and gave them 
fcr supi)er the head and refuse of a sheep that was just killed and hung up to a tree 
near the tents. They showed great surprise on seeing our various utensils and articles 
rf cookeiy. So modest and well-behaved did these artful gentlemen appear, that they 
would not touch the slightest article of food without first asking permission by signs ; 

r2 



4 AUSTRALIA. 

and they so far gained our confidence that one of them was adorned with a tin plate, 
suspended round his neck by a string, on which was inscribed ' Good Native/ 

" In the dead of the niglit we were all aroused by the unusual barking of the dogs. 
At first it was supposed that the wild dogs were ' rushing ' the sheep ; but as the tumult 
increased, the Sergeant-ilajor unwrapped his opossum rug, and looked around for his hat, 
to go and ascertain the cause of the disturbance. To his surprise, he found that his hat 
had vanished. The hat of his companion, who lay next him near the fire, was also 
nowhere to be found ; and, casting his eyes to the spot where the sheep hung suspended 
from the tree, he saw in a moment that our fond hopes for to-morrow's repast were 
blighted, for the sheep too had disappeared. The whole camp was roused, when it was 
ascertained that forks, spoons, and the contents of the Governor's canteen, pannikins 
and other articles, were likewise missing, and that our two remarkably docile natives 
had left us under cover of the night. 

" A council of war was held. Black Jimmy protested that it was useless to follow 
their tracks until the morning, and that from the nature of the country they had 
doubtless taken to the swamps, walking in the water, so that pursuit was in vain. We 
had been completely duped by these artful and clever fellows, who probably had a large 
party of their colleagues lying in ambush amid the surrounding swamps, ready to assist 
in carrying away tlie stolen property. 

" Retaliation was useless ; and we contented ourselves by giving utterance to our 
imprecations and commenting on the audacity and cunning of the rogues untU 
daybreak." 

Another instance of theft — in this case single-handed — occurred not long before the 
robbery which has just been recorded. While the exploring party was on the march, 
they fell in with a number of natives who were cooking their food. 

" At our approach, they flew down the descent, and hid among the bulrushes ; but 
one old woman, unable to escape as speedily as the rest, finding flight useless, began to 
chatter very loud and fast, pointing to her blind eye and her lean and withered arms, as 
objects of commiseration. Damper was given to her, and she continued in terror to 
chew it very fast without swallowing any, until she was almost choked ; when suddenly 
she got hold of Gisbome's handkerchief, and made off with it. With a vigorous leap 
she plunged into the mud and reeds beneath, effecting her escape by crawling into the 
swamp and joining her wild companions, to whom she doubtless recounted her adventures 
that night (Jver a dish of fried tadpoles." 

The dish of fried tadpoles, to which allusion has been made, is quite a luxury among 
this wretched tribe, and, when the exploring party pushed on to the spot where the 
people had been cooking, it was found that they had been engaged in roasting a dish of 
water- beetles over a tire. 

It is impossible to withhold admiration for the skill displayed by these sable 
thieves in stealing the property which they coveted, and, in excuse for them, it must be 
remembered that the articles which were stolen were to the blacks of inestimable value. 
Food and ornaments are coveted by the black man as much as wealth and titles by the 
white man, and both these articles were ready to hand. The temptation to which these 
poor people was exposed seems very trifling to us, but we must measure it, not from our 
own point of view, but from theirs. 

The strange visitors who so suddenly appeared among them possessed abundance of 
the very things which were dearest to them. There was a whole sheep, which would 
enable them to enjoy the greatest luxury of which they could form any notion, i.e, eating 
meat to repletion ; and there was store of glittering objects which could be worn as 
ornaments, and would dignify them for ever in the eyes of their fellows. The happy 
possessor of a spoon, a fork, or a tin plate, which would be hung round the neck und 
kept highly polished, would be exalted above his companions like a newly ennobled man 
among ourselves, and it could not be expected that such an opportunity, which could 
never again be looked for, would be allowed to pass. The temptation to them was much 
as would be a title and a fortune among ourselves, and there are many civilized men who 
have done worse than the savage Australian when tempted by such a bait 



ASPECT OF THE OLD WOMEN. 6 

fieference has been made to the haggard appearance of the old woman who ao 
ingenJoasly stole the handkerchief, the love of finery overcoming the dread of the white 
man in spite of her age and hideous aspect, which would only be made more repulsive 
bj any attempt at ornament. It is scarcely possible to imagine the depths of ugliness 
into which an Australiau woman descends after she has passed the prime of her life. As 
we have seen, the old woman of A&ica is singularly hideous, but she is quite passable 
when compared with her aged sister of AustraEa. 

The old Australian woman certaiidy does not possess the projecting jaws, the 
enonnous mouth, and the sausage-like lips of the African, but she exhibits a type of 
hideoDsness peculiarly her own. Her face looks like a piece of black parchment 
stimined tightly over a skull, and the mop-like, unkempt hair adds a grotesque element 
to the features which only makes them still more repulsive. The breasts reach to the 
waist, flat, pendent, and swinging about at every movement ; her body is so shrunken that 
each rib stands out boldly, the skin being drawn deeply in between them, and the limbs 
shrivel up until they look like sticks, the elbows and knees projecting like knots on a 
gnarled branch. 

Each succeeding year adds to the hideous look of these poor creatures, because the 
feebleness of increasing years renders them less and less useful ; and accordingly they are 
neglected, ill-treated, and contemptuously pushed aside by those who are younger and 
stronger than themselves, suffering in their turn the evils which in their youth they 
carelessly inflicted on those who were older and feebler. 

Mr. Angas has among his sketches one which represents a very old woman of the 
Port Fairy tribe. They had built their rude huts or miam-miams under some gum-trees, 
and very much disgusted the exploring party by their hideous appearance and neglected 
state:. There was one old woman 
in peiticular, who exemplified 
stroDgly all the characterietics 
which have just been described ; 
and so surpassingly hideous, 
filthy, and repulsive was she, that 
she looked more like one of the 
demoniacal forms that Callot was 
!o fond of painting than a veritable 
tmrnan creature. Indeed, so very 
disgusting was her appearance, that 
one of the party was made as ill as 
if he had taken an emetic. 

Not wishing to shock my 
readers by the portrait of this 
wretched creature, I have intro- 
dnced on p^e 6 two younger 
females of the same tribe. 

The remarkable poiut about 
this and one or two other tribes 
(^ the same locality and the neigh- 
bourhood, is the circular mat which 
is tied on their backs, and which 

is worn by both eexes. The mat , , , i 

is made of reeds twisted into ropes, coiled round, and fastened together very much as 
the archer's tai^ets of the present day are made. The fibres by which the reed ropea 
ue bound together are obtained from the chewed roots of the bulrush. The native 
name for this mat is paingkoont. One of the women appears m her orduiary home 
i^, i.^ wearing the paingkoont and her baby, over whose little body she has thrown 
1 pie^-e of kangaroo skin. The mat makes a very good cradle for the child, which 
when awake aSd disposed to be lively, puts its head over tlie mat and surveys the 
p«Bpect bnt when akxmed pops down and hides itself like a rabbit disappearing mto 




NATIVE BASKETS. 



6 AUSTEALTA. 

its burrow. The old woman, whose portrait is withheld, waa clothed in the paiogkoont, 
and wore no other raiment, so that the full hideoiisuess of her form was exposed to view. 
The woman stnnding opposite is just starting upon a journey. She is tetter clad 
than her companion, having beside the paingkoont a rude sort of petticoat. On her 
back she has slung the net in which she places the roots which she is supposed to dig out 
of the ground, and, thrust through the end which ties it, bIic carries the digging-stick, or 
katta, which serves her for a spada She has in her hand the invariable accompaniment 
of a journey, — namely, the fire-stick, smouldering amid dry grass between two pieces of 
bark, and always ready to bo forced into a flame by wliirling it round her head. 




AND THE LAKBil. 



Behind them is seated an ohl man, also wearing the mat-clonk, and having by his 
side one of the beautifully constructed native baskets. Tliese baskets are made, like the 
mat, of green rnslies or reeds, and are jilaited by the women. Two of these baskets are 
given in the illustration on page u, in order to show the manner of making them. 
The reader will doubtless ob^er^e, that the mode of plaiting them is almost identical with 
that which is employed by tlie natives of Southern Africa, tlie ruslies being twisted, 
coiled upon each other, and bound tirmly togethi-r at short inteivals by strong fibrous 
threads. They are rather variable in shape ; some, whiih ai-e intended to stand alone, 
being flat-bottouiod, and others, which are always suspended by a string, ending in 
a point 

In common with other savage races, the Australians are apt to behave treacherously 
to the white man when they find themselves able to do so with impunity. This belmviour 
is not always the result of ferocity or cruelty, though as Australian con on occasion be 



8 ArSTRALIA. 

" Others were of greater size and power, being lai^e hollowed log^, very straight and 
narrow, and steadied on either side by other logs, i>ointed at the ends, and acting as out- 
riggers, neatly enough attached by pegs driven into them through a framing of bamboo. 
Others again wore strictly double canoes, two of the narrow vessels being connected by 
a bamVxi platform so as to lie parallel to each other at some little distance apart 

" Thev were manned bv crews of from six to twelve, or even more in number, all 
toleiably fine fellows, perfectly naked, with shock heads of woolly hair and scanty beards. 
They were ornamented with scars and raised cicatrices tastefully cut on their shoulder 
and elsewhere. They were armed with long spears, some of them tipped with wood, 
otliers with bone, and having from one to four points. They also had bows and arrows, 
as well as their curious paddles, the looms of which were barbed and pointed, so as 
to Tje useful a.s spears. When these weapons were thrown at a fish, the owner always 
plunged into the water after his weapon, so as to secure the fish the moment that it 
was struck. 

" Their arrival caused various emotions among our party. One gentleman ruined his 
revolver by hurriedly trying to load it, while a little girl, so far from l>eing afraid of them, 
traded with them for almost ever\'thin<:; they had in their canoes. Just as they dropped 
astern after reaching us, the captain's little daughters were being bathed in a tub on the 
main-hatch, and, naturally enough, jumped out of their l>atli, and ran aft wet and glistening 
in the sunlight, to hide themselves from the strange black fellows who were stretching 
themselves to look over our low bulwarks at the little naked white girls. 

"We bought spears, bows, arrows, tortoise-shell, i:c., for hats, handkerchiefs, and other 
things ; and they were greatly interested in the white baby, which, at their express 
request, was held up for them to look at." 

TliLs scene is admirably depicted in the illustration on the preceding page, taken from a 
sketch drawn by Mr. Baines expressly for this work. 

The reader is requested to look carefully at the outrigger canoe, the form of which 
clearly Vjetrays its Polynesian origin, as indeed do the bows and arrows, which will be 
fully described on a future p>age. Seated in the stem of the canoe is a man bearing one 
of the curioas tobacco pipes in use in that part of Australia. It consists of a hollow tul)e 
as thick as a man's arm, stopped at the ends, and having one hole near the bottom into 
which is introduced the stem of a pipe, and another hole near the top through which the 
smoke is imbibed. 

The use of the pipe is rather curious. When a party desires to smoke, the chief man 
lights the pipe, places his mouth to the orifice, and continually inhales until the interior 
of the hollow stem is filled with smoke. The bowl is then removed, and the aperture 
8topj>ed with a plug which is kept in readiness. Tlie fii*st smoker closes with his thumb 
the hole through which he has been imbibing the smoke, and passes the pipe to his 
neighbour, who applies his lips to the hole, fills his lungs with smoke, and then passes the 
pipe to the next man. In this way, the tobacco is made to last as long as possible, and 
the greatest ])Ossible amount of enjoyment is got out of the least possible amount of 
mati.Tial. The exterior of the stem is generally carved into the simple patterns which 
are found on nearly all Australian weai>ons and implements. 

Up to this point we find the natives mild and conciliatory, but we proceed with the 
letter, and find an unexpected change in their demeanour. 

" We had here an instance of the capriciousness of the natives. We met about a 
dozen on shore, and endeavoured by all friendly signs to induce them to come to tenns 
with us. We showed them that we had no guns, but our attempts were useless. They 
fell into njgular battle array, with their long 8i)ears ready shipped on the throwing-sticks, 
six standing in front, and the rest acting as 8upix)rts behind. As it was unsafe to parley 
longer, we mount^»d our hoi-ses, and again tried to make them understand that we wislu*d 
to be on friendly terms. It was all useless, and the only thing that we could do was to 
ride straight at them. They ran like antelopes, and gained the thick bush where we could 
not follow them. I^ wanted to shoot one of them, but I would not allow it. 

** The prospect of killing and eating our horses seemed to be their great temptation. 
They made constant war upon our stud for a fortnight or three weeks, in my camp at 



THE »LA.KSUPIAL8. 9 

Depot Creek, and I had to patrol the country with B daily, to keep them from ringing 

the horses round with fira 

" The character of the Australian canoe-men is variously spoken of, some reporting 
them as good-natured and peaceable, while others say that they are treacherous and 
savage. Both speak the truth from their own experience. A fellow artist, who generally 
landed from a man-of-war's boat, with the ship in the offing, found them peaceable 
enough, but poor Mr. Strange, the naturalist, was murdered on one of the islands. 

" While we were on board our vessels, they were quite friendly ; and even during my 
boat's voyage of 750 miles, while we had a dashing breeze and the boat well under 
command, we found the groups we met w4th civil enough. But when we were helplessly 
becalmed at the entrance of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and supposed by the natives to be 
the unarmed survivors of some vessel wrecked in Torres Straits, we were deliberately and 
treacherously attacked. 

" We watched the preparations for nearly an hour through the telescope, and refrained 
from giving them the slightest ground even to suspect that we looked on them otherwise 
than as friends. As soon as they thought they had us in their power, they began to 
throw spears at us, so I put a rifle-bullet through the shoulder of the man who threw at 
us, to teach him the danger of interfering with supposed helpless boats, but did not fire 
again. The woimded man was led on shore by one of his mates, and we were not 
molested again. 

"These people are very capricious. They have the cunning and the strong passions 
of men, but in reason they are only children. Life is not held sacred by them, and when 
their thirst for blood is raised, they revel in cruelty." 

Befobe proceeding further with the character and habits of the natives, we will cast 
a glance at the country which they inhabit, and the peculiarities which have contributed 
towards forming that character. * 

It is a very strange country, as strange to us as England would be to a savage 
Australian. Its vegetable and animal productions are most remarkable, and are so 
strange that when the earlier voyagers brought back accounts of their travels they were 
not believed ; and when they exhibited specimens of the flora and fauna, they weife 
accused of manufacturing them for the purpose of deception. 

In the first place, with a single exception, the mammalia are all marsupials, or eden- 
tates. The solitary example is the dingo, or native dog, an animal which somewhat re- 
sembles the jackal, but is altogether a liandsomer animal. Whether it be indigenous, or a 
mere variety of the dog modified by long residence in the country, is rather doubtful, 
though the best zoologists incline to the latter opinion, and say that the marsupial type 
alone is indigenous to this strange country. Of course the reader is supposed to know 
that the young of a marsupial animal is born at a very early age, and attains its full 
development in a supplementary pouch attached to the mother, into which pouch the 
teats open. 

The animal which is most characteristic of Australia is the kangaroo. Of this 
singular type some forty species are known, varying in size from that of a tall man to 
that of a mouse. Some of them are known as kangaroos, and others as kangaroo-rats, 
but the type is the same in all. As their form implies, they are made for leaping over 
the ground, their enormously long legs and massive development of the hind quarters 
giving them the requisite power, while their long tails ser\'e to balance them as they pass 
through the air. 

Nearly all the so-called " rats " of Australia b(jlong to the kangaroo tribe, though 
some are members of other marsupial families. Here I may mention that the nomenclature 
of the colonists has caused great perplexity and labour to incipient zoologists. They are 
told in some books that the dingo is the only Australian animal which is not a marsupial 
or an edentate, and yet they read in books of travel of the bear, the monkey, the badger, 
the wolf, the cat, the squirrel, the mole, and so forth. 

The fact is, that, with the usual looseness of diction common to colonists all over the 
world, the immigrants have transferred to their new country the nomenclature of the old. 



10 AUSTRALIA. 

To the great trouble of index-searchers, there is scarcely a part of the world inhabited by 
our colonists where London, Oxford, Boston, and fifty other places are not multiplied. 
The first large river they meet they are sure to call the Thames, and it is therefore to be 
expected that natural history should suffer in the same way as geography. 

Thus, should, in the course of this account of Australia, the reader come across a pas- 
sage quoted from some traveller in which the monkey or bear is mentioned, he must 
remember that the so-called " monkey " and " beatr " are identical, and that the animal 
in question is neither the one nor the other, but a marsupial, known to the natives by 
the name of koala, and, as if to add to the confusion of names, some travellers call it 
the sloth. 

The so-called *' badger " is the wombat, probably called a badger because it lives in 
holes which it burrows in the ground. The Australian "wolf" is another marsupial 
belonging to the Dasyures, and the " cat" belongs to the same group. The " squirrels'* 
are all marsupials, and by rights are called Phalangists, and it is to this group that the 
koala really belongs. As to the " hedgehog," it is the spiny ant-eater or echidna, and the 
** mole " is the celebrated duck-biU or ornithorrhynchus. 

With few exceptions these animals are not easily captured, many of them being 
nocturnal, and hiding in burrows or hoUow trees until the shades of night conceal their 
movements ; while othei's are so shy, active, and watchful, that all the craft of the hunter 
must be tried before they can be captured. Much the same may be said of the birds, the 
chief of which, the emu, is nearly as large as an ostrich, and is much valued by the 
natives as food. It is evident, therefore, that the existence of these peculiar animals 
must exercise a strong influence on the character of the natives, and must make them 
more active, wary, and quicksighted than the creatures on which they live. 

Possessing, as he does, the most minute acquaintance with every vegetable which can 
afford him food, and even knowing where to obtain a plentiful supply of food and water 
in a land where a European could not find a particle of' anything eatable, nor discover a 
drop of moisture in the dry and parched expanse, the Australian native places his chief 
reliance on animal food, and supports himself almost entirely on the creatures which he 
kills. His appetite is very indiscriminate; and although he prefers the flesh of the 
kangaroo and the pigeon, he will devour any beast, bird, reptile, or fish, and will also eat 
a considerable number of insects. Consequently the life of the Australian savage is 
essentially one of warfare, not against his fellow-man, but against the lower animals, 
and, as the reader will see in the course of the following pages, the primary object of his 
weapons is the hunt, and war only a secondary use to which they are directed. 



CHAPTER II. 



AVSTRAIjI A— Continued. 



XAKKKBS AKD CUSTOMS OF THE NATIVES DRESS AND ORNAMENTS OP NORTHERN AUSTRALIA 

MODE OF DBESSINO THE HAIB — THE " DIBBI-DIBBI " TATTOOING AND CICATRIZING — PATTERN 

OF THB SCABS SIGNIFICATION OF THE VARIOUS PATTERNS — POMP AND VANITY — THE NOSE- 

BONB ^NECKI*ACE8 THE GIRDLE AND TASSEL — TATTOOS AND SCARS AMONG THE WOMEN 

THE TUBTLE SCAB HIGH SHOULDERS OF THE AUSTRALIANS —INDIFFERENCE TO DRESS THEIB 

FUB MANTLES, AND THEIB USES — THE SEA-GRASS MANTLE FOOD OF THE AUSTRALIANS — 

TSGSTABLK FOOD MODE OF PROCURING ROOTS THE BIYU THE NARDOO PLANT AND ITS 

USES ^THE "BURKE AND WILLS " EXPEDITION THE BULRUSH-ROOT, ITS USE FOR FOOD AND 

BOPB-MAKING SUBTERHANBAN WATER STORES MOLLUSCS, AND MODE OF COLLECTING THEM 

HARD WORK FOB THE WOMEN — DIVING FROM THE RAPT RELAXATION WHEN THEY RETURN 

HOME COOKING THE MOLLUSCS AND CRUSTACEA — FISH-CATCHING WITH LINE, NET, AND SPEAB 

INSECT FOOD— THE BEE-CATCHERS TREE AND EARTH GRUBS, AND MODE OF CATCHING 

THEM THE PILEYAH THE DUOONG — ITS LOCALITIES, AND MODES OP TAKING AND COOKING IT 

CAPTURING AND COOKING THE GREEN TURTLE — CURIOUS USE OF THE SUCKING FISH TAMING 

THE TURTLE ^THB HAWKSBILL TURTLE, AND MODE OP CATCHING IT — TURTLE OIL AND DRIED 

FLESH SALE OF TORTOISE-SHELL TWO FORMS OF AUSTRALIAN OVENS COOKING AND EATING 

SNAKES — CATCHING THE SNAKE ALIVE- — THE CLOAK AND TIIK SHIELD — THE DUGONG, AND ITS 
CAPTURE SMALL TENACITY OF LIFE A SAVOURY FEAST. 



We will now proceed to the various manners and customs of the Australians, not 
separating them into the arbitrary and fluctuating distinctions of tribes, but describing as 
briefly as is consistent with justice, the most interesting of their habits, and mentioning 
ibose cases where any particular custom seems to be confined to any one tribe or district 
We have in the illustration on page 12 a good example of a native of North- 
western Australia. The sketch was kindly made by Mr. T. Baines. A profile of the 
man is given, in order to show the peculiar contour of the face, which, as the reader may 
see, has nothing of the negro character about it ; the boldly prominent nose, the full 
beard, and the long hair fastened up in a top-knot being the distinguishing features. The 
man carries in his belt his provisions for the day, namely, a snake and one of the little 
kangaroo-rats, and having these he knows no care, though of course he would prefer 
lir^er game. 

Eound his neck may be seen a string. This supports an ornament which hangs upon 
his breast Several forms of this ornament, which is called in the duplicative Australian 
language a " dibbi-dibbi," are employed, and there are in my collection two beautiful 
specimens made from the shell of the pearl-oyster. The ordinary dibbi-dibbi is fan- 
ihaped, and does not depart very much from the original outline of the shell. There is, 
bowever, one kind of dibbi-dibbi which is valued exceedingly, and which is shaped like 
4 descent The specimen, in my possession is almost as large as a cheese-plate, and must 
lave been cut from an enormous shell, economy, whether of material or time, not being 



12 AUSTKALIA. 

understocKl by these savages. Owing to the sliape of the shell, it is slightly convex, and 
was worn with the concave side next the body. 

Not being satisfied with the natural smootli polish of the nacre, the native has orna- 
mented the dibbi-dibbi with a simple but tolerably effective pattern. Along the matgin 
of the scooped edge }ie has bored two parallel rows of small and shallow holes about 
half an inch apart, and on either side of each row he has cut a narrow line. From the 
outer line he lias drawn a series of scalloped patterns made in a similar fashion ; and. 




THE nrsTEn AXn itrs own proviwioxs. 



simple as tliis pattern is, its effect is really remarkable. The man has evidently begun a 
more elaborate patleni on the hmad surface of the shell, but bis mind seema to have 
misgiven him, and he bns abandoned it. llie cord by which it is suspended round the 
neck is nearly an inch wide, and is made of string and a sort of rattan plaited together. 

On the shoulder of the man may be seen a number of raised marks. These are tlie 
scars of woiuids with wliich the Australians are in the habit of adorning their bodies, and 
which they sometimes wear in great profusion. The maiks are made by cutting deeply 
into the skin, and filling the wounds with clay and other substances, so that when the 
wound heals an elevated scar is made. Tliesc scars ate made in patterns which partly 



THE TATTOO. 13 

differ according to the taste of the individual, and partly signifying the district to which 
the tattooed person belongs. For example, the scars as shown in the illustration are the 
mark of a Northern Australian ; and, although he may have plenty other scars on his 
Ijody and limbs, these will always appear on his shoulder as the distinguishing mark of 
his tribe. 

In my photographs, which represent natives from various parts of the continent, these 
scars are very prominent, and there is not an individual who does not possess them. 
Some have them running longitudinally down the upper arm, while others have them 
alternately longitudinal and transverse. They occasionally appear on the breast, and an 
old man, remarkable for the quantity of hair which covers his breast and arms, has disposed 
them in a fan shape, spreading from the centre of the body to the arms. He has evidently 
spent a vast amount of time on this adornment, and suffered considerable pain, as the 
scais, although not so large as in many other instances, are exceedingly numerous ; and 
the man has adorned his arms and shoulders with little scars of the same character 
arranged in regular lines. 

In some parts of Australia the scars assume a much more formidable appearance, 
being long and heavy ridges. One chief, who was very proud of his adornments — as 
well he might be, seeing that their possession must nearly have cost him his life — was 
entirely covered from his neck to his knees with scars at least an inch broad, set closely 
together, and covering the whole of the body. The front of the chest and stomach were 
adorned with two rows of these scars, each scar being curved, and reaching from the side 
to the centre of the body, where they met. The man was so inordinately proud of this 
ornament that nothing could induce him to wear clothing of any kind, and he stalked 
about in his grandeur, wearing nothing but his weapons. The photograph of this man 
has a very singular aspect, the light falling on the polished ridges of the scars having an 
effect as if he were clad in a suit of some strange armour. 

By way of adding to the beauty of their countenances, they are in the habit of 
perforating the septum of the nose, and of thrusting through it a piece of bone or stick, 
the former being preferred on account of its whiteness. It is almost impossible to 
describe the exceedingly grotesque appearance presented by an Australian dandy, who has 
his body covered with scars, and his face crossed by a wide piece of bone some six inches 
in length, making his naturally broad nose wider, and seeming as it were to cut his face 
in half. The hole through which this ornament is thrust is made when a child is a 
fortnight old. 

As to other ornaments, they consist of the usual necklaces, bracelets, and anklets which 
are common to savage tribes in all parts of the world. Some of these necklaces which are 
m my collection are really pretty, and some skill is shown in their manufacture. One is 
made of pieces of yellow reed as thick as quills and almost an inch in length, strung 
alternately with scarlet reeds ; another is made entirely of the same reeds, while a third 
is, in my opinion, the handsomest, though not the most striking of them. At first sight 
it appears to be made entirely of the reeds already mentioned, but on a closer examination 
it is seen to be composed entirely of the antennae of lobsters, cut into short lengths and 
strong together. To the necklaces is attached a small mother-of-pearl dibbi-dibbi four 
inches long and one inch wide, and the pieces of lobster antenudB are so disposed that the 
thinner parts of the antenna, taken from the extremities, come next to the dibbi-dibbi 
and hang on the breast, while the larger and thicker parts, taken from the base of the 
antennas, come on the neck. The native basket in which these necklaces were kept is 
laore than half fiUed with bright coloured seeds of various hues, that are evidently 
mtended for the manufacture of necklaces. 

Girdles of finely twisted human hair are often worn by the men, and the native who 
18 represented on page 12 is wearing one of these girdles. Sometimes, as in the present 
instance, a small tassel made of the hair of a phalangist or " flying-squirrel," as it is 
viongly termed, is hung to the front of the girdle, by no means as a covering, but as an 
omamentw 

The scars are so highly valued that the women wear them nearly as profusely as the 
In my photographis, there are portraits of many women of all ages, not one of 



14 AUSTRALIA. 

whom is without scars. They do not wear them so large as the men, but seem to he 
more careful in the i-egularity of the pattern. 

Taking a series of three women, the first has three cuts on the shoulder, showing her 
northern extraction, and a row of small horizontal and parallel scars along the front of 
the body from the breast-bone downwards. The second, in addition to the shoulder cuts, 
has several rows of scars extending from the breast to the collar-bones, together with a 
central line as already described, and some similar rows of cuts on the ribs and sides. 
The third woman, a mere girl of fourteen 




JI\N OV TORRES STRilT 



, has been veiy careful in the ar- 
rangement of the scars, which descend in 
regular and paiallel rows from the bi-east 
downwards, and then radiate fan-wise 
in six TOWS from the breast upwards to 
the collar bones. 

Mr. M'Gillivray, who accompanied 
H.JI.S. Rattlesnake in her voyage, writes 
as follows concerning the scar ornaments 
and their uses :— " The Torres Straits 
islandere are distinguished by a large com- 
plicated oval scar, only slightly raised, and 
of neat construction. This, which I have 
been told has some connexion with a 
turtle, occupies the right shoulder, and 
is occasionally repeated on the left At 
Cape York, however, the cicatrices were so 
vaiied that I could not connect any par- 
ticular style with an individual tribe. At 
the same time, something like uniformity 
was noticed among the Kat«hialaigas, 
nearly all of whom had, in addition to the 
homed breast mark, two or three long 
transverse scars on the chest, which the 
other tribes did not possess. 
" In the remaining people the variety of marking was such that it appeared fair to 
consider it as being regulated more by individual caprice than by any fixed custom. 
Klany had a simple two-homed mark on each breast, and we sometimes saw upon them 
a clumsy imitation of the elaborate shoulder-mark of the islanders." 

Well-shaped as are these women, they have one defect in form, namely, the high and 
square shoulder, which detracts so much from feminine beauty, and which is equally 
conspicuous in the child of six, the girl of thirteen or fourteen, and the old woman. The 
men also exhibit the same defective Ibrm. 

The reader will have noticed the elaborate manner in which the hair of the Australian 
savage is sometimes dressed. The style of hair-dressing varies with the locality, and 
often with the time, fashion having as absolute a reign among the native AustriiHans, and 
being quite as capricious, as among oui'selves. Sometimes the hair is twisted u]i into long 
and narrow ringlets, and, if the savage should not happen to have enough hair for this 
fashion, ho straightway makes a wig in imitation of it. Now and then the bend is 
shaved, except a transveree crest of hair, and sometimes the natives will take a fashion 
of rubbing red ochre and turtle-fat into their heads until they are saturated with the 
compound, and will then twist up the hair into little strands. 

The men of this part of Ausliiilin never wear any dress, and the women are often 
equally indifi'erent to costume. At Cape York, however, they mostly wear an apology for 
a petticoat, consisting of a tuft of long grass or split pandamis leaves suspended to the 
front of the girdle. On great occasions, and especially in their dances, they wear over 
this a second petticoat mostly made of some leaf, and having tlie ends woven into a sort 
of waistband. The material of the petticoat is generally pandonns leaf, but, whatever 



CLOTHING. 15 

may be the material, the mode of plaiting it and the general fonn are the flame among 
all the tribes of Torres Straits. From this useful leaf, the women also make the rude 
sails for their canoes, which serve the double purpose of sails and coverings under which 
the natives can sleep in wet weather. 

The women have rather a curious mode of wearing one of their ornaments. This is 
a very long belt, composed of many strands of plaited or twisted fibre, and passed round 
the body in such a manner that it crosses on the breast like the now abolislied cross-belts 
of the soldier. It is drawn rather 
ti^it, and may perhaps he of 
some service in supporting the 
bosom. . „_ 

In neither case does clothing 
nem to be worn as a mode of 
concealing any part of the body, 
but merely as a defence against 
the weather or as an ornament. 
Even when dress is worn it is of 
a very slight character, with one 
or two exceptions. These excep- 
^ns are the fur cloaks, with 
which the women sometimes 
clothe themselves, and a remark- 
able garment which will be pre- 
Boitly described. 

The fur cloaks are made al most 
universally from the skin of the 
(^NjSEum, and, as the animal is a 
■mall one, a considerable number 
are sewn together to make a single 
nbe. The mode of manufacture 
is exactly similar to that which 
W83 described when treating of 
the kaross of the KaEGr tribes, 
the skins being cut to the proper 
shape, laid side by side, and sewn 
laboriously together with threads 
formed of the sinews of the kan- 
garoo's tail, or often with those 
which are drawn out of the tails 
of the very creatures which furnish 
the skin. 

Sometimes a piece of kangaroo 
sldn is used for the same purpose, 
hot in neither case does it fiiliij 
the office of a dress according to 
OUT ideas. The cloak is a very 
tmall one in proportion to the 
size of the women, and it is worn 
by being thrown over the back 

•ttd tied across the cheat by a couple of thongs, ao as to leave the whole front of the 
body uncovered. If the garment in question be the akin of the kangaroo, it is slung 
over one shoulder, and allowed to fall niucli as it likes, the only object seeming to be that 
it shall cover the greater part of the back and one shoulder. 

Occasionally a man wears a fur cloak, but he seems to be veiy indifferent as to the 
Dinner in which it hangs upon his body, sometimes draping it about his shoulders, some- 
tiates letting it iall to his waist and gathering it about his loins, and sometimes, especially 




J 6 AUSTRALIA. 

if walking, holding two corners together with his left hand in front of his breast, while 
his right hand grasps his bundle of weapons. 

Mr. Angas mentions one instance of a singularly perfect dress in use among the 
Australians — the only dress in fact that is really deserving of the name. It is a 
large cloak made from the zostera or sea-grass, a plant that is remarkable for being 
the only true flowering plant that grows in the sea. It has very long grass-like 
blades, and is found in vast beds, that look in a clear sea like luxuriant hay-fields just 
before mowing. 

The fibre of the zostera is long, and wonderfully tough, and indeed the fibre is so 
good, and the plant so abundant, that the uses to which it is now put, such as packing 
and stuffing, are far below its capabilities, and it ought to be brought into use for purposes 
for which a long and strong fibre are needed. Some time ago, when the supply of rags for 
paper seemed to be failing, there was an attempt made to substitute the zostera for rags ; 
and, although it was not a perfectly successful experiment, it had at all events the 
elements of success in it. 

With this long grass the Australian native occasionally makes a large cloak, which 
will cover the whole body. It is made by laying the fibres side by side, and lashing them 
together at regular intervals, much as the well-known New Zealand mantle is made from 
the phormium. Anxious to avoid trouble, the native only fastens together a sufficient 
quantity to make a covering for his body as low as the knees, the loose ends of the 
zostera being left as a kind of long fringe that edges the mantle all round, and really has 
a very giuceful effect. 

The illustration on the previous page shows one of these curious mantles, which was 
sketched while on the body of the wearer. As the manufacture of such a mantle 
involves much trouble, and as the Australian native has the full savage hatred of labour, 
very few of these cloaks are to be seen. Indeed, nothing^ but a rather long inclement 
season will induce a native to take the trouble of making a garment which he will only 
use for a comparatively short period, and which is rather troublesome to carry about 
when not wanted. 

We now come to the food of the natives. As luus already been stated, they eat almost 
anything, but there are ceitain kinds of food which they prefer, and which will be 
specially mentioned. 

As to vegetable food, there are several kinds of yams which the more civilized 
tribes cultivate — the nearest approach to labour of which they can be accused. It is 
almost exclusively on the islands that cultivation is found, and Mr. M*Gillivray states 
that on the mainland he never saw an attempt at clearing the ground for a garden. 
In the islands, however, the natives n^anage after a ftishion to raise crops of yams. 

When they want to clear a piece of ground, they strew the surface with branches, 
which are allowed to wither and diy ; as soon as they are thoroughly dried, fire is set to 
them, and thus the space is easily cleared from vegetation. The ground is then pecked 
up with a stick sharpened at the point and hardened by fire ; the yams are cut up and 
planted, and by the side of each hole a stick is thrust into the ground, so as to form a 
support for the plant when it grows up. Tlie natives plaiit just before the rainy season. 
They never trouble themselves to build a fence round the simple garden, neither do they 
look after the growth of the crops, knowing that the raius which are sure to fall will 
bring their crops to perfection. 

There are also multitudes of vegetable products on which the natives feed One of 
them, which is largely used, is called. by them " biyu." It is made from the young and 
tender shoots of the mangrove-trea The sprouts, when three or four inches in length, are 
laid upon heated stones, and covered with bark, wet leaves, and sand. After being 
thoroughly stewed, they are beaten between two stones, and the pulp is scraped away 
from the fibres. It then fonns a slimy grey paste, and, although it is largely eaten, the 
natives do not seem to like it, and only resort to it on a necessity. They contrive, how- 
ever, to improve its flavour by adding large quantities of wild yams and other vegetable 
products. 



FOOD-STUFFS. 17 

Perhaps the most celebrated wild food of the Australians is the '* nardoo," which has 
become so familiar to the British reader since the important expedition of Burke and 
Wills. The nardoo is the produce of a cr3rptogamous plant which grows in large quantities, 
but is rather local. The fruit is about as large as a pea, and is cleaned for use by being 
rubbed in small wooden troughs. It is then pounded into a paste, and made into cakes, 
like oatmeaL 

The nardoo plant is one of the ferns, and those of my readers who are skilled in 
botany will find it in the genus MarsUea. Like many of the ferns, the plant presents a 
strangely unfemlike aspect, consisting of upright and slender stems, about twelve inches 
high, each having on its tips a small quadruple frond, closely resembling a flower. The 
frmt, or " sporocarp," of the nardoo is the part that is eaten ; and it is remarkable for its 
powers of absorbing water, and so increasing its size. Indeed, when the fruit is soaked in 
water, it will in the course of a single hour swell until it is two hundred times its 
former size. 

The nardoo is useful in its way, and, when mixed with more nutiitious food, is a 
nJuable article of diet. Taken alone, however, it has scarcely the slightest nutritive 
powers, and though it distends the stomach, and so keeps oft' the gnawing sense of hunger, 
it gives no strength to the system. 

Even when eaten with fish, it is of little use, and requires either fat or sugar to give it 
the due power of nourishment With the wonderful brightness of spirit which Mr. Wills 
managed to keep up, even when suffering the severest hardships, and feeling himself gra- 
dually dying, he gives in his diary a curiously accurate picture of the effects of living for a 
length of time on an innutritions substance. He liked the nardoo, and consumed con- 
siderable quantities of it, but gradually wasted away, leaving a record in his diar}' that 
* starvation on nardoo is by no means unpleasant but for the weakness one feels, and the 
utter inability to rouse oneself ; for, as far as appetite is concerned, it gives the greatest 
aatisfaction." 

Hie death of this fine young man affords another proof of the disadvantage at which a 
stranger to the country is placed while traversing a new land. Many native tribes lived 
on the route along which the travellers passed, and, from their knowledge of the resources 
of the country, were able to support themselves ; whereas the white travellers seem to 
have died of starvation in the midst of plenty. 

The chief vegetable food, however, is furnished by the buliTish root, which is to the 
Australians who live near rivers the staff of life. As the task of procuring it is a very 
disagreeable one, it is handed over to the women, who have to wade among the reeds and 
half bury themselves in mud while procuring the root. 

The bulrush root is cooked after the usual Australian manner. A heap of limestones 
is raised, and heated by fire. The roots are then laid on the hot stones, and are covered 
with a layer of the same material. In order to produce a quantity of steam, a heap of wet 
grass is thrown on the upper layer of stones, and a mound of sand heaped over all. 

As the root, however well cooked, is very fibrous, the natives do not swallow it, but, 
after chewing it and extracting all the soft parts, they reject the fibres, just as a sailor 
throws aside his exhausted quid ; and great quantities of these little balls of fibre are to be 
found near every encampment. The same fibre is convertible into string, and is used in 
the manufacture of fishing lines and nets. 

The singular knowledge of vegetable life possessed by the natives is never displayed 
with greater force than in the power which they have of procuring water. In an apparently 
desert place, where no signs of water are to be found, and where not even a pigeon can be 
seen to wing its way through the air, as the guide to the distant water towards which it is 
fiying, the native will manage to supply himself with both water and food. 

He looks out for certain eucalypti or gum-trees, which are visible from a very great 
distance, and makes his way towards them. Choosing a spot at three or four yards from 
ti» trunk, with his katta he digs away at the earth, so as to expose the roots, tears them 
cwt of the ground, and proceeds to prepare them. Cutting them into pieces of a foot or so 
ia l^h, he stands them upright in the bark vessel which an Australian mostly carries 
with hinu and waits patiently. Pi*esently a few drops of water ooze from the lower ends of 



18 AUSTRALIA. 

the roots, and in a short time water pours out freely, so that an abundant supply of liquid 
is obtained. 

Should the native be very much parched, he takes one of the pieces of root, splits it 
lengthwise, and chews it, finding that it gives as much juice as a water-melon. 

The youngest and freshest-looking trees are always chosen for the purpose of obtainiog 
water, and the softest-looking roots selected. After the water has all been drained from 
them, they are peeled, pounded between two stones, and then roasted; so that the 
eucalyptus supplies both food and drink. 

As, however, as has been stated, the chief reliance of the natives is upon animal food 
and fish, molluscs, Crustacea, reptiles, and insects form a very considerable proportion of their 
food. Collecting the shell-fish is the duty of the women, chiefly because it is really hard 
work, and requires a great amount of diving. Throughout the whole of this vast continent 
this duty is given to the women; and whether in the Gulf of Carpentaria, on the extreme 
north, or in the island of Van Diemcn's Land, in the extreme south, the same custom pre- 
vails. During Labillardi6re's voyage in search of La Perouse, the travellers came upon 
a party of the natives of Van Diemen's Land while the women w^ere collecting shell-fish, 
and the author gives a good description of the labours to which these poor creatures were 
subjected : — 

" About noon we saw them prepare their repast. Hitherto we had but a faint idea of 
the pains the women take to procure the food requisite for the subsistence of their 
families. They took each a basket, and w^ei'e followed by their daughters, who did the 
some. Getting on the rocks that y)rojected into the sea, they plunged from them to the 
bottom in search of shell-fish. Wlien tliey had been down some time, we became very 
uneasy on their account ; for where they had dived were seaweeds of great length, among 
which we obseiTed the fucus 2)j/nf<'rn.% and we feared that they might have been entangled 
in these, so as to be unable to regain the surface. 

"At length, however, tliey appeanjd, and convinced us that they were capable of 
remaining under water twice as long as our ablest divei^s. An instant was suflScient for 
them to take breath, and then they dived again. This they did repeatedly till their 
baskets were nearly full. Most of them were provided with a little bit of wood, cut into 
the shape of a spatula, and with these they separated from beneath the rocks, at great 
depths, very large sea-ears. Perhaps tliey chose the biggest, for all they brought were 
of a great size. 

" On seeing the large lobsters which tliey had in their baskets, we were afraid that 
they must have wounded these poor women terribly with their large claws ; but we soon 
found that they had taken the precaution to kill them as soon as they caught them. They 
quitted the water only to bring their husbands the fruits of their labour, and frequently 
returned almost immediately to then* diving till they had procured a sufficient meal for 
their families. At other times they stayed a little while to warm themselves, with their 
faces toward the fire on which their fish was roasting, and other little fires burning behind 
them, that they might be warmed on all sides at once. 

" It seemed as if they were unwilling to lose a moment's time ; for while they were 
warming themselves, they were employed in roasting fish, some of which they laid on the 
coals with the utmost caution, though they took little care of the lobsters, which they 
threw anywhere into the fii-e ; and when they were ready they divided the claws among 
the men and the children, reserving the body for themselves, which they sometimes ate 
before returning into the water. 

*' It gave us great pain to see these i)oor women condemned to such severe toil ; while, 
at the same time, they ran the hazard of being devoured by sharks, or entangled among 
the weeds tlmt rise from the bottom of the sea. We often entreated their husbands to take 
a share in their labour at least, but always in vain. They remained constantly near the 
fire, feasting on the best bits, and eating l)roiled fucus, or fern-roots. Occasionally they 
took the trouble to break boughs of trees into short pieces to feed the fire, taking care to 
oboose the driest. 

** From their manner of breaking them we found that their skulls must be very hard; 
for, taking hold of the sticks at each end with the hand, they broke them over their heads. 



20 



AUSTEALIA. 



A third mode of tishing is by employing certain traps or baskets, ingeniously woven 
of rattan, and made so that the fish can easily pass into them, but cannot by any 
possibility get out again. Sometimes fish are speared in the shallow water, the native 
wading in, and with imerring aim transfixing the fish with his spear. Even the children 
take part in this sport, and, though ai'med with nothing better than a short stick, 
sharpened at one end, contrive to secure their fish. With the same stick they dig 
molluscs out of the mud, and turn crustncea out of their holes ; and when they can do 
this, they are supposed to be able to shift for themselves, and their p.ireEt8 take no mon* 
trouble about feeding them. 




nER-ncNTrso. 



They are not more fastidious in the cooking of fish than of crustacea or molluscs, but 
just throw them on the fire, tura them once or twice with u stick, and when they are 
warmed through and the outside scorched, they pick them out of the fire, scrape off 
the burnt scales, and eat them without further ceremony. 

Insect food is nmcli used among the Australians. As might be expected, honey is 
greatly valued by them, and they display great ingenuity in procuring it. 

When a native sees a bee about tlie flowers, and wishes to find the honey, he repairs 
to the nearest pool, selects a spot where the bank shelves very gradually, lies on liis face, 
fills his mouth with water, and patiently awaits the arrival of a Iwe. Tliese insects 
require a considerable amount of moisture, as every one knows who has kept them, and 
the bee-hunter reckons on this fact to procure him the honey which he desires. 

After a wliile a bee is sure to come and drink, and the huntor, hearing the insect 
approaching hiip, retains his position and scarcely breathes, so fearful is he .of alarming 



BEE-HUNTING. 21 

it. At last it alights, and instantly the native blows the water from his mouth over it 
stunning it for the moment Before it can recover itself he seizes it, and by means of 
a little gum attaches to it a tuft of white down obtained from one of the trees. 

As soon as it is released, the insect flies away towards its nest, the white tuft serving 
the double purpose of making it more conspicuous and retarding its flight Away goes 
the hunter after it at full speed, running and leaping along in a wonderful manner, his 
eyes fixed on the guiding insect, and making very light of obstacles. Sometimes a fallen 
tree will be in his way, and if he can he jumps over it ; but at all risks he must get over 
without delay, and so he dashes at the obstacle with reckless activity. Shotdd he surmount 
it, weU and good ; but if, as often happens, he should fall, he keeps his eyes fixed, as well 
as he can, on the bee, and as soon as he springs to his feet he resumes the chase. Even 
if he should lose sight of it for a moment, he dashes on in the same diiection, knowing 
that a bee always flies in a straight line for its home; and when he nears it, the angry hum 
of the hampered insect soon tells him that he has recovered the lost ground. 

The reader will see that this mode of tracking the bee to its home is far inferior to 
that of the American bee-hunters, and is rather a business of the legs than of the head. 
The Australian bee-hunter waits until a bee happens to come to the spot where he lies ; 
the American bee-hunter baits an attractive trap, and induces the insect to come to the 
spot which he selects. Then the Australian bee-hunter only runs after the single bee ; 
whereas the American bee-hunter economizes his strength by employing two bees, and 
saving his legs. 

He puts honey on a flat wooden slab, having drawn a circle of white paint round it 
The bee alights on the honey, and, after filling its crop, crawls through the white paint 
and sets off homeward. The himter follows the " bee-line " taken by the insect, and 
marks it by scoring or " blazing " a few trees. He then removes his honeyed trap to a 
spot at an angle with his former station and repeats the process. There is no need for 
lum to race after the flying bee, and to run considerable risk of damaging himself more 
or less seriously: he simply follows out the lines which the two bees have taken, and, 
by fixing on the point at which they meet, walks leisurely up to the nest 

Having found his bee-nest, the Australian loses no time in ascending to the spot, 
whether it be a cleft in a rock, or, as is usually the case, a hole in a tree. This latter 
spot is mucli favoured by the bees, as well as by many of the arboreal mammals, of which 
there are so many in Australia. The sudden and \'iolent tempests which rage in that 
part of the world tear off the branches of tree^ and hurl them to the ground. During 
SQcceeding rainy seasons, the wet lodges in the broken branch, and by degrees rots away 
the wood, which is instantly filled with the lai-vae of beetles, moths, flies, and other insects 
that feed upon decajdng wood. Thus, in a few years, the hollow extends itself until it 
harrows into the tree itself, and sometimes descends nearly from the top to the bottom, 
thus forming an admirable locality for the bees. 

Taking with him a hatchet, a basket, and a quantity of dry grass or leaves, the native 
ascends, lights the grass, and under cover of the smoke chops away the wood untU he 
can get at the combs, which he places in the basket, with which he descends. Should 
he he too poor to possess even a basket, he extemporizes one by cutting away the bark 
of the tree ; and should the nest be a very large one, he is supplied by his friends from 
below with a number of vessels, and passes them down as fast as they are filled. 

Perhaps some of my readers may remark that honey cannot be rightly considered as 
insect food, and that it ought to have been ranked among the vegetable productions. The 
Australian, however, does not content himself with extracting the honey from the comb, 
hut eats it precisely in the state in which it is brought from the nest. As the bees are 
not forced, as amongst English bee-masters, to keep their honey-cells distinct from those 
which contain the hoard and the "bee-bread," each comb contains indiscriminately 
bee-bread, young bee-grubs, and honey, and the Australian eats all three with equal 

8itis&ction. 

Another kind of insect food is a grub which inhabits the trunks of trees, and of which 

tbe natives are inordinately fond. 

They have a wonderful faculty ol discovering the presence of this grub, and twist it 



22 AUSTRALIA. 

out of its hole with an odd little instrument composed of a hook fastened to the end of 
a slender twig. This implement is carried in the hair so as to project over the ear, like 
a clerk's pen, and for a long time puzzled travellers, who thought it to be merely an 
ornament, and could not understand its very peculiar shape. 

The larva is the caterpillar of a moth which is closely allied to the goat-moth of our 
own coimtry, and has the same habit of burrowing into the wood of living trees. The 
hooked instrument which is used for drawing them out of their holes is called the 
*' pileyah," and is employed also for hooking beetles, grubs, and other insects out of their 
holes in the ground. 

When the pileyah is used for extracting grubs from the earth, the ground is first 
loosened by means of a wooden scoop that looks something like a hollowed waddy. The 
pileyah is then tied to the end of a polygonum twig of sufficient length, and by such 
means can be introduced into the holes. 

Perhaps the most celebrated of the various insect banquets in wliich the Australians 
delight is that wliich is furnished by the bugong moth, as the insect is popularly, but 
wrongly, called. Instead of belonging to the moth tribe, it is one of the butterflies, and 
belongs to the graceful family of the Heliconida3. Its scientific name is Euplcea haniata. 
The bugong is remarkable for the fact that its body, instead of being slender like that of 
most butterflies, is very stout, and contains an astonishing amount of oily matter. The 
colour of the insect is dark brown, with two black spots on the upper wings. It is a 
small insect, measuring only an inch and a half across the wings. 

It is found in the New South Wales district, and inhabits a range of hills that 'are 
called from the insect the Bugong Mountains. The Australians eat the bugong butterflies 
just as locusts are eaten in many parts of the world, and, for the short time during which 
the insect makes its appearance, feast inordinately upon it, and get quite fat. The 
following account is given by Mr. G. Bennett : — 

" After riding over the lower ranges, we arrived a short distance above the base of the 
Bugong Mountain, tethered the horses, and ascended on foot, by a steep and rugged path, 
which. led us to the first summit of the mountain : at this place, called Ginandery by the 
natives, enormous masses of granite rock, piled one upon another, and situated on the 
verge of a wooded precipice, excited our attention. An extensive and romantic view was 
here obtained of a distant, wooded, mountainous country. 

" This was the first place where, upon the smooth sides or crevices of the granite blocks, 
the bugong moths congregated in such incredible multitudes ; but, from the blacks having 
recently been here, we found but few of the insects remaining. At one part of this 
group of granite rocks were two pools, apparently hollowed naturally from the solid stone, 
and filled with cool and clear water ; so, lighting a fire, we enjoyed a cup of tea previous 
to recommencing our further ascent. On proceeding we found the rise more gradual, but 
unpleasant from the number of loose stones and branches of trees strewed about ; several 
of the deserted bark huts of the natives (which they had temporarily erected when 
engaged in collecting and preparing the bugong) were scattered around. Shrubs and 
plants were numerous as we proceeded, but, with few exceptions, did not differ from those 
seen in other parts of the colony. 

" Near a small limpid stream a species of Lycopodium grew so dense as to form a 
carpet over which we were able to walk. The timber trees towered to so great an elevation 
that the prospect of the country we had anticipated was impeded. At last we arrived at 
another peculiar group of granite rocks in enormous masses and of various forms : this 
place, similar to the last, formed the locality where the bugong moths congregate, and is 
called * Warrogong* by the natives. The remains of recent fires apprized us that the 
aborigines had only recently left the place for another of similar character a few miles 
further distant. 

" Our native guides wished us to proceed and join the tribe, but the day had so far 
advanced that it was thought more advisable to return, because it was doubtful, as the 
blacks removed from a place as soon as they had cleared it of the insects, whether we 
should find them at the next group, or removed to others still further distant 

" From the result of my observations it appears that the insects are only found in 



THE BUGONG. 23 

such multitudes on these insulated and peculiar masses of granite, for about the other 
solitary granite rocks, so profusely scattered over the range, I did not observe a single 
moth, or even the remains of ona Why they should be confined only to these particular 
places, or for what purpose they thus collect together, is not a less curious than interesting 
subject of inquiry. Whether it be for the purpose of emigrating, or any other cause, our 
present knowledge cannot satisfactorily answer. 

" The bugong moths, as I have before observed, collect on the surfaces, and also in the 
crevices, of the masses of granite in incredible quantities. To procure them with greater 
facility, the natives make smothered fires underneath those rocks about which they are 
collected, and suffocate them with smoke, at the same time sweeping them off frequently 
in bushelfuls at a time. After they have collected a large quantity, they proceed to 
prepare them, which is done in the following manner. 

** A circular space is cleared upon the ground, of a size proportioned to the number 
of insects to be prepai-ed ; on it a fire is lighted and kept burning until the ground is 
considered to be sufficiently heated, when, the fire being removed, and the ashes cleared 
away, the moths are placed upon the heated ground, and stirred about untQ the down and 
wings are removed from them ; they are then placed on pieces of bark, and winnowed to 
separate the dast and wings mixed with the bodies ; they are then eaten, or placed into a 
wooden vessel called 'walbum,' or 'calibum,' and pounded by a piece of wood into 
masses or cakes resembling lumps of fat, and may be compared in colour and consistence 
to dough made from smutty wheat mixed with fat. 

" The bodies of the moths are large and filled with a yellowish oil, resembling in taste 
a sweet nut These masses (with which the * netbuls,' or ' talabats,' of the native tribes 
are loaded during the season of feasting upon the bugong ') will not keep more than a 
week, and seldom even for that time ; but by smoking they are able to preserve them for 
a much longer period. The first time this diet is used by the native tribes, violent 
vomiting and other debilitating effects are produced, but after a few days they become 
accustomed to its use, and then thrive and fatten exceedingly upon it. 

" These insects are held in such estimation among the aborigines, that they assemble 
from aU parts of the country to collect them from these mountains. It is not only the 
native blacks that resort to the bugong, but crows also congregate for the same purpose. 
The blacks (that is, the crows and the aborigines) do not agree about their respective 
sliares: so the stronger decides the point; for, when the crows (called *arabul* by the 
narives) enter the hollows of the rocks to feed upon the insects, the natives stand at the 
entrance and kill them as they fly out ; and they afford them an excellent meal, being fat 
from feeding upon the rich bugong. So eager are the feathered blacks or arabuls after this 
food that they attack it even when it is preparing by the natives ; but as the aborigines 
never consider any increase of food a misfortune, they lay in wait for the arabuls with 
waddies or clubs, kill them in great numbers, and use them as food." 

Reptiles form a very considerable part of an Australian's diet, and he displays equal 
aptitude in captming and cooking them. Turtle is an especial favourite with him, not 
unly on account of its size, and of the quantity of meat which it furnishes, but on accoimt 
of the oil which is obtained from it. 

On the coast of Australia several kinds of turtle are found, the most useful of which 
are the ordinary green turtle and the hawksbill. They are caught either in the water, 
or by watching for them when they come on shore for the purpose of laying their eggs, 
and then turning them on their backs before they can reach the sea. As, however, com- 
paratively few venture on the shore, the greater number are taken in the water. Along 
the shore the natives have regular watchtowers or ctiirns made of stones and the bones 
of turtles, dugongs, and other creatures. When the sentinel sees a turtle drifting along 
trith the tide, he gives the alann, and a boat puts out after it. The canoe approaches 
from behind, and paddles very cautiously so that the reptile may not hear it. As soon as 
they come close to it, the chief hunter, who holds in his hand one end of a slight but 
tongh rope, leaps on the turtle's back, and clings to it with both hands on its shouldera. 
Ihc startled reptile dashes oflf, but before it has got very far the himter contrives to upset 



24 AUSTEALIA. 

it, and while it is struggling he slips the noose of the rope over one of its flippers. The 
creature is then comparatively helpless, and is towed ashore by the canoe. 

In some districts the turtle is taken by means of a harpoon, which is identical in 
principle with that which is used by the hippopotamus hunters of Africa. There is a 
long shaft, into the end of which is loosely slipped a moveable head. A rope is attached 
to the head, and a buoy to the other end of the rope. As soon as the reptile is struck, the 
shaft is disengaged, and is picked up by the thrower ; while the float serves as an indication 
of the turtle's whereabouts, and enables the hunters to tow it towards the shore. 

One of the natives, named Gi'om, told Mr. M*Gillivray that they sometimes caught the 
turtle by means of the remora, or sucking-fish. One of these fish, round whose tail a line 
has been previously made fast, is kept in a vessel of water on board the boat, and, when a 
small turtle is seen, the remora is dropi>ed into the sea. Instinctively it makes its way 
to the turtle, and fastens itself so firmly to the reptile's back that they are both hauled 
to the boat's side and lifted in by the fishermen. Only small turtles can be thus taken, 
and there is one species which never attains any gi*eat size which is genemlly captured 
in this curious manner. 

The hawksbill turtle is too dangerous an antagonist to be chased in the water. Tlie 
sharp-edged scales which project from its sides would cut deeply into the hands of any 
man who tried to turn it ; and even the green turtle, with its comparatively blunt-edged 
shell, has been known to inflict a severe wound upon the leg of the man who was clinging 
to its back. The native, therefore, is content to watch it ashore, and by means of long, 
stout poles, wliich he introduces leverwise under its body, turns it over without danger 
to himself. 

When the Australians have succeeded in turning a turtle, there are great rejoicings, 
as the very acme of human felicity consists, according to native ideas, in gorging until 
the feasters can neither stand nor sit. They may be seen absolutely rolling on the ground 
in agony from the inordinate distension of their stomachs, and yet, as soon as the pain has 
abated, they renew their feastings. IMostly they assemble round the turtle, cook it rudely, 
and devour it on the spot ; but in Torres Straits they are more provident, and dry the 
flesh in order to supply themselves with food during their voyages. They cut up the meat 
into thin slices, boil the slices, and then dry them in the sun. 

During the process of cooking a considerable amount of oil rises to the surface, and 
is skimmed off and kept in vessels made of bamboo and turtles* bladders. The cook, 
however, has to exercise some vigilance while performing his task, as the natives are so 
fond of the oil that, unless they are closely watched, they will skim it off and drink it 
while in an almost boiling state. The boiling and subsequent drying render the flesh 
very hard, so that it will keep for several weeks; but it cannot be eaten without a 
second boiling. 

The shell of the hawksbill turtle is doubly valuable to the natives, who reserve a little 
for the manufacture of hooks, and sell the rest to shippers or traders, who bring it to 
Europe, where it is converted into the " tortoise-shell " "with which we are so familiar. 
There is in my collection a beautiful specimen of one of these scales of tortoise-shell as it 
was purchased from the natives. It is about eleven inches in length and seven in width, 
and has a hole at one end by which they string the scales together. Tliere are the scars of 
eight large limpet-shells upon it, showing the singular appearance which the animal must 
have presented when alive. 

The cooking of turtle is a far more important process than that of broiling fish, and a 
sort of oven is required in order to dress it properly. 

In principle the oven resembles that which is in use in so many parts of the world, 
and which has been already described when showing how the hunters of South Africa 
cook the elepliant's foot Instead, however, of digging a hole and burning wood in it, the 
Australian takes a number of stones, each about the size of a man's fist, and puts them 
into the fire. When they are heated, they are laid closely together, and the meat placed 
upon them. A second layer of heated stones is arranged upon the meat, and a rim or 
bank of tea-tree bush, backed up with sand or earth, is built round this primitive oven. 
Grass and leaves are then strewn plentifully over the stones, and are held in their places 



COOKIKG A SNAKE. 



25 



by the circular bank. The steam is thus retaiued, and so the meat ia cooked in a very 
effectual manner. 

In some parts of the country, however, a more elaborate oven is used. It consists of 
a hole some three feet in diameter and two feet in depth, and is heated in the foUowii^ 
manner : — It ia filled to within six inches of the top with round and hard stones, similar 
to those which have already been described, and upon them a fire is built and maintained 
for some tim& When the stones are thought to be sufficiently heated, the embers are 
svept away, and the food is simply laid upon the stones and allowed to remain there until 
thoTonghly cooked. 

This kind of oven is found over a large range of country, and Mr. M'Gillivray has 
seen it throughout the shores of Torres Straits, and extending as far southwards as Sandy 
Cape on the eastern side. 




COOKING A SSAI 



Although the idea of snake-eating is so repugnant to our ideas that many persons 
aanat eat eels because they look like snakes, the Australian knows better, and considers 
1 snake as one of the greatest delicacies which the earth produces. And there is certainly 
DO reason why we should repudiate the anake as disgusting while we accept the turtle 
ud so many of the tortoise kind as delicacies, no matter whether their food be animal 
orv^etabie. The Australian knows that a snake in good condition ought to have plenty 
of fat, and to be well flavoured, and is always easy in his mind so long as he can 
cateh one 

The process of cooking is exactly like that which is employed with fish, except that 
more pains are taken about it, as is consistent with the superior character of tlie food. The 
file being lighted, the native squats in front of it and waits until the flame and smoke 
bare partly died away, and then carefully coils the anake on the embers, turning it and 
Kcoiling it until all the scales are so scorched that they can be rubbed off. He then 
iQows it to remain until it is cooked according to his ideas, and eats it deliberately, as 
iHoniies such a dainty, picking out the best parts for himself, and, if he be in a good 
Irauoor, tosdug the reet to his wives. 



26 AUSTRALIA. 

Snake-huntiug is carried on iu ratlier a curious manner. Killing a snake at once, 
unless it should be wanted for immediate consumption, would be extremely foolish, as it 
would be unfit for food before the night had passed away. Taking it alive, therefore, is 
the plan which is adopted by the skilful hunter, and this he manages in a very 
ingenious way. 

Should he come upon one of the venomous serpents, he cuts off its retreat, and with 
his spear or \dth a forked stick he irritates it with one hand, while in his other he 
holds the narrow wooden shield. By repeated blows he induces the reptile to attack 
him, and dexterously receives the stroke on the shield, flinging the snake back by the 
sudden repulse. Time after time the snake renews the attack, and is as often foiled ; and 
et last it yields the battle, and lies on the ground completely beaten. The hunter then 
presses his forked stick on the reptile's neck, seizes it flrmly, and holds it while a net is 
thrown over it and it is bound securely to his spear. It is then carried off, and reserved 
for the next day's banquet. 

Sometimes the opossum-skin cloak takes the place of the shield, and the snake is 
allowed to bite it. 

The carpet snake, which sometimes attains the length of ten or twelve feet, is 
favourite game with the Australian native, as its large size furnishes him with an 
abundant supply of meat, as well as the fat in which his soul delights. This snake 
mostly lives in holes at the foot of the curious giuss-tree, of which we shall see several 
figures in the course of the following pages, and in many places it is so plentiful that 
there is scarcely a grass-tree without its snake. 

As it would be a wast^ of time to probe each hole in succession, the natives easily 
ascertain those holes which are inhabited by smearing the earth around them with a 
kind of white clay mixed with water, which is as soft as putty. On the following day 
they can easily see, by the appearance of the clay, when a snake has entered or left its 
hole, and at once proceed to induce the reptile to leave its stronghold. This is done by 
putting on the trunk of the tree immediately over the hole a bait, which the natives state 
to be honey, and waiting patiently, often for many hours, until the serpent is attracted 
by the bait and climbs the tree. As soon as it is clear of the hole, its i*etreat is cut off, 
and the result of the ensuing combat is a certainty. The forked spear which the native 
employs is called a bo-bo. 

All the tribes which live along the eastern coast, especially those wliich inhabit the 
northern part of the countr}^ are in the habit of capturing the dugong. This animal is 
very fond of a green, branchless, marine alga, and ventures to the shore in order to feed 
upon it. The natives are on the watch for it, and, as soon as a dugong is seen, a canoe 
puts off after it. 

Each canoe is furnished with paddles and a harpooner, who is ai'med with a weapon 
very similar to that which is used l)y the turtle-catchers, except that no buoy is required. 
It is composed of a shaft some twelve or fifteen feet in length, light at one end, and heavy 
at the other. A hole is made at the heavy end, and into tlie hole is loosely fitted a kind 
of spear-head made of bone, about four inches iu length, and covered with barl)s. One 
end of a stout and long rope is made fast to this head, and the other is attached to 
the canoe. 

As soon as he is within striking distance, the harpooner jumps out of the boat into 
the water, striking at the same time with his weapon, so as to add to the stroke the force 
of his own weight. Disengaging the shaft, he returns to the canoe, leaving the dugong 
attached to it by the rope. The wounded animal dives and tries to make its way sea- 
wards. Strange to say, although the dugong is a large animal, often eight feet in length, 
and very bulky in proportion to its length, it seldom requires to be stnick a second 
time, but rises to the surface and dies in a few minutes from a wound occasioned by so 
apparently insignificant a weapon as a piece of bone struck some three inches into 
its body. 

When it is dead, it is towed ashore, and rolled up the bank to some level spot, where 
preparations are at once made for cooking and eating it. 

Those who are acquainted with zoology are aware that the dugong is formed much 



GLUTTONY AND STAJIVATION. 27 

Eter the manner of the whale, and that it is covered first with a tough skin and then 
rith a layer of blubber over the muscles. This structure, by the way, renders its 
Qccumbing to the wound of the harpoon the more surprising. 

The natives always cut it up in the same manner. The tail is sliced much as we 
:srve a round of beef, while the body is cut into thin slices as far as the ribs, each slice 
laving its own proportion of meat, blubber, and skin. The blubber is esteemed higher 
iian any other portion of the animal, though even the tough skin can be rendered 
iolerably palatable by careful cooking. 

Of all Australian animals, the kangaroo is most in favour, both on account of the 
excellent quality of the flesh, and the quantity which a single kangaroo will funiisL It 
is hardly necessary to remind the reader that with the Australian, as with other savages, 
quantity is considered rather than quality. A full grown "boomah" kangaroo will, 
when standing upright, in its usual attitude of defence, measure nearly six feet in height, 
and is of very considerable weight. And, when an Australian kills a kangaroo, he 
performs feats of gluttony to which the rest of the world can scarcely find a parallel, and 
certainly not a superior. Give an Australian a kangaroo and he wUl eat until he is 
nearly dead from repletion ; and he will go on eating, with short intervals of rest, until he 
has finished the entire kangaroo. Like other savage creatures, whether human or other- 
wise, he is capable of bearing deprivation of food to a wonderful extent ; and his patient 
endurance of starvation, when food is not to be obtained, is only to be excelled by his 
gluttony when it is plentiful This curious capacity for alternate gluttony and starvation 
is fostered by the innately lazy disposition of the Australian savage, and his utter disregard 
for the future. The animal that ought to serve him and his family for a week is con- 
somed in a few hours ; and, as long as he does not feel the pain of absolute hunger, 
lothing can compel the man to leave his rude couch and go off on a hunting expedition. 

But when he does make up his mind to hunt, he has a bulldog sort of tenacity which 
brbids him to relinquish the chase until he has been successful in bringing down his 
;ame. 



^<^'ftlMiiW''''/P^ 



KATTA, OB DIGGIKO^TICK. (i^eepa^eSl.) 



CHAPTER HI. 



WSTRAIAA-^ContrnMed. 



WEAPONS OP THK AUSTRALIANS, THEIR FORMS AND USES THE CLUB OR WADDY, AND ITS VABIOUl 

FORMS — USES OF TUB WADDY A DOMESTIC PANACEA — AN AUSTRALIAN DUEL THICK SKTTLIS 

OP THE NATIVES — LOVE OP THE NATIVE FOR HIS WADDY THE BLACK POLICE FORCE— TBI 

MISSILE WADDY THE KATTA, OR DIGGLNG-STICK, AND ITS VARIED USES HOW AN AUSTRALLOI 

DIGS A HOLE — THE STONE TOMAHAWK AND ITS USE — THE ASCENT OP TRESS HOW AV 

AUSTRALIAN KNOWS WHETHER AN ANIMAL IS IN A TREE — SMOKING OUT THE PREY — TBI 
BLACK-BOY GUM— THE GRASS-TREE OF AUSTRALIA — THE AUSTRALIAN SAW. 

As in the course of the following pages all the weapons of the Australian will have to 
be mentioned, we will take the opportunity of describing them at once, without troubling 
ourselves as to the peculiar locality in which each modification is found. 

We will begin with the club, the simplest of all weapons. 

Several examples of the club are to be seen in the illustration on the following page. 
All the figures are drawn from actual specimens, some belonging to my own collection, 
some being sketched from examples in the British Museum, and others being taken ftom 
the fine collection of Colonel Lane Fox. 

The simplest form of Australian club is that which is known by the name of " waddy," 
and which is the favourite weapon of an Australian savage, who never seems to be happy 
without a waddy in his hands, no matter what other weapons he may happen to cany. 
One of these waddies is seen at fig. 4 of the illustration, and another is shown upright on 
the right hand. 

The latter is a specimen in my own collection, and affords a very good example of the 
true Australian waddy. It is made of the tough and heavy wood of the gum-tree, and ia 
really a most effective weapon, well balanced, and bears marks of long usage. The length 
is two feet eight inches, and, as the reader may see from the illustration, it is sharpened at 
the point, so that in close combat it can be employed for stabbing as well as for striking. 
It weighs exactly twenty-one ounces. 

Four deep grooves run along the waddy, from the point to the spot where it is grasped, 
and seem to be intended as edges whereby a blow may cut through the skin as well as 
inflict a bruise. Besides these grooves, there are sundry carvings which the native evi- 
dently has thought to be ornamental On two of the sides the pattern is merely the 
double-headed T seen in the illustration, but on the other two sides the pattern is varied. 
In every case the top figure is the double T ; but on one side there is first a T, then 
a cross with curved arms, then a T, and then a pattern that looks something like a key, 
having a bow at each end. The fourth side is evidently unfinished, there being only two 
patterns on it ; the second, evidently an attempt to imitate the letter B, showing that the 
maker had some acquaintance with civilization. 

With this waddy the native is better armed than most men would be with the keeneat 
sword that ever was forged, and with it he strikes and stabs with marvellous rapidity, 



:• ^ 



1 



THE WADDY. 



29 



lung to be actuated, when in combat, by an uncontrollable fury. He can use it as a 
sile with deadly effect ; and if, as is generally the case, he has several of these waddies 
lis hand, he will hurl one or two of them in rapid succession, and, while the antagonist 
till attempting to avoid the flying weapon, precipitate himself upon the foe, and attack 
1 with the waddy which he has reserved for hand-to-hand combat 





AUSTRALIAN CLUBS. 



The waddy is the Australian panacea for domestic troubles, and if one of his wives 
lid presume to have an opinion of her own, or otherwise to offend her dusky lord, 
ow on the head from the ever-ready waddy settles the dispute at once by leaving her 
eless on the ground. Sometimes the man strikes the offender on a limb, and breaks 
bat he does not do this unless he should be too angry to calculate that, by breaking 
slave's arm or leg, he deprives himself of her services for a period. 
With the Australian man of honour the waddy takes the place which the pistol once 
in England, and is the weapon by which disputes are settled. In case two Austra- 
5 of reputation should fall out, one of them challenges the other to single combat, 
ling him a derisive message to the effect that he had better bring his stoutest waddy 
I him, so that he may break it on the challenger's head. 

rhic^ess of skull — a reproach in some parts of the world — is among the Australians 
itter of great boast, and one Australian can hardly insult another in more contemptuous 
fc than by comparing his skull to an emu's egg-shell. I have examined several skulls 
Loatialian natives, and have been much surprised by two points: the first is the 
oishing thickness and hardness of the bone, which seems capable of resisting almost 
blow that could be dealt by an ordinary weapon ; and the second is the amount of 
ry which an Australian skull can endure. Owing to the thickness of the skuU, the 



30 AUSTRAUA. 

Australian puts his bead to strange uses, one of the oddest of which is his custom oi 
breaking sticks on his head instead of snapping them across the knee. 

In due time the combatants appear on the ground, each bearing his toughest and 
heaviest waddy, and attended by his friends. After going through the usual gesticulationi 
and abuse which always precede a duel between savages, the men set definitely to work. 

The challenged individual takes his waddy, and marches out into the middle of the 
space left by the spectators. His adversary confronts him, but unarmed, and stooping 
low, with his hands on his knees, he offers his head to the opponent. The adversai} 
executes a short dance of delight at the blow which he is going to deal, and then, aflei 
taking careful aim, he raises his waddy high in the air, and brings it down with all his 
force on the head of his foe. 

The blow would fell an ordinary ox ; but the skull of an Australian is made of stemei 
stuff than that of a mere ox, and the man accordingly raises himself, rubs his head, and 
holds out his hand to his nearest friend, who gives him the waddy which he is about tc 
use in his turn. The challenged man now takes his turn at stooping, wliile the challengei 
does his best to smash the skull of the antagonist. Each man, however, knows from Iraif 
experience the hardest pait of his own skull, and takes care to present it to the enemy*! 
blow. In tliis way they continue to exchange blows until one of them falls to tiic 
ground, when the victory is decided to remain with tlie antagonist 

In consequence of the repeated injuries to whicli the head of a native Australian is 
subjected, the skull of a w^arrior presents after death a most extraordinary appearance, being 
covered with dents, fractures, and all kinds of injuries, any one of which would have 
killed an European immediately, but which seem to have only caused temporary incon- 
venience to the Australian. 

So fond is the Australian of his waddy, that even in civilized life he cannot be indaced 
to part with it. Some of my readers may be aware that a great number of natives are 
now enrolled among the police, and render invaluable service to the community, especial^ 
against the depredations of their fellow-blacks, whom they persecute w^ith a relentless 
vigour that seems rather surprising to those who do not know the singular antipatlif 
which invariably exists between wild and tamed animals, whether human or otherwisa 
In fact, the Australian native i)olicenian is to the colonists what the " Totty " of Southen 
Africa is to the Dutch and English colonists, what the Ghoorka or Sikh of India is totlie 
English army, and what the tamed elephant of Ceylon or India is to the himter. 

These energetic " black fellows " are armed with the ordinaiy weapons of Europeans, 
and are fully acquainted with their use. But there is not one of them who thinks him- 
self properly armed unless he has his waddy; and, when he enters the bush in search of 
native thieves, he will lay aside the whole of his clothing, except the cap which marks 
his office, will carry his gun with him, buckle his cartouch-pouch round his naked waist^ 
and will take his waddy as a weapon, without which even the gun w^ould seem to him 
an insufficient w^eapon. 

This form of waddy, although it is often used as a missile, is not the one which tlie 
native prefers for that purpose. His throwing waddy, or " wadna," is much shorter and 
heavier, and very much resembles the short missile club used so effectively by the 
Polynesians. Two other forms of waddy are shown at figs. 3 and 4, the former of which 
is generally known by the name of " piccaninny waddy," because it is generally smaller 
and lighter than the others, and can be used by a child. 

Nos. 1 and 2 are also clubs, but are made in a diflferent form, and used in a different 
manner. If the reader will refer to the account of the Abyssinian curved sword, or shoUdi 
he will see that in general form it much resembles this club, the long ix)inted head of each 
l)eing equally useful in striking downwards over a .shield. This weapon is not only used 
in combat, but is employed in the native dances to beat time by rej)eated strokes on the 
shield. 

The reader will notice that many of these clubs have the ends of the handles pointed. 
This formation is partly for the purpose of increasing their efficiency as ofl'ensive w*eaponi^ 
and partly for another object. As was the case with the warriors of the Iliad, both oom- 
l)atnnt.s will occasionally rest, and give each other time to breathe before renewing the 



THE DIGGING-STICK. 31 

fight DmiDg these intervals the Australian combatants squat down, dig up the earth 
with the handle of the club, and rub their hands with the dusty soil, in order to prevent 
the weapons from slipping out of their grasp. 

This club is made in a very ingenious way, the artificer taking advantage of some 
gnarled branch, and cutting it so that the grain of the wood follows the curve, or rather 
the angle of the head, which adds greatly to its strength A club of almost the same 
shape, and cut similarly from the angle of a branch, is used in New Caledonia, and, 
bat for the great superiority of the workmanship, might easily be mistaken for the 
ix^lar club of the Australian. 

This particidar form of club has a tolembly wide range, and among the tribes which 
inhabit the shores of Encounter Bay is called Marpangye. 

At the bottom of the cut are seen two more waddies, both drawn from specimens in 
tiie British Museum. The lower one resembles that whicli lias been already described, 
except in the shape of the handle ; and the upper one is one of the rough and rude foniis 
of the weapon which are seen when a man has been obliged to extemporize a waddy 
from the nearest tree. It is simply a piece of a bough chopped off, and hastily dressed 
with the axe, so as to have a handle at one end and a knob at the other. 

In many parts of Australia the natives have a curious weapon which much resembles 
I sword. It is from three to four feet in length, is flat, about three inches in width, and 
bas the outer edge somewhat sharpened. Being made of the close-gmined wood of the 
gam-tree, it is very heavy in proportion to its size, and in pmctised hands is a most 
tvmidable weapon. 

Tlie Australian women carry an instrimient wliicli is sometimes thought to be a si)ear, 
and sometimes a club, but which in the hands of a woman is neitlicr, though a man will 
sometimes employ it for either purpose. It is simply a stick of variable length, sharpened 
It one end, and the point hardened by fire. It is called by the natives the " katta," and 
is popularly known by the appropriate name of the digging-stick. (See page 27.) 

With this stick the natives contrive to dig up the ground in the most astonishing 
manner, and an English " navvy," with his pick, spade, and barrow, would feel considerably 
surprised at the work which is done by the naked black, who has no tools except a 
pointed stick. Let, for example, a navvy be set to work at the task of digging out an 
echidna from its hole, and he would find his powers of digging baffled by tlie buiTowing 
capabilities of the animal, which would make its way through the earth faster than could 
the navvy. In order to sink some six feet deep into the ground, the white man would be 
obliged to make a funnel-shaped hole of very large size, so as to allow him to work in it, 
and to give the pick and spade free*play as he threw out the soil. 

The black man, on the contrary, would have no such difficulty, but knows how to 
sink a hole without troubling himself to dig a foot of needless soil. Tliis he does by 
handling the katta precisely as the Bosjesman handles his di<jging-stick, i.e. by holding it 
perpendicularly, jobbing the hardened point into the ground, and throwing out with his 
hands the loosened earth. 

In digging out one of the burrowing animals, the black hunter pushes a long and 
flexible stick down the hole, draws it out, measures along the ground to the spot exactly 
above the end of the burrow, replaces the stick, and digs down upon it. By the time 
that he has reached it, the animal has gone on digging, and has sunk its burrow still 
finther. The stick is then pudhed into the lengthened burrow, and again dug down 
vpon ; and the process is repeated until the tired animal can dig no more, and is captured. 
The katta also takes the part of a weapon, and can be wielded very effectively by a 
pictieed hand, being used either for striking or thrusting. 

We now come to a curious instrument which is often thought to be a weapon, but 
which, although it would answer such a purpose very well, is seldom used for it. This is 
the tomahawk, or hammer, as it is generally called. Three varieties of the tomahawk are 
giren in the illustration on the following page. In all of them the cutting part is made 
cf stone and the handle of wood, and the head and the handle are joined in several 
£fliaent waya^ according to the fashion of the locality in which the instrument is made. 
Ike simplest jdan is that which is shown in fig. 1. In this instrument, a conveniently 



32 



AUSTRALIA. 



shaped piece of stone has been selected for a head, and thehandle ismadeofaflexiblestiA 
bent over it, and the two ends firmly lashed together, just as the English blackamitli nukes 
handles for bis punches and cold chisels. This -weapon was made in New South Wales. 
At fig, 3 is shown a tomahawk of a more elaborate construction. Here the stone 
head has been lashed to the shaft by a thong, which is wrapped over it in a way &a 
exactly resembles tlie lashing employed by the New Zealander or the Dyak for the ssma 
purpose. The tomahawk at the bottom of the illustration is, however, the best example 
of the instrument, and is taken from a specimen in the British Museum. The haDcUe 
and head are shaped much like those of fi<r. 2, but the fastening is much more elaborafa 

In the first place, tbe 
head is held to the handle 
))y lashings of sinenB, 
which are drawn from the 
tail of the kangaroo, and 
lUways kept in readinesB 
by the Australian savage. 
The sinews are steeped in 
hot water, and pounded 
between two stones, in 
order to separate them into 
fibres ; and, while still wet 
and tolerably elastic, the; 
are wrapped round tlw 
stone and the handle. Of 
course, as they dry, thty 
coiitmct with great force, 
and bind the head and 
liandle t(^ther far moie 
securely than can be done 
with any other material' 
Even raw hide does not 
hold so firmly as sinew. 

When the sinew laalt- 
ing is perfectly dry, the na- 
tive takes a quantity of the 
peculiar sututance called 
'■ black -boy" wax, and 
kneads it over the head 
and the end of the handk^ 
so as to bind everything 
firmly together. 

Another instrument ii 
shown at fig. 2, in which the 
combination of stone and 
vegetable is managed in another way. The blade is formed from a piece of quartz about 
as long as a man's hand, which has been cliipped into the form of a spear-head. The 
handle, instead of being a piece of wood, is simply a number of fibres made into a bundla 
The base of the stone bead has l>een pushed among the loose ends of the fibres, and then 
the whole has been bound firmly togetlier by a loshtng of string made of reeds. Thin ig 
a sort of dagger ; and another form of the same instrument is made by simply aharpening 
a stick about eighteen inches in length, and hardening the sharpened end in the fire. It is, 
in fact, a miniature katta, but is applied to a different purpose. 

These axes and daggers have been mentioned together, because they are used for the 
same purpose, namely, the ascent of trees. 

Active as a monkey, the Australian native can climb any tree that grows. Shonld 
they be of moderate size, he ascends them, not liy clasping the trunk with his legs and 




TREE-CLIMBING. 33 

anns (the mode which is generally used in England), and which is popularly called 
" swarming." Instead of passing his legs and arms round the tree-trunk as far as they 
can go^ he applies the soles of his feet to it in front, and presses a hand against it on either 
side, and thus ascends the tree with the rapidity of a squirrel This mode of ascent is 
now taught at every good gymnasium in England, and is far superior to the old fashion, 
which has the disadvantage of slowness, added to the certainty of damaging the clothes. 

Those who have seen our own acrobats performing the feat called La Perche, in which 
one man balances another on the top of a pole, or tlie extraordinary variations on it 
performed by the Japanese jugglers, who balance poles and ladders on the soles of their 
fiset, will be &miliar with the manner in which one of the performers runs up the pole 
which is balanced by his companion. It is by this method that the Australian ascends a 
tree of moderate dimensions, and, when he is well among the boughs, he traverses them 
with perfect certainty and quickness. 

Trees which will permit the man to ascend after this fashion are, however, rather 
Ktrce in the Australian forests, and, moreover, there is comparatively little inducement 
to dimb them, the hollows in which the bees make their nests and the beasts take up 
their diurnal abode being always in the branch or trunk of some old and decaying tree. 
Some of these trees are so large that their trunks are veritable towers of wood, and afford 
»o bold to the hands ; yet they are ascended by the natives as rapidly as if they were 
tmall trees. 

By dint of constant practice, the Australian never passes a tree without casting a 
^ce at the bark, and by that one glance he will know whether he will need to mount 
iL The various arboreal animals, especially the so-called opossimis, cannot ascend the tree 
without leaving marks of their claws in the bark. There is not an old tree that has not 
its bark covert with scratches, but the keen and practised eye of the native can in a 
moment distinguish between the ascending and descending marks of the animal^ and can 
also determine the date at which they were made. 

The difference between the marks of an ascending and descending animal is easy 
enough to see when it has once been pointed out. When an animal climbs a tree, the 
marlEB of its claws are little more than small holes, with a slight scratch above each, 
looking something like the conventional " tears " of heraldry. But, when it descends, it 
does so by a series of slippings and catchings, so that the claws leave long scratches 
behind them. Nearly ail arboreal animals, with the exception of the monkey tribe, leave 
marks of a similar character, and the bear-hunter of North America and the 'possum- 
hunter of Australia are guided by similar marks. 

Should the native hunter see an ascending mark of more recent date than the other 
acntches, he knows that somewhere in the tree lies his intended prey. Accordingly, he 
lays on the ground everything that may impede him, and, going to the tree-trunk, he 
h^gios to deliver a series of chopping blows with his axe. These blows are delivered in 
pain, and to an Englishman present father a ludicrous reminiscence of the postman's 
double rap. By each of these double blows he chops a small hole in the tree, and 
manages so as to cut them alternately right and left, and at intervals of two Feet or so. 

ILiving cut these notches as high as he can reach, he places the great toe of his left 
fittt in the lowermost hole, clasps the tree with his left arm, and strikes the head of the 
tomahawk into the tree as high as he can reach. Using the tomahawk as a handle by 
^riiieh he can pull himself up, he lodges the toe of his right foot in the second hole, and 
is then enabled to shift the toe of the left foot into the third hole. Here he waits for a 
moment, holding tightly by both his feet and the left hand and arm, while he cuts more 
Botdies ; and, by continuing the process, he soon reaches the top of the tree. 

When he reaches the first branch, he looks carefully to find the spot toward which 
the tell-tale scratches are directed, and, guided by them alone, he soon discovers the hole 
in vhich the animal lies hidden. He tests the dimensions of the hollow by tapping on 
the trunk with the axe, and, if it should be of moderate depth, sets at work to chop away 
the wood, and secure the inmata 

Should, however, the hollow be a deep one, he is obliged to have recourse to another 
plan. Descending the tree by the same notches as those by which he had climbed it, he 



rra tt t\ 



34 



AUSTRALIA. 



takes from bis bundle of belongings a. fiie-stick, i.e. a sort of tinderlike wood, v 
keeps up a smouldering fire, like that of the willow " touchwood " so dear to school 
Wrapping up the fire-stick in a bundle of dry grass and leaves, he re-ascends the 
and, when he has reached the entrance of the burrow, he whirls the bundle rouiu 
head until the lire spreads through the mass, and the grass bursts into flame. 

As soon as it is well inflamed, he pushes some of the burning material inb 
b\UTOw, so as to fall upon the enclosed animal, and to rouse it from the heavj- sle^ 

which it passes the hours of 
light. He ako holds the n 
the torch at the entrance 01 
burrow, and manages to c 
the smoke into it. Did hi 
rouse the animal by the bui 
leaves, be would run a clian 
suffocating it in its sleep. 
may seem to be a very re 
contingency, but in fact it is 
likely to happen. I have ki 
a cat to be baked alive ii 
oven, and yet not to have aw 
from sleep, as was evident b; 
attitude in which the body o 
animal was found curled up, 
its chin on its paws, and it.' 
wrapped round its body. 
the slumber of a domestii 
cat. which can sleep as oft 
it likes in the day or night, i 
nearly so deep as that ^ 
wraps in oblivion the sens< 
a wild animal that is abroa 
night, and whose whole stru- 
is intended for a nocturnal 1 
The chopping holes, and 
ting the toes into them, s 
in theory to be rather a tei 
business, but in practice 
quite the contrary, the n 
ascending almost as quickly 
he were climbing a ladder, 
the large trees are so capab 
containing the animals on v 
the Australians feed, tbei 
scarcely one which does noi 
hibit several series of the no 
that denote the track of a m 
Strange to say, the Austr 
Ininters will not avail thems 
of the notches that have been made by other persons, but each man chops a new i 
of holes for himself every time that he wants to ascend a tree. 

Sometimes a man sees the track of an animal or the indication of a bee's nest 
tree when he happens not to have an axe in hand. In such a case he is still al 
ascend the tree, for be can make use of the dagger which has been already desci 
punching holes in the bark, and pulling himself up exactly as if he had a tomahawl 
only difference being that the holes are smaller and the work is harder. 

When the hunter has once found the eatrance of the burrow, the capture of the in 




CLIXIIIN'G A TRER. 



ft 



BLACK-BOY" GUM. 35 



is simply a matter of time, as the heat and smoke are sure to force it into the air, where 
it has the double disadvantage of being half-choked with smoke and being blind with 
the flame and the daylight, to which its eyes are unaccustomed. A blow on the head 
from the tomahawk, or a stab f5rom the dagger, renders it senseless, when it is flung on the 
^und, and the successful hunter proceeds to traverse the tree in case some other animal 
nay be hidden in it. . 

The preceding illustration exhibits this mode of climbing, and is drawn by Mr. Angas 
iom nature. The tree is the well-known cabbage-paira, which grows to a very great 
bight, and, like other palms, never grows quite straight, but has always a bend in 
hd trunk. After the manner of this palm-tribe, it grows by a succession of buds from 
lie top, and this bud, popularly called the " cabbage," is a favourite article of food. It 
bas been called the prince of vegetables, and one enthusiastic traveller declares that it 
Biiist have been the ambrosia of the Olympic gods. The removal of the bud causes the 
leath of the tree, and for that reason the vegetable is forbidden in civilized regions under 
pnialty of a heavy fine. The savage, however, who has no idea of care for the morrow, 
nmch less of looking forward to future years, takes the bud wherever he meets it, caring 
nothing for the death of the useful tree. 

In this illustration, the upper figure is seen ascending by means of the little wooden 
dagger, or warpoo, while the lower is making use of the tomahawk. Some of the curious 
puasitic vegetation of the country is shown in the same drawing. The quartz dagger 
vhich was shown in a previous illustration would not be used for tree-climbing, unless the 
owner could not procure a tomahawk or warpoo. Its chief use is as a weapon, and it can 
ibo be employed as a knife, by means of which the savage can mutilate a fallen enemy, 
ifter the manner which will be described when we come to treat of warfare in Australia. 

The " black-boy " gum, which plays so large a part in the manufacture of Australian 
vetpons and implements, is obtained from the grass-tree, popularly called " the black boy," 
bec^ise at a distance it may easily be mistaken for a native with his spear and cloak. It 
is veiy tenacious in its own coimtry, but when brought to England it becomes brittle. 
Hid is apt to break away from the weapon in fragments, just as does a similar preparation, 
Cilled "kurumanni" gum, which is made by the natives of Guiana. It is quite black, 
ind when dry is extremely hard. 

The grass-tree is one of the characteristic plants of Australia, and partakes of the 
ttnmge individuality of that curious country. The trunk is cylindrical, and looks like 
liat of a palm, while an enormous tuft of long leaves starts from the top, and droops in 
ill directions like a gigantic plume of feathers. The flower shoots up straight from the 
sentre ; and the long stalk becomes, when dried, so hard, tough, and light that it is made 
oto spear-shafts. 

There is in my collection an Australian saw, in the manufacture of which the black- 
yoy gum plays a considerable part. No one would take it for a saw who did not know 
lie implement, and, indeed, it looks much more like a rude dagger than a saw. It is 
nade from a piece of wood, usually cut from a branch of the gum-tree, and about as thick 
18 a man's finger at the thickest part^ whence it tapers gi^adually to a point. The average 
^ogth of the saw is fourteen inches, though I have seen them nearly two feet long. 

Along the thicker end is cut a groove, which is inteuded to receive the teeth of the 
MEW. These teeth are made from chips of quartz or obsidian, the latter being preferred ; 
ind some makers who have been brought in contact with civilization have taken to using 
faigmenta of glass bottlea A number of flat and sharp-edged chips are selected, as 
Bwly as possible of the same size, and being, on an average, as large as a shilling : 
iese the natives insert into the groove, with their sharp edges uppermost. A quan- 
tity of black-boy wax is then warmed and applied to them, the entire wood of the saw 
jWDg enveloped in it, as well as the teeth for half their depth, so as to hold them firmly 
in thdr places. As the chips of stone are placed so as to leave little spaces between 
tiKm, the gaps are filled in with this useful cement. 

For Australian work this simple tool seems to answer its purpose well enough. Of 
ttwrac it is very slow in its operation, and no great force can be applied to it, lest the 
Wh should be broken, or twisted out of the cement. The use of this saw entails great 

d2 



S6 



AUSTRALIA. 



waste of material, time, aad labour ; but as the first tffo of these articles are not of .ttie 
least value to the natives, and the third is of the lightest possible kind, the tool works 
well enough for its purpose. 

A peifect gpecimeu of this saw is not often seen in this country, as the black-boy 
wax flakes off, and allows the teeth to drop out of their place. Even in my own 
specimen, which has been carefully tended, the wax has been chipped off here and 
there, while in instruments that have been knocked abont carelessly scarcely a tooth ii 
left in its place. 

Owing to the pointed end of the handle, the saw can be used after the fashion of a 
dagger, and can be employed, like the warpoo, for the ascent of trees. 





BASKET. SOUTH AUCiIIlAU&. (Sm; 



CHAPTER IV. 

AVSTRAlAA—CofUinued, 

IHE AU8TBAIJAN 8FBAB AND ITS MANY FORMS ^THK THROWINO-8PBAB OB JAVELIN A OBOUP OP 

AUSTRALIAN 8PBAB8 ^THE LIGHTNESS OF THE SHAFT THE MANY-POINTED FISH-SPEAB 

INQKNI0U8 MODS OP TIPPINO THE POINTS "WITH BONE, AND FASTBNINa THEM TO THE SHAFT 

ttASnCITY OF THE POINTS ^DOUBLE USE AS PADDLE AND BPBAB — AN ELABOBATELY-MADB 

▼EAPON FLINT-HEADED SPEABS — EXCELLENCE OF THE AUSTBALIAN AS A THBOWEB OF 

lOBSILXa THE CLUB, THE STONE, AND THE " KANOABOO-BAT " THE THBOW-STICK, MIDLAH, 

01 ▼UMMKBAH PBINCIFLE ON WHICH IT IS CONSTBUCTED — MODES OF QUTVEHINO THE SPEAB 

— DKTANCB TO WHICH IT CAN BE THBOWN THE UNDBBHAND THBOW ACCUBACY OF AIM — 

fiPKABINO THE XANOABOO THE BOW AND ABBOW STBENGTH OF THE BOW THE BATTAN 

BTBmO AND INGENIOUS KNOT CABEFUL MANUFACTUBE OF THE ABBOWS ^PBESUMED OBIGIN 

or THE WEAPONS THE BOOMEBANG AND ITS YABIOUS FOBMB — MODE OF THBOWINO THE WEAPON 

—ITS PBOBABLE OBIGIN — STBUCTUBE OF THE BOOMEBANG THE AUSTBALIAN SHIELD, ITS F0BM8 

AND USES THE WOODEN AND THE BABE SHIELDS. 

We now come to the various forms of the spears which are used by the native Australians. 

The usual weapon is slight, and scarcely exceeds in diameter the assagai of Southern 
A&ica. It is, however, considerably longer, the ordinary length being from nine to 
eleten feet As a genersd rule, the spear is constructed after a very rude fashion, and the 
niaker seems to care but little whether the shaft be perfectly straight, so that the weapon 
be tolerably well balanced. There are several specimens of Australian spears in my 
collection, one of which (a weapon that has evidently been a favourite one, as it shows 
marks of long usage) is twice bent, the second bend coimteracting the former, and so 
bringing the weapon tolerably straight 

The butt of the Australian spear, like that of the South Aixican assagai, is very slight, 
the shaft tapering gradually from the head, which is about as large as a man's finger, to 
the butt, where it is hardly thicker than an artist's pencil. This, being one of the 
common spears, is simply sharpened at the end, and a few slight barbs cut in the wood. 
I have, however, specimens in which there is almost every variety of material, dimensions, 
and structure tlutt can be found in Australia. 

Some of these are made on the same principle as that which has just been described, 
bttt differ from it in having a separate head, made of hard and heavy wood. This . is 
deeply cut with barbs ; so that the weapon is a more formidable one than that which is 
inade simply bom one piece of wood. The head of one of these spears is shown at fig. 7 
in the iUustration on page 8. 

Several of the spears are perfectly plain, being simply long sticks, pointed at the 
larger end. These, however, have been scraped very carefully, and seem to have had 
nwfre pains bestowed upon them than tJiose with more elaborate heads. These spears are 
(iboat eight feet in lei^tL 

Then there are other spears with a variable number of heads, and of variable dimen- 
aoQs. The commoiiest fonn of multiheaded spears has either three or four points ; but 



I 



38 AUSTUALIA. 

in every other respect, except number, the spear-heads arc couatructed in the same 
manner. 

One of these spears, now before nie, has a shaft about nine feet in length, and Tat)ier 
more than an inch in diameter nt the tliickest part, ^'hich, as is usual with Australian 
spears, ia just below the bead The «'ood of which it is made is exceedingly light and 
porous ; but this very quality has mifortunately made it so acceptable to the ptiliniu 
beetles that they have damaged it sadly, and rendered it so brittle that a very slight shock 
would snap it Indeed, the shaft of one of them was broken into three pieces by a little 
child stumbling against it while coming down stairs. 

The four points whieh constitute the head are cut from the gum-tree, the wood of 
which is hai-d and durable, and can be trimmed to a very sharp point without danger of 

breakage. Each of them is twenty 
inches in length, and they are 
largest in the middle, tapering 
slightly at une end so as to permit 
of their being fastened to the shaA, 
and being scraped to a fine point 
at the other end. 

On examination I find that the 
large end of the shaft has been cat 
into four gitioves, in each of which 
is placed the butt end of one of the 
points, which is fixed temporarily by 
black-boy gum. Wedgelike p^ 
have then been pushed between the 
points, so as to make them diverge 
properly from each other, and, 
when they have assumed the proper 
position, tbey have been tightly 
bound together with cord. A layer 
of black-boy gum has then been 
kneaded over the string, bo as to 
keep all firmly together. 

So much for the mode of patting 
on the points, the end of one itf 
wliich may be seen at fig. 3 in the 
illustration. My own spedmen, 
however, is better mode tnan that 
from which the sketch has been 
taken. The reader will perceive that 
there is a barb attached to the 
point, and lashed in its place by 
string. In my specimen the barb 
is made of a piece of bone about 
as long as a skewer, and sharply 
pointed at both ends. In the ex- 
ample shown in the illustration 
the barb merely projects from the 
side of the point, whereas in my 
specimen the bone answers the pur- 
]K>se both of point and barb. In 
order to enable it to take the proper direction, the top of the wooden jwint is bevelled off, 
and ihe piece of bone lashed to it by the middle, so that one end becomes the point of the 
weapon, and the other end does duty for the barb. Wishing to see how this was done, 
I have cut away part of the lashings of one of the four points, and have been much struck 
with the ingenui^ displayed by the maker in fastening the bone to the point, so as to 







FISH-SPEARING. 



39 



malce it discharge its double duty. The harbs are all directed inwards, so that, when the 
native makes a stroke at a fish, the slippery prey is caught between the barbs, aud held 
there just as is an eel between the prongs of the spear. The elasticity of the four long 
points causes them to divet^e when they come upon the back of a fish, aud to contract 
tightly upon it, so that the points of the barbs are pressed firmly into its sides. 

"^ia spear also stands the native in stead of a paddle, and with it he contrives to guide 
)ua fragile bark with moderate speed. How he manages to stand erect in so frail a vessel, 
to paddle about, to strike the fish, and, lastly, to haul the struggling prey aboard, is really 
t marvel The last-mentioned feat is the most wonderful, as the fish are often of 




nsHINO CJlNOEB ON THE UL'BRAV. ISktietnt Hit doiMt lamf On Mputr.} 



eoBsiderable size, and the mere leverage of their weight at the end of a ten-foot spear, 
•dded to the violent struggles which the wounded fish makes, seems sufficient to upset 
» &r more stable vessel 

Tet the natives manage to pass hour after hour without meeting with an accident, 
•nd in one of their tiny boate, which seem scarcely lai^e enough to hold a single 
Eor(»>ean, erven though he should be accustomed to the narrow outrigger skiff, or the com- 
pnatively modem canoe, two men will be perfectly comfortable, spearing and hauling in 
Uieir fish, and even cooking them with a fire made on an extemporized hearth of wet sand 
ind atones in the middle of the canoe. 

Night is a favoorite time for fish-spearing, and then the sight of a number of natives 
B^Hed in the watery chase is a most picturesque one. They carry torches, by means of 
•kirn they sec to the bottom of the water, and which have also the advantage of dazzling 
libt fish ; and the effect of the constantly movii^ torches, the shifting glare on the rippled 



40 AUSTRALIA. 

water, and the dark figures moving about, some searching for fish, others striking, md 
others struggling with the captured prey, is equally picturesque and exciting. The toipoei 
which they use are made of inflammable bark ; and the whole scene is almost preciady 
like that which is witnessed in " burning the water" in North America, or, to come nearer 
home, " leistering " in Scotland. 

In tlie daytime they cannot use the torch, and, as the slightest breeze will cansea 
ripple on the surface of the water that effectually prevents them from seeing the fish, Xmj 
have an ingenious plan of lying flat across the canoe, with the upper part of the head m 
the eyes immersed in the water, and the hand grasping the spear ready for the stroke 
The eyes being under the ripple, they can see distinctly enough. 

I have often employed this plan when desirous of watching the proceedings of sub- 
aquatic animals. It is very effectual, though after a time the attitude becomes lather 
fatiguing, and those who are not gymnasts enough to be independent as to the relative 
position of their heads and heels are apt to find themselves giddy from the detenninabon 
of blood to the head. ^ 

The preceding illustration shows the use which is made of the fishing-spears, and 
gives a good idea of the exceedingly fragile canoes and of the wonderful skill of the bo^ 
men. Two of the men are paddling themselves along by means of the spears, and in the j 
canoe in the foreground are two men, one of whom is cooking some fish on the little fir^ 
and squatted down so as to lessen the risk of a capsize, while the other is ex amining the 
head of his spear before usijig it again. This drawing is taken from a sketch made oa 
the spot. 

Another spear, also used for fishing, and with an elaborate head, is seen at fig. 8. In j 
this spear one point is iron, and the other two are bone. The weapon is remarkable for ; 
the manner in which the shaft is allowed to project among the points, and for the peculiar \ 
mode in which the various parts are lashed together. This specimen comes ftom the ■ 
Lower Murray River. 

There is in my collection a weapon which was brought from Cape York. It is i 
fishing-spear, and at first sight greatly resembles that which has just been described. It 
is, however, of a more elaborate character, and deserves a separate description. It is seva 
feet in length, and very slender, the thickest part of the shaft not being more than half an 
inch in diameter. It has four points, two of which are iron and without barbs, the iron 
being about the thickness of a crow-quill, and rather under three inches in length. The 
two bone points are made from the flat taU-bone of one of the rays, and, being arranged 
with the point of the bone in front, each of these points has a double row of barbs directed 
backwards, one running along each edga 

At fig. 6 of the same illustration is seen a very formidable variety of the throwing-spear. 
Along each si<l^ of the head the native warrior has cut a groove, and has stack in it a 
nunibi^r of chips of flint or quartz, fastened in their places by the black-boy gum, just as 
has been related of the saw. The workmanship of this specimen is, however, far ruder 
than that of the saw, the pieces of flint not being the same size, nor so carefully adjusted. 
Indeed, it seems as if the saw-maker laid aside the fragments of flint which he rejected 
for the tool, and afterwards used them in arming the head of his spear. One of these 
weapons in my collection is armed on one side of the head only, along which are arranged 
four pieces of obsidian having very jagged edges, and being kept in their places by a thick 
coating of black-boy gum extending to the very point of the spear. 

At figs. 4 and 5 of the same illustration are seen two spear-heads which remind the 
observer of the flint weapons which have of late years been so abundantly found in 
various parts of the world, and which belonged to races of men now long extinct Thi 
spear-heads are nearly as large as a man's hand, and are made of flint chipped carefdllj 
into the required shape. They are flat, and the maker has had sufficient knowledge o: 
the cleavage to enable him to give to each side a sharp and tolerably uniform edga 

The reader will observe that fig. 5 is much darker than fig. 4 This distinction i 
not accidental, but very well expresses the variety in the hue of the material employed 
some of the spear-heads being pale brown, and some almost black. The weapons are, ii 
fact, nothing but elongations of the dagger shown in fig. 3 of the illustration on page 32. 



THE "KANGAROO-RAT." 41 

If the reader will look at figs. 1 and 2 of the illustration, he will see that there are 
wo heads of somewhat similar construction, except that one is single and the other 
ooble. These spears were brought from Port Essington. 

Specimens of each kind are in iny collection. T^ey are of great size, one being more 
ban thirteen feet in length, and the other falling but little short of that measurement. In 
iameter they are as thick as a man's wrist ; and, however light may be the wood of which 
hey are made, they are exceedingly weighty, and must be very inferior in efficiency to the 
ight throwing-speais which have already been described. Of course such a weapon as 
hia is meant to be used as a pike, and not as a missile. Besides these, I have another 
rith three heads, and of nearly the same dimensions as the two others. 

In every case the head and the shaft are of different material, the one being light and 
wnfUB, and the other hard, con^pact, and heavy. Instead of being lashed together with 
he neatness which is exhibited in the lighter weapons, the head and shaft are united 
wiSk a binding of thick string, wrapped carefully, but yet roughly, round the weapon, 
ind not being covered with the coating of black-boy gum, which gives so neat a look to 
he smaller weapons. In the three-pointed spear, the maker has exercised his ingenuity 
n decorating the weapon with paint, the tips of the points being painted with red and 
he rest of the head white, while the lashing is also painted red 

In his wild state the Australian native never likes to be without a spear in his hand, 
ind, as may be expected from a man whose subsistence is almost entirely due to his skill 
in die nse of weapons, he is a most accomplished spear-thrower. Indeed, as a thrower of 
missiles in gener^ the Australian stcmds without a rival Putting aside the boomerang, 
of which we shall presently treat, the Australian can hurl a spear either with his hand 
or with the " throw-stick," can fling his short club with unerring aim, and, even should 
be be deprived of these missiles, he has a singular faculty of throwing stones. Many a 
time, before the character of the natives was known, has an armed soldier been killed by 
a totally unarmed Australian. The man has fired at the native, who, by dodging about^ 
has prevented the enemy from taking a correct aim, and then has been simply cut to 
pieces by a shower of stones, picked up and hurled with a force and precision that must 
be seen to be believed. When the first Australian discoverer came home, no one would 
bdieve that any weapon could be flung and then return to the thrower, and even at the 
present day it is diflficult to make some persons believe in the stone-throwing powers 
of the Australian. To fling one stone with perfect precision is not so easy a matter as it 
seems, but the Australian will hurl one after the other with such rapidity that they seem 
to be poured from some machine ; and as he throws them he leaps from side to side, 
80 as to make the missiles converge from different directions upon the unfortunate object 
of his aim. 

In order to attain the wonderful skill which they possess in avoiding as well as in 
throwing spears, it is necessary that they should be in constant practice from child- 
hood Accordingly, they are fond of getting up sham fights, armed with shield, throw- 
fticky and spear, the latter weapon being headless, and the end blunted by being split and 
temped into filaments, and the bushy filaments then turned back, until they form a soft 
fibrmis pad. Even with this protection, the weapon is not to be despised; and if it strikes 
one of the combatants fairly, it is sure to knock him down ; and if it should strike him in 
the ribs, it leaves him gasping for breath. 

This mimic spear goes by the name of " matamoodlu," and is made of various sizes 
aeoording to the age and capabilities of the person who uses it. 

There is one missile which is, I believe, as peculiar to Australia as the boomerang, 
tboogh it is not so widely spread, nor of such use in war or hunting. It is popularly 
ctDed the " kangaroo-rat," on accouut of its peculiar leaping progression, and it may be 
familiar to those of my readers who saw the Australian cricketers who came over to this 
ooontry in the spring of 1868. 

The " kangaroo-rat " is a piece of hard wood shaped like a double cone, and having 
along flexible handle projecting from one of the points. The handle is about a yard in 
length, and as thick as an artist's drawing-pencil, and at a little distance the weapon looks 
Uke a hnge tadpole with a much elongated tail In Australia the natives make the tail 



42 AUSTRALIA. 

of a flexible twig, but those who have access to the resources of civilization have foond 
out that whalebone is the best substance for the tail that can be found 

When the native throws the kangaroo-rat, he takes it by the end of the tail and 
swings it backwards and forwards, so that it bends quite double, and at last he gives s 
sort of underhanded jerk and lets it fly. It darts through the air with a sharp wmA 
menacing hiss like the sound of a rifle ball, its greatest height being some seven or ei^tA 
feet from the ground. As soon as it touches the earth, it springs up and makes a 
succession of leaps, each less than the preceding, until it finally stops. In fact, it skims 
over the ground exactly as a flat stone skims over the water when boys are playing at 
" ducks and drakes." The distance to which this instrument can be thrown is r^illy 
astonishing. I have seen an Australian stand at one side of Kennington Oval, and throw 
the " kangaroo-rat " completely across it. Much depends upon the angle at which it first 
takes the ground. If thrown too high, it makes one or two lofty leaps, but traverses no 
great distance ; and, if it be thrown too low, it shoots along the ground, and is soon 
brought up by the excessive friction. When properly thrown, it looks just like a living 
animal leaping along, and those who have been accustomed to traverse the country say 
that its movements have a wonderftd resemblance to the long leaps of a kangaroo-rat 
fleeing in alarm, with its long tail trailing as a balance behind it. 

A somewhat similarly shaped missile is used in Fiji, but the Fijian instrument has a 
stiff shaft, and it is propelled by placing the end of the forefinger against the butt, and 
throwing it underhanded. It is only used in a game in which the competitors try to 
send it skimming along the ground as far as possible. 

To return to our speai's. It is seldom that an Australian condescends to throw a spear 
by hand, the native always preferring to use the curious implement called by the aborigines 
a " wummerah," or " midlah," and by the colonists the " throw-stick." The theory of the 
throw-stick is simple enough, but the practice is very difticult, and requires a long 
apprenticeship before it can be learned \vith any certainty. 

The principle of this implement is that of the sling ; and the throw-stick is, in fact, a 
sling made of wood instead of cord, the spear taking the place of the stone. So com- 
pletely is the throw-stick associated with the spear, that the native would as soon think 
of going without his spear as without the instrument whereby he throws it. The imple- 
ment takes different fonns in different localities, although the principle of its construction 
is the same throughout. In the illustration on page 43 the reader may see every 
variety of form which the throw-stick takes. He will see, on inspecting the figures, that 
it consists of a stick of variable length and breadth, but always having a ba]:i}like 
projection at one end. Before describing the manner in which the instrument is used, I 
will proceed to a short notice of the mode of its construction, and the various forms 
which it takes. 

In the first place, it is always more or less flattened; sometimes, as in fig. 3, being 
almost leaf-shaped, and sometimes, as in fi<^^ 6, being quite narrow, and throughout the 
greater part of its length little more than a flattened stick. It is always made of some 
hard and elastic wood, and in many cases it is large and heavy enough to be serviceable 
as a club at close quarters. Indeed, one very good specimen in my collection, which 
came from the Swan Eiver, was labelled, when it reached me, as an Indian club. This 
form of the throw-stick is shown at fig. 3. 

This particular s])ecimen is a trifle under two feet in length, and in the bityadest part 
it measures four inches and a half in width. In the centre it is one-sixth of an inch in 
thickness, and diminishes gradually to the edges, which are al)out as sharp as those of the 
wooden sword already mentioned. Towards the end, however, it becomes tliicker, and at 
the place where the peg is placed it is as thick as in the middle. Such a weapon would 
be very formidable if used as a club— scarcely less so, indeed, than the well-known 
" merai " of New Zealand. 

That it has been used for this purpose is evident from a fracture, which has clearly 
lieen caused by the effect of a severe blow. The wood is split from one side of the 
handle half along the weapon, and so it has been rendered for a time unserviceabla 



44 AUSTRALIA. 

preventing the native from taking a firm hold of the weapon. Fig. 6 is an example of 
the throw-stick of Queensland, and, as may easily be seen, can be used as a clnb^ 
provided that it be reversed, and the peg-end used as a handle. 

There is another form of throw-stick used in Northern Australia, examples of which 
may be seen at the bottom of the engraving. One of these, brought from Cape York, ii 
in my collection. It is a full foot longer than that which came from the Murray, and is 
one of the " flattened sticks " which have been casually mentioned It is fully twice as 
thick as the Murray throw-stick, and, although it is one third larger, is only an inch and 
a half wide at the broadest part. It is thickest in the middle, and, like the generality of 
these weapons, diminishes towards the edges. 

It has a wooden spike for the spear-butt, and a most remarkable handle. Two 
pieces of melon-shell have been cut at rather long ovals, and have been fixed diagonally 
across the end of the weapon, one on each sida Black-boy gum has been profusely used 
in fixing these pieces, and the whole of the interior space between the sheUs has been 
filled up with it. A diagonal lashing of sinew, covered with the same gum, passes over 
the shells, and the handle is strongly wrapped with the same material for a space of 
five inches. 

We will now proceed to see how the native thi-ows the spear. 

Holding the throw-stick by the handle, so that the other end projects over his 
shoulder, he takes a spear in his left hand, fits a slight hollow in its butt to the peg of 
the midlah, and then holds it in its place by passing the forefinger of the rifffat hand 
over the shaft. It will be seen that the leverage is enormously increased by ^is plan, 
and that the force of the arm is more than doubled. 

Sometimes, especially when hunting, the native throws the spear without fniiher 
trouble, but when he is engaged in a fight he goes through a series of perfonnanoeB 
which are rather ludicrous to a European, though they are intended to strike tenor 
into the native enemy. The spear is jerked about violently, so that it quivers just like 
an African assagai, and while vibrating strongly it is thrown. There are two ways of 
quivering the spear ; the one by merely moving the right hand, and the other by seising 
the shaft in tlie left hand, and shaking it violently while the butt rests against the pq; 
of the throw-stick. In any case the very fact of quivering the spear acts on the 
Australian warrior as it does upon the African. The whirring sound of the vibntii^ 
weapon excites him to a pitch of frenzied excitement, and while menacing his foe with 
the trembling spear, the warrior dances and leaps and yells as if he were mad — and 
indeed for the moment he becomes a raving madman. 

The distance to which the spear can be thrown is something wonderful, and its aspect 
as it passes through the air is singularly beautiful. It seems rather to have been shot 
fix)m some huge bow, or to be furnished with some innate powers of flight, than to have 
been flung from a human arm, as it performs its lofty course, undulating like a thin black ., 
snake, and vnithing its graceful way through the air. As it leaves the throw-stick, a slight ' 
clashing sound is heard, which to the experienced ear tells its story as clearly as the 
menacing clang of an archer's bowstring. 

To me the distance of its flight is not nearly so wonderful as the precision with 
which it can be aimed. A tolerably long throw-stick gives so powerful a leverage that 
the length of range is not so very astonishing. But that accuracy of aini should be 
attained as well as length of flight is really wonderful. I have seen the natives, when 
engaged in mock battle, stand at a distance of eighty or ninety yards, and throw their 
spears with such certainty that, in four throws out of six, the antagonist was obliged to 
move in order to escape the spears. 

Beside the powerful and lofty throw, they have a way of suddenly flinging it under- 
hand, so that it skims just above the ground, and, when it touches the e^uth, proQeeds 
with a series of ricochets that must be peculiarly embarrassing to a novice in that kind 
of warfare. 

The power of the spear is never better shown than in the chase of the kangaioa 
When a native sees one of these animals engaged in feeding, he goes off to a little 
distance where it cannot see him, gathers a few leafy boughs, and ties them together so as 



46 AUSTEALIA. 

In the illustration on the previous page the action of therthrow-stick is well shown, and 
two scenes in the hunt are depicted. In the foreground is a hunter who has succeeded 
in getting tolerably close to the kangaroos by creeping towards them behind the shadow 
of trees, and is just poising his spear for the fatal throw. The reader will note the 
curious bone ornament which passes through the septum of the nose, and gives such t 
curious character to the face. In the background is another hunter, who has beeo 
obliged to have recourse to the bough-screen, behind which he is hiding himself like the 
soldiers in " Macbeth,'* while the unsuspecting kangaroos are quietly feeding within eaqr 
range. One of them has taken alarm, and is sitting upright to look about it, just as tlie 
squirrel will do while it is feeding on the ground. 

The reader will now see the absolute necessity of an accurate aim in the thrower — an 
accomplishment which to me is a practical mystery. I can hurl the spear to a consider- 
able distance by means of the throw-stick, but the aim is quite another business, the 
spear seeming to take an independent course of its own without the least reference to the 
wishes of the thrower. Yet the Australian is so good a marksman that he can make 
good practice at a man at the distance of eighty or ninety yards, making due allowanee 
for the wind, and calculating the curve described by the spear with wonderful accuracy ; 
while at a short distance his eye and hand are equally true, and he will transfix a 
kangaroo at twenty or thirty yards as certainly as it could be shot by an experienced 
rifleman. 

In some parts of Australia the natives use the bow and arrow; but the employment of 
such weapons seems to belong chiefly to the inhabitants of the extreme north. There aie 
in my collection specimens of bows and arrows brought from Cape York, which in their 
way are really admirable weapons, and would do credit to the archers of Polynesia. The 
bow is more than six feet long, and is made from the male, i. e. the solid, bamboo. It is 
very stifi; and a powerful as well as a practised arm is needed to bend it properly. 

Like the spear-shaft, this bow is greatly subject to being worm-eaten. My own 
specimen is so honeycombed by these tiny borers that when it arrived a little heap of 
yellow powder fell to the ground wherever the bow was set, and, if it were sharply 
struck, a cloud of the same powder came from it. Fortunately, the same looseness « 
texture which enabled the beetle to make such havoc served also to conduct the poisoned 
spirit which I injected into the holes ; and now the ravages have ceased, and not the moat 
voracious insect in existence can touch the weapon. 

The string is very simply made, being nothing but a piece of rattan split to the 
required thickness. Perhaps the most ingenious part of this bow is the manner in which 
the loop is made. Although unacquainted with the simple yet efiective bowstring knot^ 
which is so well known to our archers, and which would not suit the stiff and hank 
rattan, the native has invented a knot which is quite as efficacious, and is managed on tfaa 
same principle of taking several turns, with the cord round itself just below the loop. In 
order to give the rattan the needful flexibility it has been beaten so as to separate it 
into fibres and break up the hard, flinty coating which surrounds it, and these fibres have 
then been twisted round and round into a sort of rude cord, guarded at the end with a 
wrapping of the same material in order to preserve it from unravelling. 

The arrows are suitable to the l)ow. They are variable in length, but all are mneh: 
longer than those which the English bowmen were accustomed to use, and, instead of 
being a " cloth yard " in length, the shortest measures three feet seven inches in lengtl^ 
while the longest is four feet eight inches from butt to point. They are without a vestige 
of feathering, and have no nock, so that the native archer is obliged to hold the arrow 
against the string with his thumb and finger, and cannot draw the bow with the fore and 
middle finger, as all good English archers have done ever since the bow was known. 

The shafts of the arrows are made of reed, and they are all headed with long spikes of 
some dark and heavy wood, which enable them to fly properly. Some of the heads 
plain, rounded spikes, but others ai*e elaborately barbed. One, for example, has a 
row of six barbs, each an inch in length, and another has one double barb, like that of 
the " broad arrow ** of England. Another has, instead of a barb, a smooth bidb, ending 
gradually in a spike, and serving no possible purpose, except perhaps that of ornament 



THE BOW AND ARROWS. 



47 



r has two of these bulbs ; and another, the longest of them all, has a slight bulb, 
n an attempt at carving. The pattern is of the veiy simplest character, but it is 
r piece of carving on all the weapons. The same arrow ia remarkable for having 
nt covered for some two inches with a sort of varnish, looking exactly like 
ing-wax, while a band of the same material encircles the head about six inches 
he shaft. The sailor who 

the weapons over told me 
3 red varnish was poison, 
oiibt exceedingly whether 

thing but ornament, 
end of the reed into which 
I is inserted is guarded by 
ing of rattan fibre, covered 
art of dark varnish, which, 
•, is not the black- boy gum 
io plentifully nsed in the 
:tare of other weapons. In 
stance the place of the 
g is taken by an inch or 
liting, wrought so beauti- 
ith the outside of the 
it into fiat strips scarcely 
lan ordinary twine, that 
.•3 the Polynesian origin 
weapons, and confirms me 
relief that the bow and 
e not indigenous to Aus- 
<nt have only been im- 
om New Guinea, and have 
le their way inland. The 
if Northern Australia have 
lently borrowed much from 
ia, as we shall see in the 
•f this narrative. 

size of the bow may be 
y reference to the ac- 
ying illustration, which 
its a native of the Gulf of 
aria, as he appeared while 
g in, or rather on, his 
and offering a shell for 
Tmj bow, however, is not so 
B my specimen, which is 

eight inches in length — 
nan must be a giant The 
wiU note the turtle scar 

aim, indicative of his northern origin, together with the broad scars across 
ast ; as also the peculiar mode of dressing the hair and heard in little twisted 

r ferocity displayed in the countenance of the man is very characteristic of the 
id; as we shall see when we come to the canoes and their occupants, the people are 
afty : mild and complaisant when they think themselves overmatched, insolent and 
ng when they fancy themselves superior, and tolerably sure to commit mtirder if 
dnk they can do so with impunity. The only mode of dealing with these people 
ofe one to adopt with all savages : i.t. never trust them, and never cheat them, 
ii^ to the dimensions of the bow and arrows, a full equipment of them is very 




NATIVE ARCHEa (GmV of 



48 AUSTllALIA, 

weighty, and, together with the other weapons which an Australian thinks it his doty to 
carry, must be no slight burden to the warrior. 

We now come to that most wonderful of all weapons, the boomerang. 

This is essentially the national weapon of Australia, and is found throughout tbs 
West country. As far as is known, it is peculiar to Australia, and, though curiooi 
missiles are found in other parts of the world, there is none which can be compared wiik 
the boomerang. 

On one of the old Egyptian monuments there is a figui-e of a bird-catcher in a cano8i 
He is assisted by a cat whom he has taught to catch prey for him, and, as the birds fly out 
of the reeds among which he is pushing his canoe, he is hurling at them a curved misail^ 
which some persons have thought to be the boomerang. I cannot, however, see that thai 
is the slightest reason for such a supposition. 

No weapon in the least like the boomerang is at present found in any part of Abki^ 
and, as far as I know, there is no example of a really efficient weapon having entirely dis- 
appeared from a whole continent. The harpoon with which the Egyptians of old kilkd, 
the hippopotamus is used at the present day without the least alteration ; the net is used 
for catching fish in the same manner ; the spear and shield of the Egyptian infantry vew 
identical in shape with those of the Kanemboo soldier, a portrait of whom may be seei 
in Vol. I. p. 694 ; the bow and arrow still survive ; and even the whip with which the 
Egyptian taskmtisters beat their Jewish servants is the " klioorbash " with which tlie 
Nubian of the present day beats his slave. 

In all probability, the curved weapon which the bird-catcher holds in his hand, and i 
which he is about to throw, is nothing more than a short club, analogous to the knob-j 
kerry of the Kaffir, and having no returning power. 

Varying slightly in some of its details, the boomerang is identical in principle wherever j 
it is made. It is a flattish curved piece of wood, various examples of which may be aeea 
in the illustration on the following page ; and neither by its shape nor material doea ifc 
give the least idea of its wonderful powers. 

The material of which the boomerang (or bommereng, as the word is sometimes PBft-j 
dered) is made is almost invariably that of the gum-tree, which is heavy, hard, and tonj^ - 
and is able to sustain a tolerably severe shock without breaking. It is slightly convex oft 
the upper surface, and fiat below, and is always thickest in the middle, being sciapel 
away towards the edges, which eire moderately sharp, especially the outer edga It is luel 
as a missile, and it is one of the strangest weapons that ever was invented. 

In the old fairy tales, with wliich we are more or less acquainted, one of the strange 
gifts which is presented by the fairy to the hero is often a weapon of some wonderM 
power. Thus we have the sword of sharpness, which cut through everything at which it 
was aimed, and the coat of mail, wliich no weapon would pierce. It is a pity, by the wa]| 
that the sword and the coat never seem to have been tried against each other. Thnl 
there are arrows (in more modem tales modified into bullets) that always struck thai, 
mark, and so osl And in one of the highest flights of fairy lore we read of anowaiiiv 
always returned of their own accord to the archer. 

In Australia, however, we have, as an actual fact, a missile that can be thrown to a 
considerable distance, and which always returns to the thrower. By a peculiar mode of 
hurling it the weapon circles through the air, and then describes a circular course, faUing 
by the side of or behind the man who threw it. The mode of throwing is very simj^ 
in theory, and very difficult in practice. The weapon is grasped by the handle, which ii 
usually marked by a number of cross cuts, so as to give a finn hold, and the flat aide it 
kept downwards. Then, with a quick and sharp fling, the boomerang is hurled, the hand 
at the same time being drawn back, so as to make the weapon revolve with extreme 
rapidity. A billiard-player will understand the sort of movement when told that it is on 
the same principle as the " screw-back " stroke at billiards. The weapon must be flvf 
with great force, or it will not perform its evolutions properly. 

If the reader would like to practise throwing the boomerang, let me recommend hia^ 
in the first place, to procure a genuine weapon, and not an English imitation thereof euolt 
as is generally sold at the toy-^ops. He should then go alone into a large fidd, wheie 



THE BOOMEEANG. 49 

le ground is tolerably soft and there are no large stones about^ and then stand facing the 
ind. Having grasped it as described, he should mark with his eye a spot on the ground 
; the distance of forty yards or so, and hurl the boomerang at it. Should he thiow it 
ghtly, the weapon will at first look as if it were going to strike the ground ; but, instead 
I doing so, it will shoot off at a greater or less angle, according to circumstances, and will 
use high into the air, circling round with gradually diminishing force, until it falls to the 
round. Shoidd sufficient force have been imparted to it, the boomerang will fall some 
ight or ten yards behind the thrower. 

It is necessaiy that the learner should be alone, or at least have only an instructor 
rith him, when he practises this art, as the boomerang will, in inexperienced hands, take 
U kinds of strange courses, and will, in all probability, swerve from its line, and strike 
me of the spectators ; and the force with which a boomerang can strike is almost incre- 
libla I have seen a dog killed on the spot, its body being nearly cut in two by the 
xwmerang as it feU ; and I once saw a brass spur struck clean off the heel of an incautious 
ipectator, who ran across the path of the weapon. 

It is necessary that he choose a soft as well as spacious field, as the boomerang has a 
pecial knack of selecting the hardest spots on which to fall, and if it can find a large 
(tone is sure to strike it, and so break itself to pieces. And if there are trees in t£e 
fay, it will get among the boughs, perhaps smash itself, certainly damage itself, and 
^bably stick among the branches. 

It is necessary that the learner should throw against the wind, as, if the boomerang is 
thrown with the wind, it does not think of coming back again, but sails on as if it never 
meant to stop, and is sure to reach a wonderful distance before it falls. 

Nearly thirty years ago, I lost a boomerang by this very error. In company with some 
of my schoolfellows, I was throwing the weapon for their amusement, when one of them 
matched it up, turned round, and threw it with all his force in the direction of the wind. 
The distance to which the weapon travelled I am afraid to mention, lest it should not be 
believed The ground in that neighbourhood is composed of successive undulations of 
hill and vale, and we saw the boomerang cross two of the valleys, and at last disappear 
into a grove of lime-trees that edged the churchyard. 

In vain we sought for the weapon, and it was not found until four years afterwards, 
when a plumber, who had been sent to repair the roof of the church, found it sticking in 
the leads. So it had first traversed that extraordinary distance, had then cut clean 
through the foliage of a lime-tree, and lastly had sufficient force to stick into the leaden 
roofing of a church. The boomerang was brought down half decayed, and wrenched out 
of its proper form by the shock. 

Should the reader wish to learn the use of the weapon, he should watch a native throw 
il The attitude of the man as he hurls the boomerang is singularly gracefuL 

Holding three or four of the weapons in his left hand, he draws out one at random 
with his right, while his eyes are fixed on the object which he desires to hit, or the spot 
to which the weapon has to travel Balancing the boomerang for a moment in his hand, 
he suddenly steps a pace or two forward, and with a quick, sharp, almost angry stroke, 
laonches his weapon into the air. 

Should he desire to bring the boomerang back again, he has two modes of throwing. 
In the one mode, he flings it high in the air, into which it mounts to a wonderful height, 
ending the while with a bold, vigorous sweep, that reminds the observer of the grand 
ffight of the eagle or the buzzard. It flies on until it has reached a spot behind the thrower, 
then all life seems suddenly to die out of it ; it collapses, so to speak, like a bird shot on 
the wing, topples over and over, and falls to the ground. 

There is another mode of throwing the returning boomerang which is even more 
lemarkable. The thrower, instead of aiming high in the air, marks out a spot on the 
ground some thirty or forty yards in advance, and hurls the boomerang at it. The weapon 
strikes the ground, and instead of being smashed to pieces, as might be thought from the 
violence of ttie stroke, it springs from the ground Antseus-like, seeming to attain new vigour 
hf its contact with the earth. It flies up as if it had been shot fi-om the ground by a 
eitapult ; and, taking a comparatively low elevation, performs the most curious evolutions, 

voL.n. £ 



60 



AUSTRALIA. 



Thirling so rapidly that it looks like a semi-transparent disc with an opaque centre, a 
directing its course in an erratic manner that is very alarming to those who are u 
accustomed to it I have seen it execute all its manceuvrea within seven or eight fi 
from the ground, hissing as it passed through the air with a strangely menacing soui 
and, when it finally came to the groin 
leaping aloDg aa if it were a living creatun 
We will now examine the various shai 
of hoomerangs, aa seen in the accompanyi 
illustration. Some of the specimens i 
taken from the British Museum, some fri 
the collection of Colonel Lane Fox, some fn 
my own, and the rest are drawn by Mr. Anj 
from specimens obtained in the count 
I have had them brought together, so that t 
reader may see how the hoomerang has be 
gradually raodified out of the clnb. 

In the lower division, fig. 4 is the shi 
pointed stick which may either answer t 
purpose of a miniature club, a dagger, or 
instrument to he used in the ascent of tre 
Just below it is a club or waddy, with 
rounded head, and at fig, 6 the head has be 
developed into a point, and rather fiatteni 
At fig. 7 is one of the angular clubs whi 
have already been described, only much fiati 
than those which have been figured. Ni 





BOOMERANGS AND CLUBS. 



if the reader will refer to the upper division, and look at figs. 1 and 2, he will see t 
clnbs which are remarkable for having not only the knob, but the whole of the ham 
flattened, and the curve of the head extended to the handle. 

The transition &om thia clnb to the boomerang is simple enongh, and, indeed, we hi 



CATCHING THE CORMORANT. 51 

m example (fig. 1 in the lower division) of a weapon which looks like an ordinary 
)oomeTang, but is in fact a club, and is used for hand-to-hand combat. 

These figures show pretty clearly the progressive structure of the boomerang. The 
lattened dubs were probably made from necessity, the native not being able to find 
I suitable piece of wood, and taking the best that he could get. If, then, one of these 
ilubs were, on the spur of the moment, hurled at an object, the superior value which this 
latness conferred upon it as a missile would be evident, as well as the curved course 
rhich it would take through the air. The native, ever quick to note anything which 
xrald increase the power of his weapons, would be sure to notice this latter peculiarity, 
ind to perceive the valuable uses to which it could be turned. He would therefore try 
rarious forms of flattened missiles, untU he at last reached the true boomerang. 

The strangest point about the boomerang is, that the curve is not uniform, and, in 
iet, scarcely any two specimens have precisely the same curve. Some have the curve 
» diarp that it almost deserves the name of angle, for an example of which see fig. 3 in 
he upper division. Others, as in fig. 4, have the curve very slight ; while others, as in 
ig. 2 of the lower division, have a tendency to a double curve, and there is a specimen 
in the British Museum in which the double curve is very boldly marked. The best and 
tjpical form of boomerang is, however, that which is shown at fig. 3 of the lower 
iivision. The specimen which is there represented was made on the banks of the river 
Darling. 

The natives can do almost anytliing with the boomerang, and the circuitous course 
which it adopts is rendered its most useful characteristic. Many a hunter has wished 
that he only possessed that invaluable weapon, a gun which would shoot round a comer, 
and just such a weapon does the Australian find in his boomerang. If, for example, he 
dioold see a kangaroo in such a position that he cannot come within the range of a spear 
.without showing himself and alarming the animal, or say, for example, that it is sheltered 
ftom a direct attack by the trunk of a tree, he will steal as near as he can without dis- 
turbing the animal, and then will throw his boomerang in such a manner that it circles 
roimd the tree, and strikes the animal at which it is aimed. 

That such precision should be obtained with so curious a weapon seems rather re- 
markable, but those of my readers who are accustomed to play at bowls will call to mind 
the enormous power which is given to them by the " bias," or weighted side of the bowl, 
and the bold curves which they can force the missile to execute, when they wish to send 
the bowl round a number of obstacles which are in its way. The boomerang is used as 
a sort of aerial bowl, with the advantage that the expert thrower is able to alter the bias 
at will, and to make the weapon describe almost any curve that he chooses. 

It is even said that, in case there should be obstacles which prevent the boomerang 
from passing roimd the tree, the native has the power of throwing it so that it strikes 
the ^^nround in front of the tree, and then, by the force of the throw, leaps over the top of 
the branches, and descends upon the object at which it is thrown. 

On page 52 is shown a scene on the river Murray, in which the natives are 
drawn as they appear when catching the shag, a species of cormorant, which is found 
there in great numbers. They capture these birds in various ways, sometimes by climbing 
at night the trees on which they roost, and seizing them, getting severely bitten, by 
the way, on their naked limbs and bodies. They have also a very ingenious mode of 
planting sticks in the bed of the river, so that they project above the surface, and form 
convenient resting-places for the birds. Fatigued with diving, the cormorants are sure 
to perch upon them ; and as they are dozing while digesting their meal of fish, the native 
svims gently up, and suddenly catches them by the wings, and drags them under water. 
He always breaks the neck of the bird at once. 

They are so wonderfully skilful in the water, that when pelicans are swimming 
unsuspectingly on the surface, the natives approach silently, dive under them, seize the 
tods by the legs, jerk them under water, and break both the wings and legs so rapidly 
that the unfortunate birds have no chance of escape. 

Sometimes, as shown in the illustration, the natives use their boomerangs and clubs, 
b»ck the birds ofif the branches on which they are roosting, and secure them before they 

E 2 



52 



AUSTRALIA. 



have recovered from the stunning blow of the weapon. When approachmg connoiaiitB and I 
other aquatic birds, the native haa a very ingenious plan of digguifiing himselC He gathen^ 
a bunch of weeds, ties it on his head, and slips quietly into the water, kwping his whole 
body immersed, and only allowing the artificial covering to be seen. The bird, being i 
quite accustomed to see patches of weeds floating along the water, takes no notice of n . 
familiar an object, and so allows the disguised man to come within easy reach. 

To return to the boomerang. The reader may readily have imagined that the mann- i 
facture of so remarkable an implement is not a veiy easy one. The various points whid J 




CATCHISG TUB CORMORANT. 



constitute the excellence of a boomerang arc so slight that there is scarcely a European 
who oan see them, especially as the shape, size, and weight of the weapon differ so mndi 
according to the locality in which it is made. Tlie native, when employed in making a 
boomerang, often spends many days over it, not only on account of the very imperiect 
tools which be possesses, but by reason of the minute care which is required in the 
manufacture of a good weapon. 

Day after day he may be seen with the boomerang in his hand, chipping at it slowly 
and circumspectly, and becoming more and more careful as it approaches completioa 
When he haa settled the curve, and nearly flattened it to ita proper thickness, he scarcely 
makes three or four strokes without balancing the weapon in his hand, looking carefully 
along the edges, and making movements as if he were about to throw it The last few. 
chips aeem to exercise a wonderful effect on the powera of the weapon, and about them 
the native ia exceedingly fastidious. 

Yet, with alt this care, the weapon is a very rough one, and the marks of the flint sz6 
an left without even an attempt to amooth them. In a well-used boomerang Uie pro- 



THE SHIELD. 53 

jecting edges of the grooves made by various cuts and chips become quite polished by 
friction, while the sunken portion is left rough. In one fine specimen in my possession 
the manufacturer has taken a curious advantage of tliese grooves. Besides marking the 
handle end by covering it with cross-scorings as has already been described, he has filled 
the grooves with the red ochre of which the Australian is so fond, and for some eight 
inches the remains of the red paint are visible in almost every groove. 

So delicate is the operation of boomerang-making, that some men, natives though they 
be, cannot turn out a really good weapon, wliile others are celebrated for their skill, and 
cnn dispose of their weapons as fast as they make them. One of the native " kings " 
was a well-known boomerang-maker, and his weapons were widely distributed among the 
Datives, who knew his handiwork as an artist knows the touch of a celebrated painter. 
To this skill, and the comparative wealth which its exercise brought him, the king in 
question owed the principal part of his authority. 

A fitir idea of the size and weight of the boomerang may be gained by the measure- 
ments of the weapon which has just been mentioned. It is two feet nine inches long 
when measured with the curve, and two feet six inches from tip to tip. It is exactly two 
inches in width, only narrowing at the tips, and its weight is exactly eleven ounces. This, 
by the way, is a war boomerang, and is shaped like that which is shown at page 50, fig. 3, 
b the lower division. Another specimen, which is of about the same weight, is shaped 
like that of fig. 3 of the upper division. It measures two feet five inches along the curve, 
two feet one inch from tip to tip, and is three inches in width in the middle, diminishing 
gndually towards the tips. 

Iir order to enable them to ward off these various missiles, the natives are armed with 
ishidd, which varies exceedingly in shape and dimensions, and, indeed, in some places is 
K unlike a shield, and apparently so inadequate to the office of pi'otecting the body, that 
vhen strangers come to visit my collection I often have much difficulty in persuading 
them that such strange-looking objects can by any possibility be shields. As there is so 
zrett a Tariety in the shields, I have collected together a number of examples, which, I 
bdieve, comprise every form of shield used throughout Australia. Two of them are from 
ipedmena in my own collection, several from that of Colonel Lane Fox, others are drawn 
Tom examples in the British Museum, and the rest were sketched by Mr. Angas in the 
xHine of hi8 travels through Australia. 

Am a general fact, the shield is very solid and heavy, and in some cases looks much 
Doie like a clnb with which a man can be knocked down, than a shield whereby he can 
« saTed from a blow, several of them having sharp edges as if for the purpose of inflicting 
njmy. 

If the reader will look at the upper row of shields on page 55, he will see that figs. 2 and 3 
exhibit two views of the same shield. This is one of the commonest forms of the weapon, 
md is found throughout a considerable portion of Western Australia. It is cut out of a 
!oUd piece of the ever-useful gum-tree, and is in consequence very hard and very heavy. 
\s may be seen by reference to the illustration, the form of the shield is somewhat trian- 
n>lar, the face which forms the front of the weapon being slightly rounded, and the 
bndle being formed by cutting through the edge on which the other two faces converge. 
ITie handle is very small, and could scarcely be used by an ordinary European, though it 
is ampkly ^wide enough for the small and delicate-looking hand of the Australian native. 
Mv own is a small hand, but is yet too large to hold the Australian shield comfortably. 

The reader will see that by this mode of forming the handle the wrist has great play, 
and can turn the shield from side to side with the slightest movement of the hand. This 
faculty is very useful, especially when the instrument is used for warding off the spear or 
th«» club, weapons which need only to be just turned aside in order to guide them away 
from the body. 

<)ne of these shields in my own collection is a very fine example of the instniment, 
and its dimensions will serve to guide the reader as to the usual form, size, and weight of 
w Australian shield. It measures exactly two feet seven inches in length, and is five 
inches wide at the middle, which is the broadest part. The width of the hole which 



AUSTRALIA. 

receives the hand is three inches and three-eighths, and the weight of the shield is rather 
more than three pounds. 

The extraordinary weight of the shield is needed in order to enable it to resist the 
shock of the boomerang, the force of which may be estimated by its weight, eleven 
ounces, multiplied by the force with which it is hurled. This terrible weapon cannot be 
merely turned aside, like the spear or the waddy, and often seems to receive an additional 
impulse from striking any object, as the reader may see by reference to page 49, in which 
the mode of throwing the boomerang is described. A boomerang must be stopped, and 
not merely parried, and moreover, if it be not stopped properly, it twists round the shield, 
and with one of its revolving ends inflicts a wound on the careless warrior. 

Even if it be met with the shield and stopped, it is apt to break, and the two halves to 
converge upon the body. The very fragments of the boomerang seem able to inflict almost 
as much injury as the entire weapon; and, in one of the skirmishes to which the natives 
are so addicted, a man was seen to fall to the ground with his body cut completely open 
by a broken boomerang. 

It is in warding off the boomerang, therefore, that the chief skill of the Australian is 
shown. When he sees the weapon is pursuing a course which will bring it to him, he 
steps forward so as to meet it ; and as the boomerang clashes against his shield, he gives 
the latter a rapid turn with the wrist. If this manoeuvre be properly executed, the 
boomerang breaks to pieces, and the fragments are struck apart by the movement of the 
shield. 

Perhaps some of my readers may remember that " Dick-a-dick," the very popular 
member of the Australian cricketers who came to England in 18G8, among other exhibi- 
tions of his quickness of eye and hand, allowed himself to be pelted with cricket-balls, at 
a distance of fifteen yards, having nothing wherewith to protect himself but the shield and 
the leowal, or angular club, the former being used to shield the body, and the latter to guard 
the legs. The force and accuracy with wliicli a practised cricketer can throw the ball are^ 
familiar to all Englishmen, and it was really wonderful to see a man, with no clothes' 
but a skin-tight elastic dress, with a piece of wood five inches wide in his left hand, andt 
club in his right, quietly stand against a positive rain of cricket-balls as long as any one 
liked to throw at him, and come out of the ordeal unscathed. 

Not the least surprising part of the performance was the coolness with which lift 
treated the whole affair, and the almost instinctive knowledge that he seemed to poeaesB 
respecting the precise destination of each ball. If a ball went straight at his body or head, 
it was met and blocked by the shield ; if it were hurled at his legs, the club knocked it 
aside. As to those which were sure not to hit him, he treated them with contemptoooi 
indifference, just moving his head a little on one side to allow the ball to pass, whibh 
absolutely rutiled his hair as it shot by, or lifting one arm to allow a ball to pass betwesft 
the limb and his body, or, if it were aimed but an inch wide of him, taking no notioe ofl 
it whatever. ] 

The shield which he used with such skill was the same kind as that which haa jllit| 
been described, and was probably selected because its weight enabled it to block the bilM 
without the hand that held it feeling the shock. 

To all appearances, the natives expend much more labour upon the shield than upon 
the boomerang, the real reason, however, being that much ornament would injure the 
boomerang, but can have no injurious effect upon the shield. By reference to the illiM- 
tration, the reader will see that the face of the shield is covered with ornament, which, 
simple in principle, is elaborate in detail 

There is a specimen in my collection which is ornamented to a very great extent on 
its face, the sides and the handle being perfectly plain. Like the specimen which is 
shown in the illustration, my own shield has a number of lines drawn transversely in 
bands, which, however, are seven instead of five in number. Each band is composed of 
three zigzag grooves, and each groove has been filled with red ochre. The space between 
is filled in with a double zigzag pattern, and the effect of all these lines, simple as thqr 
axe, is perfectly artistic and consistent. 

The pattern, by the way, is one that seems common to all savage races of men, wherevefl 



THE SHIELD. 55 

p be found, and is to be seen on weapons made l^ the ancient races now long 
'a,y, aznong the Kaffir tribes of Soutb AMca, the cannibal tribes of Central Weatetn 





Afiica, the inhabitants of the t 
Polyuesian islands, the savages of the 
extreme" north and extreme south of 
America, and the natives of the great 
contiuent of Australia. 

In the specimen shown on page 
57, the grooves which form the cross- 
bars have been filled with the ted 
paiut to which allusion has several 
times been made. 

At fig. 7 is seen a shield also made 
of solid wood, in which the triangular 
form has been developed in a very 
curious manner into a quadrangular 
shape. The handle is made in the 
same manner as that of the former 
shield, i.e. by cutting through two 
of the faces of the triangle, while the 
front of the shield, instead of being a 
tolerably round &ce, is flattened out 
into a sharp edge. It is scarcely pos- 
sible to imagine any instrument that 
looks less like a shield than does this 
curious weapon, which seems to have 
been made for the express purpose of 
presenting as small a surface as pos- 
sible to the enemy. 

The fact is, however, that the 
Southern Australian who uses these 
shields has not to defend himself 
■gainst arrows, from which a man can 



66 



AUSTRALIA. 



only be defended by concealing his body behind shelter which is proof against them : he 
has only to guard against the spear and boomerang, and occasionaUy the miasile club, all 
which weapons he can turn aside with the narrow shield that has been described. 

One of these shielda in my collection is two feet seven inches in length, rather mon 
than six inches in width, and barely three inches thick in the middle. Ita weight ia jmt 
two pounds. Such a weapon seems much more like a club than a shield, and indeed, if 
held by one end, its sharp edge might be used with great effect upon the head of an 
enemy. Like most Australian shields, it is covered wi^ a pattern of the same character 
as that which has already been mentioned, and it has been so thoroughly painted witi 
ochre that it is of a reddish mahogany coloiir, and the real hue of the wood can a^ 
be seen by scraping off some of the stained surface, j 

The name for this kind of shield is Tamarang, and it is much used in dances, in which I 
it is struck at regular intervals with the waddy. ] 

At the foot of page 55 may be seen the front and back view of a shield which is mnch j 
more solid than either of those which have been described. It ia drawn from a specimen i 
in the British Museum. The manufacturer has evidently found the labour of chipping the j 
wood too much for him, and has accordingly made much use of fire, forming his shield b; ' 
alternate charring and scraping. The handle is rather curiously made by cutting two 
deep holes side by side in the back of the shield, the piece of wood between them being 





rounded into a handle. As is tiie case with most of the shields, the handle is a very small 
one. The face of the shield is much wider than either of those which have been noticed* 
and is very slightly rounded. It is ornamented with carved grooves, but rough usage h«* 
obliterated most of them, and the whole implement is as rough and unsightly an article 
as can well be imagined, in spite of the labour which has been bestowed upon it 

Another of these shields, from Cobnel Lane Fox's collection, may be seen on \ito 
left hand of the above illustration. In order to show the mann^ in which the handltf 
is formed, and the thickness of the wood, a section of the shield, taken across its centn* 
is also given. 



THE SHIELD. 



57 



We now come to another class of shield, made of bark, and going by the title of 
[nlabakka. Shields in general are called by the name of Hieleman. Some of these bark 
iields are of considerable size, and are so wide in the middle that, when the owner 
X)iiche8 behind them, they protect the greater part of his body. As the comparatively 
lin material of which they are composed prevents the handle from being made by cutting 
ito the shield itself, the native is obliged to make the handle separately, and fasten it 
) the shield by various methods. 

The commonest mode of fixing the handle to a Mulabakka shield is s^n at figs. 4 
ad 5 on page 55, which exhibit the front and profile views of the same shield. Another 
fnlabakka is shown at fig. 6, and two others at figs. 2 and 3 on page 56. The 
ight-hand shield is remarkable for its boldly-curved form, this shape being probably 
toe to the natural curve of the bark which furnished the implement. The centre shield 
xhibits a form of handle which is unlike either of the others, and which, indeed, looks as 
fit might have been made by a civilized carpenter. 

The faces of all the Mulabakka shields are covered with ornamented patterns, mostly 
n the usual zigzag principle, but some having a pattern in which curves form the chief 
element 




ORNAMENTED SHn&LD. (5m p. 55. 



CHAPTER V. 



AUSTRALIA.— Con^inu«;. 



WAR AND DANCES. 



RKAL WAR UNKNOWN TO THK AUSTRALIANS FEUDS AND THE CAUSES OP THEM — A SAVAGE TOUIUrA- 

MENT — VENGEANCE FOR DEATH THE TROPHY OP VICTORY AUSTRALIAN VENDETTA — HRl- 

SIGNALS DEATH OF TARMEENIA ORDEAL OP BATTLE CANNIBALISM AS AN ADJUNCT OP WIB— 

DANCES OP THE ABORIGINES THE KURI DANCE AND ITS STRANGE ACCOMPANIMENTS —TBI 

PALTI DANCE THE CONCLUDING FIGURE DANCE OF THE PARNKALLA TRIBE— ORDINIBT 

CORROBBOREES — THE KANGAROO DANCE — TASMANIAN DANCES. 

The mention of these various weapons naturally leads us to warfare ; and that they aie 
intended for that purpose the existence of the shields is a proof. Offensive weapons, such 
as the spear and the club, may be used merely for killing game ; but the shield can only 
be employed to defend the body from the weapons of an enemy. 

War, however, as we understand the word, is unknown among the Australians. They 
have not the intellect nor the organization for it, and so we have the curious fact of 
skilled waiTiors who never saw a battle. No single tribe is large enough to take one 
side in a real battle ; and, even supposing it to possess sufficient numbers, there is no 
spirit of discipline by means of which a force could be gathered, kept together, or directed, 
even if it were assembled. 

Yet, though real war is unknown, the Australian natives are continually fighting, and 
almost every tribe is at feud with its neighbour. The cause of quarrel with them is 
almost invariably the possession of some territory. By a sori; of tacit arrangement, the 
various tribes have settled themselves in certain districts ; and, although they are great 
wanderers, yet they consider themselves the rightful owners of their own district. 

It mostly happens, however, that members of one tribe trespass on the district of 
another, especially if it be one in which game of any kind is plentiful. And sometimes^ 
when a tribe has gone off on a travelling expedition, another tribe will settle themselves 
in the vacated district ; so that, when the rightful owners of the soil return, there is sure 
to be a quarrel. The matter is usually settled by a skirmish, which bears some resem- 
blance to the TniUe of ancient chivaliy, and is conducted according to well -understood 
regulations. 

The aggrieved tribe sends a challenge to the offenders, the challenger in question 
bearing a bunch of emu's feathers tied on the top of a spear. At daybreak next morning 
the warriors array themselves for battle, painting their bodies in various colours, so as to 
make themselves look as much like demons, and as much unlike men, as possible, laying 
aside all clothing, and arranging their various weapons for the fight 

^Having placed themselves in battle array, at some little distance from each other, 
the opposite sides begin to revile each other in quite a Homeric manner, taunting 
their antagonists with cowardice and want of skill in their weapons, and boasting of the 



FEUDS AND THEIE CAUSES. 59 

jrreat deeds which they are about to do. When, by means of interposing these taunts with 
shouts^and yells, dancing from one foot to the other, quivering and poising their spears, and 
other mechanical modes of exciting themselves, they have worked themselves up to the 
requisite pitch of fury, they begin to throw the spears, and the combat becomes general. 

Confused as it appears, it is, however, arranged with a sort of order. Each warrior 
selects his antagonist ; so that the fight is, in fact, a series of duels rather than a battle, 
and the whole business bears a curious resemblance to the mode of fighting in the ancient 
days of Troy. 

Generally the combatants stand in rather scattered lines, or, as we should say, in wide 
skiraiishing order. The gestures with which they try to irritate their opponents are very 
curious, and often grotesque ; the chief object being apparently to induce the antagonist to 
throw the first spear. Sometimes they stand with their feet very widely apart, and their 
knees straight, after the manner which will be seen in the illustration of the native 
dances. While so standing, they communicate a peculiar quivering movement to the 
legs, and pretend to offer themselves as fair marks. Sometimes they turn their backs on 
their adversary, and challenge him to throw at them ; or they drop on a hand and knee 
for the same purpose. 

Mr. M*Gillivray remarked that t\vo spearmen never throw at the same combatant ; 
huti even with this advantage, the skill of the warrior is amply tested, and it is sur- 
prising to see how, by the mere inflexion of the body, or the lifting a leg or arm, they 
lYoid a spear which otherwise must have wounded them. While the fight is going on, 
the women and children remain in the bush, watching the combat, and uttering a sort of 
▼aihng chant, rising and falling in regular cadence. 

Sometimes the fight is a very bloody one, though the general rule is, that when one 
man is killed the battle ceases, the tribe to which the dead man belonged being considered 
as having been worsted. It might be thought that a battle conducted on such principles 
▼ould be of very short duration ; but the Australian warriors are so skilful in warding off 
Uie weapons of their antagonists that they often fight for a considerable time before a man 
is killed. It must be remembered, too, that the Australian natives can endure, without 
seeming to be much the worse for them, wounds which would kill a European at once. 

In such a skirmish, however, much blood is spilt, even though only one man be 
actually killed ; for the barbed spears and sharp-edged boomerangs inflict terrible wounds, 
and often cripple the wounded man for life. 

Other causes beside the quarrel for territory may originate a feud between two tribes. 
One of these cases is a very curious one. 

A woman had been bitten by a snake ; but, as no blood flowed from the wound, it was 
thought that the snake was not a venomous one, and that there was no danger. However, 
the woman died in a few hours, and her death was the signal for a desperate war between 
two tribes. There seems to be but little connexion between the two events, but according 
to Australian ideas the feud was a justifiable one. 

The natives of the part of Australia where this event occurred have a curious idea 
concerning death. Should any one die without apparent cause, they think that the 
death is caused by a great bird called marralya, which comes secretly to the sick person, 
leizes him round the waist in his claws, and squeezes him to death. Now the marralya 
B not a real bird, but a magical one, being always a man belonging to a hostile tribe, who 
assumes the shape of the bird, and so fimls an opportunity of doing an injury to the tribe 
with which he is at feud. Having made up his mind that the snake which bit the woman 
was not a venomous one, her husband could not of course be expected to change his 
opinion, and so it was agreed upon that one of a neighbouring tribe with whom they were 
at feud must have become a marralya, and killed the woman. The usual challenge was 
the consequence, and fiom it came a series of bloody fights. 

Like most savage nations, the Australians mutilate their fallen enemies. Instead, 
however, of cutting off the scalp, or other trophy, they open the body, tear out the fat 
aljont the kidneys, and rub it over their own bodies. So general is this custom, that to 
"take fat " is a common paraphrase for killing an enemy ; and when two antagonists are 
opposed to each other, each is sure to boast that his antagonist shall furnish fat for him. 



60 AUSTRALIA. 

As far as can be learned, they have an idea that this practice endues the victor with the 
courage of the slain man in addition to his own ; and, as a reputation for being a warrior 
of prowess is the only distinction that a native Australian can achieve, it may be 
imagined that he is exceedingly anxious to secure such an aid to ambition. 

Not from deliberate cruelty, but from the utter thoughtlessness and disregard of 
inflicting pain which characterises all savages, the victorious warrior does not trouble 
himself to wait for the death of his enemy before taking his strange war-trophy. Should 
the man be entirely disabled it is enough for the Australian, who turns him on his back, 
opens his body with the quartz knife which has already been described, tears out the 
coveted prize, and rubs himself with it until his whole body and limbs shine as if they 
were burnished. Oftentimes it has happened that a wounded man has been thus treated, 
and has been doomed to see his conqueror adorn himself before his eyes. Putting aside 
any previous injury, such a wound as this is necessarily mortal ; but a man has been 
known to live for more than three days after receiving the iujuiy, so wonderfully stioog 
is the Australian constitution. 

Sometimes these feuds spread very widely, and last for a very long time. Before the 
declaration of war, the opposing tribes refrain from attacking each other, but, after thai 
declaration is once made, the greatest secrecy is often observed, and the warrior is valued 
the highest who contrives to kill his enemy without exposing himself to danger. Some- 
times there is a sort of wild chivalry about the Australians, mingled with much that is 
savage and revolting. A remarkable instance of these traits is recorded by Mt 
M'GiUivray. 

An old man had gone on a short expedition in his canoe, while the men of his tribe 
were engaged in catching turtle. He was watched by a party belonging to a hostile tribe, 
who followed and speared him. Leaving their spears in the body to indicate their 
identity, they returned to shore, and made a great fire by way of a challenge. Seeing 
the signal, and knowing that a column of thick smoke is almost alw^ays meant as a 
challenge, the men left their turtling, and, on finding that the old man was missing 
instituted a search after him. As soon as they discovered the body they lighted another 
fire to signify their acceptance of the challenge, and a party of them started off the 
same evening in order to inflict reprisals on the enemy. 

They soon came upon some natives who belonged to the inimical tribe, but who had 
not been concerned in the murder, and managed to kill the whole party, consisting rf 
four men, a woman, and a girL They cut off the heads of their victims, and returned 
with great exultation, shouting and blowing conch-shells to announce their victory. 

The heads were then cooked in an oven, and the eyes scooped out and eaten, together 
with portions of the cheeks. Only those who had been of the war-party were allowed to 
partake of this horrible feast. When it was over the victors began a dance, in which 
they worked themselves into a perfect frenzy, kicking the skulls over the ground, and 
indulging in all kinds of hideous antics. Afterwards the skulls were hung up on two 
cross sticks near the camp, and allowed to remain there undisturbed. 

Fire, by the way, is very largely used in making signals, which are understood all 
over the continent. A large fire, sending up a great column of smoke, is, as has already 
been mentioned, almost invariably a sign of defiance, and it is sometimes kindled daily 
until it is answered by another. If a man wishes to denote that he is in want of 
assistance, he lights a small fire, and, as soon as it sends up its little column of smoke, he 
extinguishes it suddenly by throwing earth on it. This is repeated until the required 
assistance arrives. 

Some years ago, when the character and habits of the natives were not known so 
well as they are now, many of the settlers were murdered by the natives, simply through 
their system of fire-signalling. One or two natives, generally old men or women, as 
causing least suspicion, and being entirely unarmed, would approach the farm or camp^ 
and hang about it for some days, asking for food, and cooking it at their oX^rn little fires. 

The white men had no idea that every fire that was lighted was a signal that was 
perfectly well understood by a force of armed men that was hoverinp about them under 
cover of the woods, nor that the little puffs of smoke which occasionally arose in the 



THE AUSTRALIAN VENDETTA 61 

distance were answers to the signals made by their treacherous guests. When the spies 
thouf^ht that their hosts were lulled into security, they made the battle-signal, and 
brought down the whole force upon the unsuspecting whites. 

The Australians are wonderfully clever actors. How well they can act honesty and 
practise theft has already been mentioned. They hare also a way of appearing to be 
unarmed, and yet having weapons ready to hand. They will come out of the bush, with 
green boughs in their hands as signs of peace, advance for some distance, and ostenta- 
tiously throw down their spears and other weapons. They then advance again, appsr 
lently xmarmed, but each man trailing a spear along the ground by means of his toes. 
As soon as they are within spear range, they pick up their weapons with their toes, 
which are nearly as flexible and useful as fingers, hurl them, and then retreat to the spot 
whae they had grounded their weapons. 

The Australians have a tenacious memory for injuries, and never lose a chance of 
leprisaL In 1849, some men belonging to the Badulega tribe had been spending two 
months on a Mendly visit to the natives of Miiralug. One of their hosts had married 
an Italia woman, and two of the brothers were staying with her. The Badulegas 
kappened to remember that several years before one of their own tribe had been insulted 
hf an Italega. So they killed the woman, and tried to kill her brothers also, but only 
Booceeded in murdering one of them. They started at once for their home, taking the 
kads as proofis of their victory, and thought that they had done a great and praise- 
vorthy action. 

A similar affair took place among some of the tribes of Port Essington. A Monobar 
native had been captured when thieving, and was imprisoned. He attempted to escape, 
and in so doing was shot by the sentinel on duty. By rights his family ought to have 
executed reprisals on a white man ; but they did not venture on such a step, and accord- 
ingly picked out a native who was on good terms with the white man, and killed him, 
USe friends of the murdered man immediately answered by killing a Monobar, and so the 
fend went on. In each case the victim was murdered while sleeping, a number of 
natives quietly surrounding him, and, after spearing him, beating him with their waddies 
into a shapeless mass. 

Should the cause of the feud be the unexplained death of a man or woman, the duty 
of vengeance belongs to the most formidable male warrior of the family. On such occa- 
aoos he will solemnly accept the office, adorn himself with the red war-paint, select his 
b«t weapons, and promise publicly not to return until he has killed a male of the 
inimical tribe. How pertinaciously the Australian will adhere to his bloody purpose may 
be seen from an anecdote related by Mr. Lloyd. 

He was startled one night by the furious barking of his dogs. On taking a lantern 
he found lying on the ground an old black named Tanneenia, covered with wounds in- 
licted by spears, and boomerangs, and waddies. He told his story in the strange broken 
English used by the natives. The gist of the story was, that he and his son were living 
in a hut, and the son had gone out to snare a bird for his father, who was ill. Presently 
a "bunf»ilcamey coolie," i.e, an enemy from another tribe, entered the hut and demanded, 
"Why did your son kill my wife ? I shall kill his father." Whereupon he drove his 
«pear into the old man's side, and was beating him to death, when he was disturbed 
if the return of his son. The young man, a singularly powerful native, knowing that 
Uf father would be certainly murdered outright if he remained in the hut, actually 
earned him more than four miles to Mr. Doyd's house, put him down in the yard, and 
kfthim. 

A hut was at once erected close to the house, and Tarmeenia was installed and 
attended to. He was very grateful, but was uneasy in his mind, begging that the constable 
flight visit his hut in his nightly rounds, " 'cos same bungilcarney coolie cum agin, and 
dia time too much kill 'im Tarmeenia." The alarm of the old man seemed rather absurd, 
taosaAenng the position of the hut, but it was fully justified. About three weeks after 
Tarmeenia had been placed in the hut, Mr. Lloyd was aroused at daybreak by a servant, 
^ said that the old black fellow had been burned to death. Dead he certainly was, 
«nd on examining the body two fresh wounds were seen, one by a spear just over the 



[ 



62 AUSTRALIA, 

heart, and the other a deep cut in the loins, through which the " bungilcamey 
torn the trophy of war. 

Occasionally a man who has offended against some native law has to engage in t 
of mimic warfare, but without the advantage of having weapons. Mr. Lloyd ment 
curious example of such an ordeal. 

"The only instance I ever witnessed of corporal punishment being inflic 
evidently, too, by some legal process — ^was upon the person of a fine sleek young 
who, having finished his morning's repast, rose in a dignified manner, and, casting h 
from his shoulders, strode with Mohican stoicism to the appointed spot, divested • 
shield, waddy, or otlier means of defence. Nor, when once placed, did he utter one 
or move a muscle of his graceful and well-moulded person, but with folded arm 
defiant attitude awaited the fatal ordeal. 

" A few minutes only elapsed when two equally agile savages, each armed witl 
spears and a boomerang, marched with stately gait to within sixty yards of the ci 
One weapon after another was hurled at the victim savage, with apparently fata] 
cision, but liis quick eye and wonderful activity set them all at defiance, with the € 
tion of the very last cast of a boomerang, which, taking an unusual course, seve 
piece of flesh from the shoulder-blade, equal in size to a crown-piece, as if sliced "v^ 
razor, and thus finished the affair." 

The lex talio7iis forms part of the Australian traditional law, and is sometimes 
cised after a rather ludicrous fashion. A young man had committed some slight of 
and was severely beaten by two natives, who broke his arm with a club, and lai 
head open with a fishing-spear. Considerable confusion took place, and at last the 
decided that the punishment was much in excess of the offence, and that, whe 
wounded man recovered, the two assailants were to offer their heads to him, so th 
might strike them a certain number of blows with his waddy. 

In the description of the intertribal feuds, it has been mentioned that the mei 
assisted in killing the victims of reprisal partook of the eyes and cheeks of the mui 
person. This leads us to examine the question of cannibalism, inasmuch as 
travellers have asserted that the Australians are cannibals and others denying s 
propensity as strongly. 

That the flesh of human beings is eaten by the Australians is an undeniable fact 
it must be remarked that such an act is often intended as a ceremonial, and not n 
as a means of allaying hunger or gratifying the palate. It has been ascertained that 
tribes who live along the Murray Eiver have been known to kill and eat children, n 
their flesh with that of the dog. This, however, only occurs in seasons of great sea 
and that the event was exceptional, and not customary, is evident from the faci 
a man was pointed out as having killed his children for food. Now it is plain tl 
cannibalism was the custom, such a man would not be sufficiently conspicuous 
specially mentioned. These tribes have a horrible custom of killing little boys f 
sake of their fat, with which they bait fish-hooks. 

Another example of cannibalism is described by Mr. Angas as occurring in New 
Wales. A lad had died, and his body was taken by several young men, who proc 
to the following remarkable ceremonies. They began by removing the skin, togethei 
the head, rolling it round a stake, and drying it over the fire. While this was being 
the parents, who had been uttering loud lamentations, took the flesh from the 
cooked, and ate it. The remainder of the body was distributed among the friends ( 
deceased, who carried away their portions on the points of their spears ; and the ski 
bones were kept by the parents, and always carried about in their wallets. 

It may seem strange that the mention of the weapons and mode of fighting s 
lead us naturally to the dances of the Australians. Such, however, is the case ; 
most of their dances weapons of some sort are introduced. The first which will be 
tioned is the Kuri dance, which was described to Mr. Angas by a friend who had freqi 
seen it This dance is peiformed by the natives of the Adelaide district It see 
have one point in common with the cotillon of Europe, namely, that it can be \ 



DANCES. 63 

ihortened, or lengthened, according to the caprice of the players ; so that if a spectator 
jec the Kuri dance performed six or seven times, he will never see the movements 
repeated in the same order. The following extract describes a single Kuri dance, and 
from it the reader may form his impressions of its general character : — 

" But first the dramatis persoruB must be introduced, and particularly described. The 
performers were divided into five distinct classes, the greater body comprising about 
hrenty-five young men, including five or six boys, painted and decorated as follows : in 
nudity, except the yoodna, which is made expressly for the occasion, with bunches of 
gam-leaves tied round the legs just above the knee, which, as they stamped about, made 
ft loud switching noise. In their hands they held a katta or vnrrij and some a few gum- 
kaves. The former were held at arm's length, and struck alternately with their legs as 
ihey stamped. They were painted, from each shoulder down to the hips, with five or six 
white stripes, rising from the breast; their faces also, with white perpendicular lines, 
making the most hideous appearance. These were the dancers. 

*" Next came two groups of women, about five or six in number, standing on the right 
Hid left of the dancers, merely taking the part of supernumeraries ; they were not painted, 
Imt had leaves in their hands, which they shook, and kept beating time with their feet 
during the whole performance, but never moved from the spot where they stood. 

" Next foDowed two remarkable characters, painted and decorated like the dancers, 
but with the addition of the palyertatta — a singular ornament made of two pieces of stick 
piit crosswise, and bound together by the mangna, in a spreading manner, having at the 
dtremities feathers opened, so as to set it oif to the best advantage. One had the 
pbftriaUa stick sideways upon his head, while the other, in the most wizard-like 
■amier, kept waving it to and fro before him, corresponding with the action of his head 
Indies. 

* Then followed a performer distinguished by a long spear, from the top of which 
ftlmnch of feathers hung suspended, and all down the spear the mangna was wound; he 
lidd tiie hoonteroo (spear and feathers) with both hands behind his back, but occasionaUy 
dtoed the position, and waved it to the right and left over the dancers. And last came 
the singers — ^two elderly men in their usual habiliments ; their musical instruments were 
the katta and wirri, on which they managed to beat a double note ; their song was one 
vn?aried, gabbling tone. 

" The night was mild ; the new moon shone with a faint light, casting a depth of 
Aade over the earth, which gave a sombre appearance to the surrounding scene that 
1^^ conduced to enhance the effect of the approaching play. In the distance, a black 
BMB oould be discerned under the gum-trees, whence occasionally a shout and a burst 
of flame arose. These were the performers dressing for the dance, and no one approached 
ttfan while thus occupied. 

" Two men, closely wrapped in their opossum-skins, noiselessly approached one of the 
wurlus, where the Kuri was to be performed, and commenced clearing a space for the 
lii^rs ; this done, they went back to the singers, but soon after returned, sat down, and 
began a peculiar harsh and monotonous tune, keeping time with a katta and a ivirt^ by 
nttling them together. All the natives of the different vjurlies flocked round the singers, 
and sat down in the form of a horseshoe, two or three rows deep. 

" By this time the dancers had moved in a compact body to within a short distance of 
fte spectators ; after standing for a few minutes in perfect silence, they answered the 
iagers by a singular deep shout simultaneously : twice this was done, and then the man 
rth the hxmteroo stepped out, his body leaning forward, and commenced with a regular 
stamp ; the two men with the palyertattas followed, stamping with great regularity, the 
ttst joining in : the regular and alternate stamp, the waving of the palyertatta to and fro, 
▼ith the loud switching noise of the gum-leaves, formed a scene highly characteristic of 
tbe Australian natives. In this style they approached the singers, the spectators every 
B0V and then shouting forth their applause. For some time they kept stamping in a 
body before the singers, which had an admirable effect, and did great credit to their 
fairmg attainments ; then one by one they turned round, and danced their way back to 
fte plaice they first started from, and sat down. The palyertatta and koonteroo men were 



64 



AUSTItALIA. 



the last who left, and as theae three singular beings stamped their way to the other 
dancers they made a very odd appearance. 

" The singing continued for a short time, and then pipes were lighted; shouts of 
applause ensued, and boisterous conversation followed. After resting about ten minata, 
the singers commenced again ; and soon after the dancers huddled together, and responded 
to the call by the peculiar shout already mentioned, and then performed the same fett 
over a^n — with this variation, that the palyertatta men brought up the rear, instead of 
leading the way. Four separate times these parts of the play were performed with tha 




THE KURI DANCa 



usual effect ; then followed the concluding one, as follows : after tramping up to ttl 
singers, the man with the koanteroo commenced a part which called forth unbonndad 
applause ; with his head and body inclined on one aide, his spear and feathers behind U 
Iwck, standing on the left leg, he beat time with the right foot, twitching his body ilk 
eye, and stamping with the greatest precision ; he remained a few minutes in this positioa 
and then suddenly turned round, stood on his right leg, and did the same once with Ul 
left foot. 

" In the meanwhile the two men with the mystic palyertatia kept waving their in 
stniments to and fro, corresponding with the motions of their heads and legs, and flu 
silent traiDpers performed their part equally well. The l-oonleroo man now sadden^ 
stopped, and, planting his spear in the ground, stood in a stooping position behind it; tw 
dancers stepped up, went through the same manoeuvre as the preceding party with im 
derful regularity, and then gave a final stamp, turned round, and grasped the spear IB I 



DIFFEEENT DANCES. 65 

stooping position, and ao on with atl the rest, until every dancer was brought to the spear, 
K fcirming & circular body. 

" The palyertatta men now performed the same movement on each side of this body, 
ucompouied with the perpetual motion of the head, leg, and arm, aud then went round 
ind round, and finally gave the arrival stamp, thrast in their arm, and grasped the 
[pear; at the same time all sunk on their knees and began to move away in a mass from 
^e singers, with a sort of grunting noise, while their bodies leaned and tossed to and 
fro : when they had got about ten or twelve yards they ceased, and, giving one long semi- 
gnmt or groan (after the manner of the red kangaroo, as they say), dispersed. 

"During the whole performance, the singing went on in one contimied strain, and, 
ifter the last act of the performera, the rattling accompaniment of the singing ceased, the 
straio died gradually away, and shouts and acclamations rent the air." 

lliare are many other dances among the Australians, There is, for example, the Frog- 
iaaab. The perfonners paint themselves after the usual grotesque manner, take their 
(rinw in their handE^ beat them together, and then squat down and jump after each other 
in dicles, imitating the movements of the frog. Then there is the emu-dance, in which 
iJl the g»:tui«s cfiiuist of imitation of emu-hunting, the man who enacts the part of the 
binl imitating its, voice 

bk Mine parts of Australia they have the canoe-dance, one of the most graceful of 
ttaie ptt fon u aDcefi. 

Both Dten and vomen take part in this dance, painting their bodies with white and 
ral fldne, and each famished with a stick which represents the paddle. They begin to 
iuve b^ atationing themselves in two lines, hut with tlie stick across their backs and held 
by the arms, while they move their feet alternately to the time of the song with which 
Ihe dance is accompanied. At a given signal they all bring the sticks to the front, and 
luild tliem 96 they do paddles, swaying themselves in r^ular time as if they were 
faVfihig in one of their light canoes. 

'" "" r dance, the object of which is not very certain^ is a great favourite with the 
ttives. The men, having previously decorated their bodies with stripes of red 

in a line, while the women are collected in a graup and beat time together. 

IW draoe OOnaists in stamping simultaneously with the left foot, and sbakiug the fingers 
i At aKteilded arms. This dance is called Pedeku. 
I^BB n K rather cmioos dance, or movement, with which thoy often conclude the 

SBQM of the evening. They sit cross-le^ed round their fire, beating time with 
■n and wiiris. Suddenly they all stretch out ttieir arms as if pouiting to some 
otgect^ lolling their eyes fearfully as they do so, and fiuiah by leaping on their feet 
1^ a Bmiiltaneoas yell that echoes for miles through the forest. 

In his splendid work on South Australia, Mr. Angas describes a rather curious dance 
performed by the Famkalla tribe, in wliich both sexes tiike part. Each man carries a 
belt made either of himian hair or opossum fur, holding one end in each hand, and keep- 
im the belt tightly strained. There is a slight variation in the mode of performing this 
duct, but the usual plan is for all the men to sit down, while a woman takes her place 
in the middla One of the men then dances up to her, jumping from side to side, and 
niring his arms in harmony with his movements. The woman begins jumping as her 
ptrteer approadies, and then they dance back again, when their place is taken by a 
fiah couple. 

Some persons have supposed that this dance is a religious ceremony, because it ia 
Mully held on clear moonlight evenings. Sometimes, however, it is performed during 
4e day-time. 

The commonest native dance, or " corrobboree," is that which is known as the Palti, 
ntd which is represented in the illustration on the following page. It is always danced by 
^ht, the fitful blaze of the fire being thought necessary to bring out all its beauties. 

Before beginning this dance, the performers prepare themselves by decorating their 

lodies in &ome grotesque style with wliite and scarlet paints, which contrast boldly with 

fte 'hitiing black of their skins. The favourite pattern is the skeleton, each rib being 

Bnifcd by a broad stripe of white paint, and a sinulai stripe run n ing down the breast and 

Ta.lL 9 



66 



AUSTRALIA. 



alon^r the legs aud arma. The face is painted in a similar fushioa. The effect produced 
by this strange pattern is a most stai-tling one. Illuminated only by the light of the fire, 
the black bodies and limbs are scarcely visible against the dark background, so that, u 
the performers paas backwards and forwards in the movements of the dance, they look 
exactly like a number of skeletons endued with life by magic powers. 

This effect is increased by the curious quivering of the legs, which are planted firmly 
on the ground, but to which the dancers are able to impart a rapid vibratory movemei^ 
from the knees upwards. The wirris, or clubs, are held in the bands as seen in di« 




illnstration, and at certain intervals they are brought o^er the head and clashed violent; 
together. The Palti as well as the Kuri danct, la conducted l)j a leider, who givea tb 
word of command for the dilfereut movements Some of the dancers increase their <A 
appearance by making a fillet from the fiont teeth of the kangaroo, and tying it nran 
their foreheada. 

Once in the year, the natives of some districts hive a very grand dance, colled th 
" cobbongo corrobboree," uv great mysterj danc(. Ihia d.intt. is performed by th 
natives of the far interior. An admirable account of this dance was published in th 
UluiUrattd London Netcn of October 3, 186li, and is here given. " The time selected to 
this great event ia eveiy twelftli moon, and during her declination. For several dqp 
previous a number of tribes whose territories adjoin one another congregate at a particuli 
spot, characterised by an immense mound of earth covered with ashea (known aniongi 
the white inhabitanta as 'a black's oven') and surrounded by plenty of 'couraway' a 
water holes. To this place they bring numbers of kangaroos, 'possums, emus, and wfl 



THE GREAT CORHOBBOREE 67 

ducks, and a large quantity of wild honey, together with a grass from the seed of which 
they make a sort of bread. 

" Upon the evening on which the ' corrobboree ' is celebrated, a number of old men 
(one from each tribe), called by the natives ' wammaroogo,' signifying medicine-men or 
chum-men, repair to the top of the mound, where, after lighting a fii*, they walked round 
it, muttering sentences and throwing into it portions of old charms which tliey have worn 
loimd their necks for the past twelve mouths. This is continued for about half an hour, 
■when they descend, each canying a fire-stick, which he places at the outskirts of the 
amp, and which ia supposed to prevent evil spirits approaching. As soon as this is 
over, during which a most profound silence is obsened by all, the men of the tribe pre- 
pue their toilet for the ' corrobboree,' daubing themselves over with chalk, red ochre, 
md &L 

"While the men are thus engaged, the gentler sex are busy arranging themselves in 
^ long line, and la a sitting posture, with rugs made of 'possum skins doubled round their 
* small stick called ' nulli-nulli ' in each hand. A fire is lit in front of them, 
by one of the old charmers. As the men are ready, they seat themselves 
like tailors, and in regular ' serried iile,' at the opposite side of the fire to the 
le one of the medicine-men takes up his position on the top of the mound 
kivitoh the rising of the moon, which is the signal for 'corrobboree.' All is now still : 
Htfaing distnrbs the silence save the occasional jabber of a woman or child, and even 
bit, after a few minutes, is hushed. The blaze of the fire throws a fitful light along the 
bttslioa-like front at the black phalanx, and the hideous faces, daubed with paint and 
;iod with grease, show out at such a moment to anything but advant^e. 
Aa toon as the old gentleman who has been ' taking the lunar ' announces the advent 
'4f that planet, which seems to exercise as great an influence over the actions of these 
jwjile OS over many of those amongst ourselves, the ' corrobboree ' commences. The 
xonmn beat the litde sticks together, keeping time to a i>6culiar monotonous air, and 
tf^»«tii]g the words, the burden of which when translated may be — 

I " ' The kannroo it swift, bnt swifter ia Xgoj^llonian ; 

I The uwGe b caaaing, but more cumiiiig is Ngoj'u Human,' Ar. 

■dt vooian uainff the name of her htisband or favourite in the tril)e. The men spring 
t» tlw faet viuL a yell that rings through the forest, ami, brandishing their spears, 
hnnmiii^ii. &c, commence their dance, flinging themselves into all sorts of attitudes, 
howling Lutghing, grinning, and singing; and this they coutinue till sheer exhaustion 
mmdt ttwm to desist, after which tliey roast and eat the product of the cliase, gathered 
k me occasion, and then drop off to sleep one by one." 

Ae reader will see that this great mystery corrobboree combines several of the 
ncoliar movements which are to be found in the various dances that liave already been 
ttccribed. 

A dance of a somewhat similar character used to be celebrated by the Tasmanians at 
the occasion of each full moon, aa is described by Mr. 0. T. Lloyd. The various tribes 
mmbled at some trysting-place ; and while the women prepared the fire, and fenced off 
» ipace for the dance, the men retired to adorn themselves with paint, and to fasten 
huehcs of bushy twigs to their ankles, wrists, and waists. 

The women being seated at the end of this space, one of the oldest among them strode 
fcfrod, calling by name one of the perfonnere, reviling him aa a coward, and challenging 
!■ to appear and answer her charge. Tlie warrior was not long in his response, and, 
hmnding into the circle through the fire, he proclaimed his deeds of daring in war and in 
Ae hunL At every pause he made, his female admirers took up his praises, vaimting his 
■itioiB in a sort of chant, which they accompanied by extemporized drums formed of 
nDed kangaroo skins. 

Snddenly, upon some inspiring allegretto movement of the thumping band, thirty or 
bhgrim savages would bound successively through the furious flames into the sacred 
■aa,kN)kinghke veritable demons on a special visit to terra firma, and, after thoroughly 
oWtiBg themaelvea by leaping in imitation of the kangaroo around and through the 



68 



AUSTRALIA. 




fire, they vanished in an instant. These were as rapidly SHCceeded by their lovely gins, 
who, at a given signal from the beldame speaker, rose e,n masse, and ranging themsflva 
round the fresh-plied flames in a state unadorned and genuine as imported into tiie world, 
contoi-ted their arms, legs, and bodies into attitudes that would shame first-class acrobati. 
The grand point, however, with each oE 
the well-greased beauties was to ecieun 
down her sable sister. 

This dance, as well as other natnt 
customs, has departed, together with tki 
aborigines, from the island, and the natiit' 
Tasmanians are now practically extiiwk 
There is before me a photograph of iU 
three remaining survivors of these tribes 
which some sixty years ago numbenii 
between six and seven thousand, 
they should have so rapidly perished u: 
the influence of the white man is 
plained from the fact that their island i| 
but limited in extent, and that they n 
altogether inferior to the aborigines of th 
continent. They are small in stature, U 
men averaging only five feet three ii 
in height, and they are very ill-favooi 
in countenance, the line from the nose ft 
the comers of the mouth being very d 
and much curved, so as to enclose i 
mouth in a pair of parentheses, 
featui'e is shown in the accompanyi 
portrait of a young woman, but in n 
photograph, which represents older individuals, it is marked much more strongly. 

The reader will notice that the hair is cut very closely. This is done by means of ti 
sharp-edged fragments of flint, broken glass being preferred since Europeans settled in tl 
country. Cutting the hair is necessarily a tedious ceremony, only ten or twelve haiit 
being severed at a time, and upwards of three hours being consumed in trimming a hoi 
fit for a dance. Shaving is conducted after the same manner. 

The general habits of the Tasmanian natives agree with those of the continent. BiB 
mode of climbing trees, however, is a curious mixture of the Australian and Pol)'nesiaq 
custom. When the native discovers the marks of an opossum on the bark, he plucks • 
quantiQ' of wire-grass, and rapidly lays it up in a three-stranded plait, with which b^ 
encircles the tree and his own waist By means of a single chop of the tomahawk hf 
makes a alight notch in the bark, into which he puts his great toe, raises himself by il| 
and simultaneously jerks the grass-band up the trunk of the tree. Kotch after notch i| 
thus made, and the native ascends with incredible rapidity, the notches never bdlg 
less than three feet six inches apart. 

Often, the opossum, alarmed at the sound of the tomahawk, leaves its nest, and imi 
along some bare hough, projecting horizontally from eighty to a hundred feet above thi 
ground. The native walks along the bough upright and firm as if the tree were hi! 
native place, and shakes the animal into the midst of his companions who are assenibkl 
under the tree. 

The natives never, in their wild stato, wear clothes of any kind. They manufactm 
cloaks of opossum and kangaroo skins, but only in defence against cold. 

They are wonderful hunters, and have been successfully employed by the colonifitsii 
trekcing sheep that had strayed, or the footsteps of the thief who had stolen them. 'Al 
slightest scratch t«lls its tale to these quick-^ed people, who know at once the ven 
time at which the impression was made, and, having once seen it, start off at a quia 
pace, and are certaia to overtake the fugitive. 



THE LAW OF PROGRESSION. 69 

The untimely end of the aboriginal Tasmanians is greatly to be attributed to the conduct 
of a well-known chief, called Mosquito. He was a native of Sydney, and, having been 
Donvicted of several murders, was, by a mistaken act of lenity, transported to Tasmania, 
when he made acquaintance with the Oyster Bay tribe. Being much taller and stronger 
than the natives, he was unanimously elected chief, and took the command. His reign 
iras most disastrous for the Tasmanians. He ruled them with a rod of iron, pimishing 
&e slightest disobedience with a blow of his tomakawk, not caring im the least whether 
the culprit were killed or not He organized a series of depredations on the property of 
Ae colonists, and was peculiarly celebrated for his skill in stealing potatoes, teaching his 
followers to abstract them from the ridges, and'to re-arrange the groimd so as to look as if 
it had never been disturbed, and to obliterate all traces of their footmarks with boughs. 

Under the influence of such a leader, the natives became murderers as well as thieves, 
10 that the lives of the colonists were always in peril It was therefore necessary to take 
aome decided measures with them ; and after simdry unsuccessful expeditions, the natives 
at last submitted themselves, and the whole of them, numbering then (1837) scarcely 
more than three hundred, were removed to Flinder's Island, where a number of comfort- 
able stone cottages were built for them, infinitely superior to the rude bough huts or 
Biam-miams of Sidr own construction. They were liberally supplied with food, clothing, 
and other necessaries, as well as luxuries, and the Grovemment even appointed a resident 
mgeon to attend them when ill. All this care was, however, useless. Contact with civiliza- 
tioQ produced its usual fruits, and in 1861 the native Tasmanians were only thirteen in 
Hmber. Ten have since died, and it is not likely that the three who survived in 1867 
viD perpetuate their race. 

That the singularly rapid decadence of the Tasmanians was partly caused by the 
emduct of the shepherds, and other rough and uneducated men in the service of the 
ttboists, cannot be denied. But the white offenders were comparatively few, and quite 
mUe tiiemselves to effect such a change in so short a time. For the real cause we 
■oat look to the strange but unvariable laws of progression. Whenever a higher race 
^aacapies the same groimds as a lower, the latter perishes, and, whether in animate or 
inanimate nature, the new world is always built on the ruins of the old. 



CHAPTER VI. 



AUSTRALIA.— Continue. 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 



MARRIAGE — PURCHASE AND EXCHANGE OP WIVES — A ROUGH WOOING TREATMENT Of THE 

A BRUTAL HUSBAND — NARROW ESCAPE — A FAITHPUL COMPANION AUSTRALIAN MOTHSRS^^: 

■* 

TREATMENT OP THE NEW-BORN INFANT — PRACTICE OF INFANTICIDE THE MOTHER AND HB: 

DEAD CHILD. 

We will now proceed to the domestic life of the native Australian, if, indeed, their mi 
of existence deserves such a name, and will begin with marriage customs. 

Betrothal takes place at a very early age, the girl being often promised in marrii 
when she is a mere child, her future husband being perhaps an old man with two 
three wives and a number of children. Of course the girl is purchased from her fi 
the price varying according to the means of the husband. Articles of European 
are now exceedingly valued ; and as a rule, a knife, a glass bottle, or some such article, 
considered as a fair price for a wife. 

Exchange is often practised, so that a young man who happens to have a sister 
spare will look out for some man who has a daughter unbetrothed, and will effect 
amicable exchange with him, so that a man who possesses sisters by his father's death 
as sure of a corresponding number of wives as if he had the means wherewith to 
them. 

UntU her intended husband takes her to wife, the betrothed girl lives with 
parents, and during this interval she is not watched with the strictness which is gem 
exercised towards betrothed girls of savages. On the contrary, she is tacitly allowed 
have as many lovers as she chooses, provided that a conventional amount of secrecy 
observed, and her husband, when he marries her, makes no complaint. After 
however, the case is altered, and, if a former lover were to attempt a continuance of 
acquaintance, the husband would avenge himself by visiting both parties with tbB 
severest punishment. ^ 

There is no ceremony about marriage, the girl being simply taken to the hut of htf 
husband, and thenceforth considered as his wife. [ 

In some parts of Australia, when a young man takes a fancy to a girl he obtains hoij 
after a rather curious fashion, which seems a very odd mode of showing afiTectioa 
Watching his opportimity when the girl has strayed apart from her friends, he stuns M 
with a blow on the head fix)m his waddy, carries her off, and so makes her his wife. Hm 
father of the girl is naturally offended at the loss of his daughter, and complains to ih« 
elders. The result is almost invariably that the gallant offender is sentenced to stand 
the ordeal of spear and boomerang. Furnished with only his narrow shield, he stand 
still, while the aggrieved father and other relatives hurl a certain number of spears tad 
boomerangs at him. It is very seldom that he allows himself to be touched, but, whei 
the stipulated number of throws has been made, he is considered as having expiated 
offence, whether he be hit or not. 



I her \iith a spear, or any other mode of expressing dissatisfaction, shocked the 
ces of the white men, they ceased to mention such practices, though they did 
x)ntiiiue them, 
te recently, a native servant was late in keeping his appointment with his master, 

inquiry, it was elicited that he had just quarrelled with one of his wives, and had 

her through the body. On being rebuked by his master he turned off the matter 
laugh, merely remarking that white men had only one wife, whereas he had two, 
I not mind losing one until he could buy another. 

sidering and treating the women as mere articles of property, the men naturally 
fio confidence in them, and never condescend to make them acquainted with their 

If they intend to make an attack upon another tribe, or to organize an expedition 
bery, they carefully conceal it from the weaker sex, thinking that such inferior 
t cannot keep secrets, and might betray them to the objects of the intended attack. 

utter contempt which is felt by the native Australians for their women is well 
«d by an adventure which occurred after a dance which had been got up for the 
of the white men, on the understanding that a certain amount of biscuit should be 
the dancers. When the performance was over, the biscuit was injudiciously 
to a woman for distribution. A misunderstanding at once took place. Tlie men, 
h they would not hesitate to take away the biscuit by force, would not condescend 
L woman for it, and therefore considered that the promised payment had not been 
> them. Some of them, after muttering their discontent, slipped away for their 
ind throwing sticks, and the whole place was in a turmoil. 

iinately, in order to amuse the natives, the white visitors, who had never thought 
offence that they had given, sent up a few rockets, which frightened the people for 
and then burned a blue light. As the brilliant rays pierced the dark recesses of 
Ht, they disclosed numbers of armed men among the trees, some alone and others 
M, but all evidently watching the movements of the visitors whose conduct had 
[y insulted them. A friendly native saw their danger at once, and hurried them 
leir boats, saying that spears would soon be thrown. 
re was much excuse to be found for them. They had been subjected to one of the 

insults that warriors could receive. To them, women were little better than dogs, 
there were any food, the warriors first satisfied their own hunger, and then threw 
sromen any fragments that might be left. Therefore, that a woman — a mere 



72 AUSTRALIA. 

It serves as an illustration of the policy of respecting the known customs of t 
Australian race, even in apparently trifling matters, at least during the early period 
intercourse with a tribe, and shows how a little want of judgment in the director of o 
party caused the most friendly intentions to be misundei*stood, and might have led 
fatal results. 

" I must confess that I should have considered any injury sustained on our side 
have been most richly merited. Moreover, I am convinced that some at least of tl 
collisions which have taken place in Australia between the first European visitors ai 
the natives of any given district have originated in causes of offence brought on by tl 
indiscretion of one or more of the party, and revenged on others who were innocent" 

Mr. M*Gillivray then proceeds to mention the well-known case of the night attac 
on Mr. Leichhardt's expedition. For no apparent reason, a violent assault was made ( 
the camp, and Mr. Gilbert was killed. The reason of this attack did not transpire uni 
long afterwards, when a native attached to the expedition divulged, in a state of intoxic 
tion, the fact that he and a fellow-countryman had grossly insulted a native woman. 

Yet, in spite of this brutal treatment, the women often show a depth of aflfectiona 
feeling which raises them far above the brutal savages that enslave them. One remarkab 
instance of this feeling is mentioned by Mr. Bennett. She had formed an attachment 1 
an escaped convict, who became a bushranger, and enabled him, by her industry an 
courage, to prolong the always precarious life of a bushranger beyond the ordinaiy limit 

The chief dangers that beset these ruffians are the necessity for procuring food, an 
the watch which is always kept by the police. Her native skill enabled her to suppl 
him with food, and, while he was lying concealed, she used to fish, hunt, dig roots, ai 
then to cook them for him. Her native quickness of eye and ear enabled her to date 
the approach of the police, and, by the instinctive cunning with which these blacks a 
gifted, she repeatedly threw the pursuers off the scent. He was utterly unworthy of tl 
affection which she bestowed on him, and used to beat her unmercifuDy, but, undetem 
by his cruelty, she never flagged in her exertions for his welfare ; and on one ocoasio 
while he was actually engaged in ill-treating her, the police came upon his place 
refuge, and must have captured him, had she not again misled them, and sent them to 
spot far from the place where he was hidden. At last, he ventured out too boldly, duiii 
her accidental absence, was captured, tried and hanged. But up to the last this £Edthf 
creature never deserted him, and, even when he was imprisoned, she tried to follow hii 
but was reclaimed by her tribe. 

When a native woman is about to become a mother she retires into the bus 
sometimes alone, but generally accompanied by a female friend, and, owing to the stroi 
constitution of these women, seldom remains in her retirement more than a day or so. 

Among the natives of Victoria, the ceremony attending the birth of a child is rath 
curious, and is amusingly described by Mr. Lloyd : " While upon the subject of tl 
Australian aborigines, I must not omit to describe the very original modus operandi 
the indigenous sagefemm^. 

" The unhappy loobra (native woman) retired with her wise woman into some loi 
secluded dell, abounding with light sea-sand. A fire was kindled, and the wTetch 
miam-miam speedily constructed. Then came the slender repast, comprising a spa 
mwsel of kangaroo or other meat, supplied with a sparing hand by her stoical cool 
(male native), grilled, and graced with the tendrils of green opiate cow-tliistles, or ti 
succulent roots of the bulbous leaf, ' mernong.' 

" The sable attendant soon entered upon her interesting duties. One of the first w- 
to lij^ht a si»cond fire over a quantity of prepared sand, tliat had been carefully divested- 
all fil)rous roots, pebbles, or coarser matter. The burnin*^ coals and fagots were remo* 
from thence, u])(>n some nice calculation as to the period of the unfortunate little nigg. 
arrival. When the miniature representative of his sable father beheld the light of <- 
a hole was scratched in the heated sand, and the wee russet-brown thing safely depos 
therein, in a state of perfect nudity, and buried to the very chin, so eflectually covered 
as to render any objectionable movement on his or her part utterly impossible 

'* So far as any infantine ebullitions of feeling were concerned, the learned 



INFANTICIDE. 73 

inmes appeared to have a thorough knowledge as to the world-wide method of treating 
he mewling and poking importunities of oareaaoning nurslingg. They knew well that 
I two-hoars' sojonrn in the desert sand, warm as it might he, would do much to cool the 
lew comer, and temper it into compliance. At the expiration of that time, having 
icqnired so much knowledge of earthly troubles, the well-baked juvenile was considered 
io be thormaghly done, and thereupon introduced to his delighted loobra mamma." 

Following the custom of many sav^e nations, the Australians too often destroy their 
Aildren in their first infancy. Among the Muralug tribes the practice is very common. 




AUSIRALIAN MOTHERS. 



r ItW already been mentioned that the giils live very unrestrainedly before marriage, and 
; w wsnlt ia, that a young woman will sometimes have severd children before her 
; *mage. As a general rule, these children are at once killed, unless the father be 
™ttw of preserving them. This, however, is seldom the case, and he usually gives 
fcotder, * Marana teio," i.e. Throw it into the hole, when the poor little thing is at once 
™M aUTe. Kven those children which are bom after marriage are not always pre- 
^J**- In the first place, a woman will scarcely ever take chai^^e of more than three 
*'™n, and many a female child is destroyed where a male would be allowed to live. 

All etildren who have any bodily defect are sure to be killed, and, as a general rule, 
~~^ children are seldom allowed to live. The mothers are usually ashamed to 
■Mwle^ these murders, but in one case the unnatural jmrent openly avowed the 
■w, ttyiag ttflt the infant was like a waragul.i.c. the native dog, or dingo. The fact was 
J** *''Sa was a sailor who had iiery red hair, and his oB'spring partook of the same 
^""""•{laion. Of course there are exceptions to the rule, one of which may be 



74 AUSTRALIA. 

found in the case of the poor woman who was so faithful to her convict mate. She 
a male child, which was brought up by the tribe to which she belonged, and they i 
so fond of him that they refused to give him up when some benevolent persons triec 
obtain possession of him in order to educate him in civilization. 

If, however, the child is allowed to live, the Australian mother is a very affectio: 
one, tending her offspring with the greatest care, and in her own wild way being 
loving a parent as can be found in any part of the world. 

In nothing is this affection better shown than in the case of a child's de 
Although she might have consigned it when an infant to a living grave without a p 
of remorse, yet, when it dies after having been nurtured by her, she exhibits a ste 
sorrow that exhibits the depth of affection with which she regarded the child. Whe 
dies, she swathes the body in many wrappers, places it in her net-bul, or native wa 
and carries it about with her as if it were alive. She never parts with it for a mom 
When she eats she offers food to the dead coi-pse, as if it were still alive, and, when 
lies down to sleep, she lays her head upon the wallet which serves her as a pillow, 
progress of decay has no effect upon her, and though the body becomes so offensive 1 
no one can come near her, she seems unconscious of it, and never di^eams of abandoi 
the dreadful burden. In process of time nothing is left but the mere bones, but e 
these are tended in the same loving manner, and even after the lapse of years the mot 
has been known to bear, in addition to her other burdens, the remains of her dead cli 
Even when the child has been from six to seven years old she will treat it in the sd 
manner, and, with this burden on her back, will continue to discharge her hei 
domestic duties. 



CHAPTER VII. 



AUSTRALIA,— Co7itinui;d. 



FROM CHILDHOOD TO MANHOOD. 



JSnAUAN CHILDREN CKBKMONTBS ATTENDANT ON BECOMING MEN ADMISSION TO THE RANK OP 

HTKTER CKRBMONY OP THE KANGAROO THE K0BADJEE8 AND THEIR DUTIES — KNOCKINO OUT 

THB TOOTH TRIAL BY ENDURANCE — TEST OP DETERMINATION — THE MAGIC CRYSTAL THE 

?niAL FEAST ^INITIATION AMONG THE MOORUNDI AND PARNKALLA TRIBE THE WITARNA, AND 

tre DREADED SOUND — THE WHISPERERS TAKING THE SECOND DEGREE THE APRON AND HEAD- 

KKT — ^THE THIRD AND LAST CEREMONY ENDURANCE OP PAIN A NAUO MAN STORY OP 

Gf6M — MAKING KOTAIGA OR BROTHERHOOD. 

I 

AustiulLIAN children, while they remaiu children, and as such are under the dominion of 

ftrii mothers, are rather engaging little creatures. They cannot be caUed pretty, partly 

mi% to the total neglect, or rather ignorance, of personal cleanliness, and partly on 

•ecount of the diet with which they are fed. Their eyes are soft, and possess the half- 

^fkhl, half-wild expression that so peculiarly distinguishes the young savage. But 

tiiey are never washed except by accident, their profuse black hair wanders in unkempt 

lasses over their heads, and their stomachs protrude exactly like those of the young 

Afecan savage. 

In process of time they lose all these characteristics. The wistful expression dies 

wA of their eyes, while the restless, suspicious glance of the savage takes its place. 

"ftey become quarrelsome, headstrong, and insubordinate, and, after exhibiting these 

^paffications for a higher rank in life, they become candidates for admission into the 

'^ts and privileges of manhood. Among civilized nations, attaining legal majority is a 

^le process enough, merely consisting of waiting until the candidate is old enough ; 

J^vith many savage nations, and specially with the Australians, the process of 

■*!<Mig men is a long, intricate, and singularly painful series of ceremonies. 

Tliese rites vary according to the locality in which they are celebrated, but they all 
^ in one point, namely, — in causing very severe pain to the initiates, and testing to 
^ utmost their endurance of pain. As many of these rites are almost identical in 
^«^nt tribes, I shall not repeat any of them, but only mention those points in which 
^eatemonies differ from each other. 

f^ of these customs, which seems to belong to almost every variety of savage life, 
T^y»^he loss of certain teeth, flourishes among the Australians. The mode of extract- 
? c teeth is simple enough. The men who conduct the ceremony pretend to be very 
jj^^^^^^the on the ground, and are treated after the usual method of healing 
ftemon ti! kf^ friends make a great howling and shouting, dance round them, and hit 

Y^ ^ "^k, until each sick man produces a piece of sharp bone, 
j^^^^^o^y being intended to give the initiates power over the various animals, a 
^ been'^'^'^^^^^ ceremonies are performed On the morning after the sharp bones 
Mysteriously produced, the Koradjees, or operators, dress themselves up witl\ 



76 AUSTRALIA. 

bits of fur and other decorations, which are conventionally accepted as representing the 
dingo, or native dog. The wooden sword, which is thrust into a belt, sticks up over tlie 
back, and takes the place of the tail. The boys are then made to sit on the ground, 
while the koradjees run round and round them on all fours, thus representing dogs, and 
giving the lads to understand that the succeeding ceremony will give them power over 
dogs. In token of this power, each time that they pass the boys they throw sand and 
dust over them. 

Here it must be remarked that the Australian natives are great dog-fanciers, the dog 
being to them what the pig is to the Sandwich Islanders. There is scarcely a lad who 
does not possess at least one dog, and many have several, of which they take charge from S 
earliest puppyhood, and wliich accompany their masters wherever they go. 

Besides their value as companions, these dogs are useful for another reason. They 
are a safeguard against famine ; for when a man is in danger of starving, he is sure to 
rescue himself by killing and cooking his faithful dog. The animal has never cost him 
any trouble. It forages for itself as it best can, and always adheres to its owner, and is 
always at hand when wanted. The object, therefore, of the first part of the ceremony is 
to intimate to the lads that they are not only to have dominion over the dogs, but that 
they ought to possess its excellent qualities. 

The next part of the ceremony is intended to give them power over the kangaroos. 

Accordingly, a stout native now appears on the scene, bearing on his shoulders the 
rude effigy of a kangaroo, made of grass ; and after him walks another man with a load of 
brushwood. Tlio men move with measured steps, in time to the strokes of clubs upon, 
shields, wherewith the spectators accompany the songs which they sing. At the end of 
the dance, the men lay their burdens at the feet of the youths, the grass eflSgy signifying 
the kangaroo, and the brushwood being accepted as a sign of its haunts. 

Tlie koradjees now take upon themselves the character of the kangaioOy as thejr 
formerly personated the dog. They make long ropes of grass in imitation of the 
kangaroo's tail, and fasten them at the back of their girdles. They then imitate the 
various movements of the kangaroo, such as leaping, feeding, rising on their feet and 
looking about them, or lying dowTi on their sides and scratching themselves, as kangaroos 
do when basking in the sun. As they go through these performances, sevend men 
enact the part of hunters, and follow them with their spears, pretending to steal upon 
them unobserved, and so to kill them. 

After a few more ceremonies, the men lie on the ground, and the boys are led over 
their prostrate bodies, the men gleaning and writhing, and pretending to suffer horrible 
agony from the contact with uninitiates. At last the boys are drawn up in a row, and 
opposite to them stands the principal koradjee, holding his shield and waddy, with whidi 
he keeps up a series of regular strokes, the whole party poising their spears at him, and ] 
at every third stroke touching his shield. 

The operators now proceed to the actual removal of the tooth. The initiates aie 
placed on the shoulders of men seated on the ground, and the operator then lances the \ 
gums freely with the sharp bone. One end of a wummerah, or throw-stick, is next placed 
on the tooth, and a sharp blow is struck with the stone, knocking out the tooth, and 
oft^n a piece of gum also if the lancing has not been properly done. 

Among another tribe, the initiate is seated opposite a tree. A stick is then placed ■ 
against the trunk of the tree, with its other end resting on the tooth. The operator 
suddenly pushes the lad's head forward, when, as a matter of course, the tooth comes oui 
The blood is allowed to flow over the spot, and, as it is a sign of manhood, is never 
washed off. 

The tooth being finally extracted, the boy is led to a distance, and his friends press the 
wounded gum together, and dress him in the emblems of his rank as a man. The opossum 
fur belt, or kumecl, is fastened round his waist, and in it is thrust the wooden sword, 
which he, as a warrior, is now expected to use. A bandage is tied round his forehead, in 
which are stuck a number of grass-tree leaves ; his left hand is placed over his mouih» 
and for the rest of the day he is not allowed to eat. 

In some parts of the country there is a curious addition to the mer6 loss of the toofL 



COMING OF AGK 



77 



! warriors stand over the lad, exhorting him to patience, and threatening him with 
:ant death if he should flinch, cry out, or show any signs of pain. The operators then 
ibetately cut long gashes all down his back, and others upon his shoulders. Should 
groan, ot dwplay any symptoms of suffering, the operators give three long and piercing 
Is, as a sign that the youth is unworthy to be a warrior. The women are summoned, 
I the recreant is handed over to them, ever after to be ranked with the women, and 
re in their menial and despised tasks. 

Even after passing the bodily ordeal, he has to undergo a mental trial Tliere is a 
hin mysterious piece of crystal to which various magic powers are attributed, and 




ch is only allowed to be seen by men, who wear it in their liair, tied uj) in a little 
ket This crystal, and the use to which it is put, will be described when we come to 
It of medicine among the Australians. 

The youth having been formally admitted as a huntsman, another ring is formed 
nd him, in order to see whether his firmness of mind corresponds with his endurance 
t>ody. Into the hands of the maimed and bleeding candidate the mysterious crystal is 
ced. As soon as he has taken it, the old men endeavour by all tlieit arts to persuade 
a to give it up again. Should he be weak-minded enough to yield, he is rejected as a 
rrior ; and not until he has successfully resisted all their threats and cajoleries is he 
illy admitted into Uie rank of men. 

The ceremony being over, a piercing yell is set up as a signal for the women to return 
the camp, and the newly-admitted man follows them, accoiupanied by their friends, all 
mting a song of joy, called the korinda braia. They then separate to their respective 
a, where they hold great feastings and rpjoicings ; and the ceremonies are coucluded 
th the dances in which the Australians so much delight. 

As may be gathered from the account of these ceremonies, the lad who is admitted 
o the society of hunters thinks very much of himself, and addresses himself to the 
gest game of Australia ; namely, the emu and the dingo. When he has succeeded in 
ling either of these creatures, he makes a trophy, which he carries about for some time, 
a proof that he ia doing credit to his profession. This trophy consists of a stick, a yard 



78 AUSTEALIA. 

or so in length, to one end of which is tied the tail of the first dingo he kills, or a hug« 
tuft of feathers from the first emn. These trophies he displays everywhere, and is as prouc 
of them as an English lad of his first brush, or of his first pheasant's tail. 

Among the Moorundi natives, who live on the great Murray River, another ceremonj 
is practised. When the lads are about sixteen years old, and begin to grow the beard anc 
moustache which become so luxuriant in their after-life, preparations are quietly made bj 
sending for some men from a friendly tribe, who are called, from their office, the weearoo%, 09 
pluckers. When they have arrived, the lads who have been selected are suddenly pounced 
upon by some one of their own tribe, and conducted to the place of initiation, which it 
marked by two spears set in the ground, inclining to each other, and being decorated witii 
bunches of emu feathers. They are then smeared over with red ochre and grease, and the 
women flock round them, ciying bitterly, and cutting their own legs with mussel-shelly 
until they inflict horrible gashes, and cause the blood to flow abundantly. In fact, a 
stranger woidd think that the women, and not the lads, were the initiates. 

The boys lie down, with their heads to the spears, surrounded by theii* anxious fnends, 
who watch them attentively to see if they display any indications of flinching from pain. 
The weearoos now advance, and pluck off every hair from their bodies, thus causing t 
long and irritating torture. When they have endured this process, green branches an 
produced, and fastened to the bodies of the lads, one being worn as an apron, and the 
others under the arms. Two kangaroo-teeth are then fastened in the hair, and the yoang 
men, as they are now termed, are entitled to wear a bimch of emu feathers in their hair. 

With another tribe there is a curious variation. The initiate is brought to the selected 
spot by an old man, and laid on his back in the midst of five fires, each fire consisting of 
three pieces of wood laid across each other so as to form a triangle. An opossum-skia 
bag is laid on his face, and the various operations are then performed. 

Among the Parnkallas, and other western tribes, there are no less than three distinct 
ceremonies before the boys are acknowledged as men. 

The first ceremony is a veiy simple one. When the boys are twelve or fifteen yean 
old, they are carried away from the women, and are blindfolded. The operators then 
begin to shout the words " Herri, hem '* witli the full force of their lungs, swinging at thfl 
same time the mysterious instrument called the witarnu. 

Tliis mysterious implement is a small shuttle-shaped piece of wood, covered with 
carved ornaments, and being suspended, by a hole cut at one end, from a string made od 
plaited human hair. When swung rapidly in the air, it makes a loud hmuming 01 
booming sound. The witarna is kept by the old men of the tribe, and is invested witl 
sundry and somewhat contradictory attributes. Its sound is supposed to drive away evil 
spirits, and at the same time to be very injurious to^women and children, no uninitiated 
being allowed to hear it. Consequently the women are horribly afraid of it, and take can 
to remove themselves and their children so far from the place of initiation that there is IM 
chance of being reached by the dreaded sound. ^ 

When the witarna has been duly swung, and the blindfolded boys have for the fini 
time heard its booming sound, the operators advance, and blacken the faces of the boyt 
ordering them at the same time to cease from using their natural voices, and not to sped 
above a whisper until they are released from their bondage. They remain whisperers fn 
several months, and, when they resume their voices, assume the title of Warrara. 

They remain in the condition of warrara for at least two, and sometimes thm 
years, when they undergo a ceremony resembling the circumcision of the Jews. Thei 
hair is tied in a bunch on the top of the head, is not allowed to be cut, and is securec 
by a net. 

The net used for this purpose is made out of the tendons drawn from the tails o 
kangaroos. When they kill one of these animals, the natives always reserve the tendona 
dry them carefully in the sun, and keep them in reser\e for the many uses to which thq 
are put. The sinews taken from the leg of the emu are dried and prepared in the sam 
manner. In order to convert the sinew into thread, two of the fibres are taken and tollec 
upon the thigh, just as is done with the fibre of the bulnish root. A thread of man] 
yards long is thus spun, and is formed into a net with meshes made exactly after Uu 



COMING OF AGE 79 

.uTopean fashion. Sometimes it is left plain, but usually it is coloured with red ochre, 
r white with pipe-clay, according to the taste of the wearer. 

These tendons, by the way, are valued by the white colonists, who use them chiefly 
)r whip-lashes, and say that the tendon is more durable than any other material. 

The initiates of the second degree are also distinguished by wearing a bell-shaped 
pron, made of opossum fur spun together, and called " mabbirringe." This is worn until 
be third and last ceremony. The young men are now distinguished by the name of 
^napas, and are permitted to marry, though they are not as yet considered as belonging 

the caste, if we may so call it, of warriors. 

Even now, the young men have not suffered sufficient pain to take their full rank, and 
n course of time a ceremony takes place in which they become, so to speak, different 
mngs, and change, not only their appearance, but their names. Up to this time, they 
lave borne the names given to them by their mothers in childhood, names which are 
il^^ys of a trivial character, and which are mostly numerical. For example, if the first 
:hild be a boy, it is called Peri {i.e. Primus) ; if a girl, Kartanya {i.e. Prima). The second 
boy is Wari (or Secundus), the second girl Waruyau, and so on. Sometimes the name 
k taken from the place where the child was bom, or from some accidental circumstance, 
nch as the appearance of a bird or insect, or the falling of a shower of rain. But, when 
tte youth becomes a man, he puts away his childish name, and chooses another for 
Jdmself, which marks him out as a man and a warrior. The process of converting a lad 
into a man is admirably told by Mr. G. F. Angas : — 

**In the third and last ceremony the young men are styled WUyalkanye, when the 
^t important rites take place. Each individual has a sponsor chosen for him, who is 
wd on his back upon another man s lap, and surrounded by the operators, who enjoin 
ikim to discharge Ins duties aright. The young men are then led away from the camp, 
Itod blindfolded; the women lamenting and crying, and pretending to object to their 
fianovaL 

1 " They are taken to a retired spot, laid upon their stomachs, and entirely covered over 
I with kangaroo-skins ; the men utterin^^ the most dismal wail imaginable, at intervals of 
fom three to five minutes. After lying thus for some time, the lads are raised, and, 
whilst still blindfolded, two men throw green boughs at them, while the others stand in 
1 semicircle around, making a noise with their wirris and voices combined, which is so 
fcrrible that the wild dogs swell the hideous chorus with their bowlings. Suddenly one 
[•f the party drops a bough, others follow ; and a platform of bou^^hs is made, on which 
tte lads are laid out. The sponsoi-s then turn to and sharpen their pieces of quartz, 
loosing a new name for each lad, which is retained by him during life. These names 
ill end either in alia, ilii, or ulta. Previous to this day they have borne the names of 
4eir birth-places, &c. ; which is always the case amongst the women, who never change 
liem afterwards. The snonsors now open the veins of their own arms, and raising the 
ids, open their mouths, and make them swallow the firsfquantity of blood. 

** The lads are then placed on their hands and knees, and the blood caused to run over 
backs, so as to form one coagulated mass ; and when this is sufficiently cohesive, 
iie man marks the places for the tattooing by removing the blood with his thumb nail, 
rhe sponsor now commences with his quartz, forming a deep incision in the nape of the 
leck, and then cutting broad gashes from the shoulder to the hip down each side, about an 
ioeh apart. These gashes are piUled open by the fingers as far as possible ; the men all 
iie while repeating very rapidly, in a low voice, the following incantation : — 

" * Kanya, niarm, nianu, 
Kauo, marra, marra, 
Pilbirri, marra, marra.' 

When the cutting is over, two men take the witamasy and swing them rapidly round their 
letds, advancing all the time towards the young men. The whole body of operators now 
law round them, singing and beating their wirris, and, as they reach the lads, each man 
Nit8 the string of the witama over the neck of every lad in succession. A bunch of 
[leen leaves is tied round the waist, above which is a girdle of human hair ; a tight string 
I fastened round each arm just above the elbow, with another about the neck, which 



80 



AUSTRALIA. 



desceada down the back, and is fixed to the girdle of hair ; and their faces and t 
part of their bodies, as far as the waist, are blackened with charcoal 

" The ceremony conclndes by the men all clustering ronnd the initiated ones, < 
them again to whisper for some months, and bestowing upon them their advice a 
hunting, fighting, and contempt of pain. All these ceremonies are carefully k 
the sight of the women and children ; who, when they hear the sound of the 
hide their heads, and exhibit every outward sign of terror." 

The accompanying illustration is given in order to show the curious appearan 
ia sometimes presented by the men when they have successfully passed throi 

various ordeals. The nn 
irian was Mintalta, am 
longed to the Nauo tril 
lives near Coffin's Bay. 
hand he holds the waiJ 
by way of apron, he 
bunch of emu feathers, 
his breast are seen the 1m 
wliich mark his rank a 
and othei-s are seen upon 
His beard is gathered in 
pointed tuft, and decon 
a little bunch of white 
feathers at the tip. In 
he wears two curious oi 
These are not feather-p' 
they seem to be in the ill 
but are simply slender 
white wood, scraped so 
the shavings adhere by 
Indeed, they are made 
like those little wooden 
that are sometimes ha 
German girls about tin 
or, to use a more famili 
like the curly-branched 
children's toy -boxes. 

Many of the particuh 
have been and will bo r 
the domestic life of tin 
lians were obtained ii 
curious manner. In tlie 
of 1849 some persons I 
to H.M.S. SafilmMkT 1 
shooting, when they car 
a native woman, or gin, 
rather better than the g 
of native women, as slu 
narrow apron of leaves, 
astonishment, the supposed gin addressed them in English, saying that she wa.' 
woman, and desired their help. They innnediately furnished her with some clotl 
brought her on board the Rattlr.<nin/,f, where she contrived to make known her s; 
Her name was Thomson, and she was the widtiw of the owner of a small vesseL 
one day in search of a wreck, tlie pilot missed hia way, a gale of wind came on, 
vessel was dashed on a reef on Uie eastern I'rince of Wales's Island. The men trie* 
on shore through the surf, but were drowned, while the woman was saved by a 
natives, who come on board the wreck after the gale bad subsided, and took ber e 




r,T.\. .\ x.\uo 11 



bich an Australian savage values above all things, and saying that she had lived 
dth the natives that she could not think of leaving them. When she was safely 
1 board, many of her friends came to see her, bringing presents of fish and turtle, 
ys expecting an equivalent. Boroto was one of the visitors, and in vain tried to 
her to return. When she definitely refused, he became very angry, and left the 
passion, declaring that, if he or any of his friends could catch her ashore, they 
ike oflF her head and carry it to Muralug. Not feeling the least doubt that the 
)uld be fulfilled, she never ventured on shore near those parts of the coast which 
rai^as seemed likely to visit. 

J a woman of no education, she had in the course of her sojourn among the 
Jmost forgotten how to express herself in her native tongue, and for some time 
^owrarega words and phrases with English in a very curious memner. A vast 
of valuable information was obtained from her, but, when she was restored to 
ion, she forgot the language and customs of savage life with singular rapidity, her 
d mind being unable to comprehend the mutual relationship of ideas, and utterly 
e of generalization. 

1 her was learned the curious but dreadful fact that many of the really unpro- 
ssaolts on ships' crews while unsuspectingly visiting the shore were instigated by 
len, who had degraded themselves into companionship with native tribes, and, 
m of their superior knowledge, had gained a supremacy over them. One of these 
id lived with the Badu tribe many years, and, having heard of a white woman 
the Kowrar^as, visited Muralug, and tried to induce Gi'om to leave Boroto and 
is fortunes. Who he was is not known. He goes by the name of Wini, and is 
d to be an escaped convict, who repels the visits of English ships, lest he should 
»ied and sent back to prison. By means of his instigations, the Badu people 
\ 80 violently opposed to all white men that any European who visited that part of 
mliy would do so at the imminent hazard of his life. 

long many of these tribes, there is a custom which is common also to many 
sin all parts of the world. This is the custom of making " kotaiga," or brother- 
with stnoigers. When Europeans visit their districts, and behave as they ought to 
ftnativeB generally unite themselves in bonds of fellowship with the strangers, each 
iig one of them as his kotaiga. The new relations are then considered as having 
llmponsibilities, each being bound to forward the welfare of the other. 
Bi memory of the natives is wonderful, and, even if a ship does not repeat a visit 



CHAPTER VIIL 



AUSTRALIA— CoTi^mi^. 

MEDICINE, SURGERY, AND THE DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD. 

BILBOS, OR NATIVE DOCTORS — WOUNDS AND BRUISES A STRANGE CURE ^TREATMENT OF THE HBlOi 

A DREAM AND ITS RESULTS — THE MAGIC CRYSTAL, OR DOCTOR-STONE — ITS EFFECTS ON WO 

AND CHILDREN — THE DOCTOR-HOUSE SUCTION AS A MEANS OF CURE BELIEF IN CHABI 

THE parent's skull — CEREMONIES OF MOURNING CUTTINQ THE HEAD AND BODY AS A I 

OF WOE DRIVING AWAY THE EVIL SPIRITS — FEAR OF GHOSTS BURIAL AMONG THE Pi 

KALLAS AND NAUOS THE TOMB OF SKULLS A SUMMARY MODE OF BURIAL — ^FUNERAL OF ] 

THE TREE-TOMBS SMOKING THE WARRIORS INCONSISTENT BEHAVIOUR BURIAL OF 

WOMEN THE WIDOWS* CAPS — RELIGIOUS IDEAS OF THE ABORIGINES THE VARIOUS EVIL 8FI 

THE BUNYIP — ROCK AND CAVE PAINTINGS THEORY OF TRANSMIGRATION. 

We will now see how the Australian natives treat sickness of various kinds. An 
them are certain personages called bilbos, or doctors, to whom the sick usually appei 
cases of illness or pain. It is not known, however, whether the mere fact of age gif 
man the rank of bUbo, or whether it is attained by sundry ceremonials, as is the case i 
the Africans and other savages. 

The most usual mode of treating any local disease or pain is by pressing the hi 
upon the affected part, and kneading it, a remedy which is found in every part of 
world, and which is really eflScacious in many complaints, especially in rheum 
affections, or in sprained or over-exerted muscles. If a limb be wounded, bmiaed 
sore, the native practitioners tie a fillet tightly above it, for the purpose, as they a( 
preventing the malady from reaching the body. Headaches are treated by tying a b 
age firmly round the temples, and, if the pain be obstinate, the doctors bleed the pit 
under the arm, using a sharp piece of quartz as a lancet. The flowing blood is a 
allowed to be wasted, but is received on the body of the operator, and diligently nd 
into the skin, under the notion that by this process both parties are strengthened. ! 
depends, however, on the sex of the patient, women being never bled, nor allowd 
have the blood of any other person sprinkled upon them. 

About 1832, a curious disease broke out among the natives of Wellington Va 
resembling the small-pox in many things, and yet displaying symptoms wMch scil 
belong to that dread disease, the one fatal scourge of savage tribes. It was preoedsp 
headache, fever, sore-throat, &c., and accompanied by pustules very much resembling fc 
of the small-pox. It was, however, scarcely virulent enough for the real disease, tk. 
it was probably a milder form of it, and was subject to the power of vaccine matteE 
was not limited to the natives, but attacked many Europeans just like the genuine ^ 
pox, and in one case was fatal 

It is here mentioned on account of the mode of cure adopted by the native dn: 
They pimctured the pustules with sharp fish-bones, and squeezed them well win 
blunt end of their rude lancets, and it is a noteworthy fact that the rate of moitalfiJ 
very much reduced. Of course the doctors used otiLer modes, whereby they gKV^n 



THE BILBO. 83 

confidence in their powers. The chief of these was performed by means of 
of slender rods, six to nine feet in length, which were stuck in the ground in 
of a crescent, and addressed with long speeches and many mysterious gestures, 
le Australians, this disease, whatever it may be, does not strike the abject terror 
?h it is usually accompanied. Although they know that it is infectious, they do 
on the sick person, imless perhaps the doctor pronounces the patient incurable ; in 
;e they save him prolonged pain, and themselves useless trouble, by burying him 
he native term for this disease is *' thunna-thimna," and it is known to have 
hen the coimtry was first discovered, so that it is not imported from civilized 

ler remarkable kind of cure for the headache is mentioned by Mr. Angas. The 
jing seated on the ground, a string is tied round his head, the knot being care- 
Lsted to the middle of the forehead. The operator, who is always a woman, seats 
)posite the patient, places the line between her lips, and frets ftiem with it imtil 
i freely. The idea is that the disease, attracted by the blood, passes along the 
the patient's head, and is cast out together with the blood, 
y remarkable instance of this mode of cure is related in Tyerman and Bennett's 
round the World." A man had dreamed that he had been speared in the side, 
died in consequence of the wound. Although, when he woke, he knew it was 
am, he was so frightened that he became very ill, retired to his hut, chose the 
ds burial, and lay down to die. 

y a week elapsed, during which he could take no food, grew worse and worse, 
IS plain that nature woiild not hold out much longer. The priests — or rather 
for it cannot be ascertained that the New Hollanders have any other kind of 
ving, in fact, no religious worship — came to do what they could for him with 
lantments. By their order he was earned down to the side of a running water, 
)led into the stream, where it was pretty deep, head foremost. When taken out, 
)lled in the sand till his body was quite encased with it. This again was washed 
oring water over him. 

mwhile a young woman of the company was perceived plaiting a cord of kanga- 
, which, when completed, was bound round his chest, and a knot, very cunningly 
d by one of the operators, was placed over that part of his side into which the 
his dream had entered. From this knot a line was passed to the young woman 
prepared the bandage. This she drew through her mouth backwards and forwards 
«n sometimes do with a piece of packthread) until she began to spit blood, which 
to be sucked by that process from the wound in the sick man's side. There it 
perceptible that, from whatever cause, a considerable swelling had arisen under 
Towards this one of the sorcerers began to stroke the man's flesh from all the 
regions of the back, belly, and chest, as though to force the blood thither. He 
lied his mouth to the swelling, and, with hideous noises, sometimes sucked it 
lips, sometimes pressed it violently with his hands, tUi forth came the point of a 
ir inches in length, which he presented to the astonished spectators and the 
: sufferer, as verily extracted from the man's side. 

n he applied his mouth again to the swollen part, from which, although there 
isible wound, he appeared to draw blood and corrupt matter, stains of both being 
I on the swarthy skin. At length, with distended cheeks, as though he had filled 
1 with the abominable matter, he ran about, anxiously looking for a fit place to 
it upon ; but, affecting to find none, he crossed the water, and deposited the 
extract behind a bust Tlie poor man's hopes revived, and he now believed 
should get well again. Mr. Dunlop thereupon sent him some tea, which, 
he would not drink, but requested that it might be given to the sorcerer, and, if 
it, then it would do himself (the patient) good. He was deceived, disappointed, 

.ufltralians are tolerably good surgeons in a rough-and-ready sort of way, and are 
setting broken limbs. After bringing the broken ends of the bone together, they 
he limb by several pieces of wood which act as splints, and then make th^ 

g2 



84 



AUSTRALIA. 



whole secure by bandages, which tliey often strengtlien witli gum, exactly as 
modern surgery. 

One of the most powerful remedies employed by the native practitioi 
" doctor-stone." This is nothing but a common quartz crystal ; but the d< 
that they manufacture it themselves, and that the ingredients are kept secret. 
witama, mentioned on pt^e 78, women are never allowed even to look upon 
stone, and are impressed with the belief that, if they dared to set their eye 
forbidden object, they would bo immediately killed by its radiant powers. Tin 
crystal, tlio more valuable is it ; and a tolerably large one can scarcely be pro 
the natives at any price. 

The doctors say that this stone is not only fatal to women, but also destf' 
flung at them with certain incantations. A European settler once challengt 
doctor to say as many charms as he liked, and throw the magic stone as n 
pleased. Tliis offer, however, he declined, giving the usual excuse of savag 
wliite man lielongeii to ii totally different onier of beings, and, although the 

fellow would die from 
of the doctor-stone, 
man was miich t^jo ] 
be hurt by it. 

Themode inwhich 
is used is very curioi 
been described by a 
nesB. 

AnativeofthcTur 
named Golong, was su 
a spear-wound rece 
(skirmish with a he 
and was brought U 
Tiamed Baramumbii] 
healed. The patient 
on the ground outsi 
campment so that wi 
not run the risk of de 
the accidental siglit ot 
the doctor began a c 
nation of the wound, 
it. He then retired t( 
from the patient, mu 
magic words for it minute or so, and ]jlacc<l the crj'stal in liis mouth. Havin* 
there for a short lime, he removed it, spat ou the ground, and witli his feet tmm 
saliva, pressing it deeply into t)ie ground. This was repeated several times, am 
took hie leave. 

For several successive evenings the whole of the process was gone throu 
recovery of the jMitient, which was really rapid, was attributed by all pa 
wonderful efficacy of the doctor-stone. " On making inquiry," widtes Dr. Bet 
the physician is so careful in trampling the saliva discharged from his mot 
ground, no satisfactory reason could be obtained, a vague answer only being 
the query. But it is not improbable that they consider, by this practice, that 
destroy the power of the evil spirit, extracted by the operation through the vii 
stone. Some such reason for this proceeding jnay be inferred from an observ 
to any European who may be present at this part of the ceremony, ' that 
disease) may not come up again.' " 

It is remarkable that a ceremony almost exactly identical in principle is e 
the Guaycum tribe of Brazil. Among them the doctors, or payfo, cnr« loc 
whether wounds or otherwise, by sucking the part affected, spitting into 
ID the ground, and then filling in the earth, as if to hary the complaint 




L STONK nUT l'X>H CURR OP tltSBABE. 



TREATMENT OF INCURABLES. 



85 



AnstraliaD doctors make great use of the piinciple of suction, and employ it 

iids of cases. If, for example, a patient has a bad pain in Ms stomach from 

ig, or suffers more than he thinks right from the blow of a waddy, the doctor 

the afflict«d part vigorously, and at last produces from his mouth a piece of bone, 
other hard substance, 

' asserts to be the con- 
essence of the pain, or 

aent. The reader may 

at the bones with which 

of joaths are lanced in 

lonies of initiation are 

to be produced from the 

the operators by means 

1- 

y remarkable curative 

shown in the preced- 

ration, which is taken 

etch by Mr. Baines. It 

of a stone buUding, 

first sight looks so like 

ary Druidical remain 

light be taken for one, 

>r its dimensions. In- 

iwever, of bein^ com- 

hage stones, each weigh - 

al tons, it is quit« a tiny 

carcely larger than thie 

Qich children erect with 

lells. The patient hes 

her under it, the apertwe 

ist wide enough to admit 

-, and the small roof only 

; a very small port on of 

ate. Sundry 3 uperbtitious 

s employed at the same 

nd die remedy s effi 

. like the crystal already 

Md, in consequence of 

Ig the^ imagmation of the 

^UttU buildings are found 
he Victoria Kiver, and for 

deitl)le time the object for 

they were built greatly 
A the discoverers. 

■serine scarcely less efficacious than the doctor's stone ia human fat, which is 
% preserved, and administered by being rubbed in and around the affected part. 
"*««, it is highly valued by the warriors it is not easily procured, and, had it to be 
'•iv ' ^la the bodies of slain enemies, would in all probability never be used at 

we efficacy of this repulsive remedy does not depend on tlie individual from whom 
ih^tlalolachild or woman being quite as useful as that of a warrior. 
«^^ to Mr. G. T. Lloyd, the practice of deserting the helpless is found in 
™»«»eU ss in other countries, aud is practised exactly as is the case in Africa. 
^'T^» ill Ihe relations, as a rule, do not trouble themselves to visit the sick 
tek ti'ilJ**'' **" ^ "° apparent hope of recovery, a supply of food and firing 
^"■^^fw several days is left near them, and they are then abandoned to 




YOU HO MAN 



86 AUSTRALIA, 

their fata Even in the case of poor old Tarmeenia, mentioned on page 61, tl 
althougli he carried his wounded father more than four miles in order to place '. 
safety, never once came to see him. 

Sieeing that the natives place such implicit faith in the healing power uf the i 
stone, it is natural that they should also believe in sundiy charms as preservatives 
disease and misfortune. 

One ef these charms is a sort of a girdle, several inches wide in the midd 
tapering to a mere thong at each end. If it be made of string prepared from tbe t 
root, it is called Taara or Kuretti ; and if made of human hair, it goes by the n 
GodlottL It is used more as a curative than a preventive, and is mostly found ami 
tribes of the lower Murray Eiver. The hair, when twisted into thread, is wound 
curious spindle, consisting of two slender pieces of wood placed across each o1 
right angles. 

Another charm is shown in the illustration on the preceding page, slang rou 
neck of the boy. It is the beak of the black swan, which, from its scarlet colour, co 
well with the black skin of the wearer. The little boy's name is Eimmilli-peringe 
Mr. G. F. Angas remarks that he was an eng^ing little fellow, and had the largi 
softest pair of dark eyes that could be imagined. Tbe elder figure is that of a youi 
named Tyilkilli, belonging to the Pamkalla tribe of Port Lincoln. He has been s 
as a favourable example of the Australian young man in good circumstances, w 
careless, and gay with the unthinking happiness of mere animal life, which finds 
in the very fact of existence. 

Among many of the tribes may be seen a strange sort of ornament, or rather t 

namely, a drinking-cup made of a human skull. It is slung on cords and can 

them, and the owner takes it w! 

he or she goes. These ghastly i 

are made from the skulls of the 

and dearest relatives ; and wl 

Australian mother dies, it is 1 

right that her daughter should fi 

skull of her mother into a dr 

vessel. Thepreparationissimplei 

The lower jaw is removed, the hr 

extracted, and the whole of th 

thoroughly cleaned. A rope 

made of bulrush fibre is then a 

to it, and it is considered fit I 

It is filled with water throu 

SKULL DRiNKiNo VESSEL iLaJa Asbtrt.) Vertebral aperture, into which a 

grass is always stuffed, so as to 

the water from being spilled. 

Inconsistency is ever the attribute of savage minds. Although they consider 

convert the skull of a parent into a drinking vessel, and to carry it about with the: 

important branch of filial duty, they seem to have no very deep feelings on the 

In fact, a native named Wooloo sold his mother's skull for a small piece of tobaco 

mind was evidently not comprehensive enough to admit two ideas together, and i 

jective idea of present tobacco was evidently more powerful than the com] 

abstraction of filial reverence. 

The specimen exhibited in the illustration was drawn by Mr. Angas from obi 
was carried by a little girl ten years of age. Like " Little Nell," she was in atfa 
upon an old and infirm grandfather, and devoted her little life to him. In notii 
the difference of human customs shown more plainly than in the use of the mothei 
as a drinking vessel — an act which we should consider as the acme of heathen In 
but with these aborigines is held to be a duty owed by the child to the parent 

Perhaps my classical readers will remember a chapter in Herodotus which t 
tbiB Tety Bubject. He finds fault with Camt^sea for breaking into the tamplei 




omewnai similar proceeding is narrat^a in tne me oi jNussir-er-aeen, tne late iVing 
e. His native ministers, jealous of the influence exercised over him by some of 
"opean friends, complained that the English guests treated the monarch with dis- 
, by retaining their shoes in his royal presence. The king, who, enervated as he was 
ity, dissipation, self-indulgence, and flattery, was no fool, immediately proposed a 
mise. " Listen to me, nawab ; and you, general, listen to me. The King of 
d is my master, and these gentlemen would go into his presence with their shoes 
lall they not come into mine, then ? Do they come before me with their hats on ? 
• me, your excellency." 
ley do not, your majesty." 

0, that is their way of showing respect. They take off their hats, and you take off 
loea But come now, let us have a bargain. Wallah ! but I will get them to take 
ir shoes and leave them without, as you do, if you will take off your turban and 
J without, as they do." (See Knighton's " Private Life of an Eastern King.") 
I now come naturally to the burial of the dead, and the various ceremonies which 
)any the time of mourning. 

though the relatives seem so careless about the sick person, they really keep a 
and, as soon as death actually takes place, they announce the fact by loud cries, 
omen are the principal mourners, and they continue to sob and shriek and moan 
iey are forced to cease from absolute exhaustion. They cut their bodies until the 
streams freely from the wounds, and some of them chop their own heads with their 
lawks until their shoulders and bodies are covered with blood, 
tie reader will probably have noticed how widely spread is this custom of wotmding 
ody as a sign of mourning, and especially as a lamentation for the dead. We have 
fliat it exists in Africa, and we shall see that it is practised in many other countries, 
it was practised in ancient days by the people among whom the Jews lived, we see 
several passages of Scripture. See for example Deut. xiv. 1 : " Ye shall not cut 
rives, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead." Also Jer. xvi 6 : 
5y shall not be buried, neither shall men lament for them, nor cut themselves, nor 
e themselves bald for them." There is also the well-known passage concerning the 
to that the priests of Baal offered, in the course of which they "cut themselves 
ffteir manner with knives and lancets, till the blood gushed out upon them." 
"^ Wy is not disposed of at once, but is suffered to remain for a considerable time, 



88 AUSTRALIA. 

purpose. Sometimes the body ia placed in the cave without being reduced to ( 
and in some places the soil is of such a nature that the body becomes dr 
decomposition can proceed very far. During the Exhibition of 1862 one 
desiccated bodies was exhibited in England, and called the " petrified " man 
however, nothing but a shrivelled and diied-up body, such as ia often four 
dry soils. 

Near the Mumimbidgee Kiver, in the Wellington Valley, there is a r 
stalactitic cavern, divided into several " halls." This cavern is, or has been, a 
burying-place of the aborigines, who seem to have employed it for the same pu 
Abraham purchased the cave of Machpelah. In consequence of the use of the 
a burial-place, the natives are rather nervous about entering it, and they flatly 
venture into the darker recesses, for fear of the " dibbil-dibbil." \Vhen Di 
visited it in 1S32, he found iu a small side cave the skeleton of a woman. 
had been placed there nearly twenty years before. 

The Parnkalla and Nauo tribes have another mode of burial, which 
resembles that which is employed by the Bechnanas. The body is placed in a 
or squatting position, such as is employed by the natives when sitting, the ki 
drawn up to the chin, the legs close to the body, and the hands clasped ove; 
Examples of this attitude may be seen in many of the illustrationa A circi 
giave, about five feet in depth, is then dug, and after the body is lowered into 

number of sticks are liii 
f,Tave, nearly touching oi 
A thick layer of leave 
other of gra-ss are then 
the sticks, and over all 
the earth which has be( 
of the pit, so that the jj 
something like a huge ( 
In Northern Aus 
natives have a curious 
disposing of the dead. T 
the skulls togetlier, and 
into a circular mourn 
stones round them to 
ill their places. They dc 
the skulls, but make tl 
an open and conspicuoi 
The blacks of the 
River build monuments 
somewhat similar in a 
butare made of difieitnt 
They place a numU'r o: 
a ciiHsle, and in tlie ci 
erect an upright slab of stone. They can give no reason for this custom, hi 
that " black-fella make it so," or " it belong to black-fella." The former rep 
that the custom has always prevailed among the natives ; and the second, tlia 
shows that a native lies buried beneath the upright stone. 

Some of the tribes along the Clarence River have a curious mode of dispot 
dead — a mode which certainly has its advantages in its great economy of troub! 
an old man feels that the baud of death is on liim, he looks out for a liollow ti 
it, let* himself down to the bottom of the hollow, and so dies in liis tomb. 

In New South Wales the young people are buried beneath small tuuiu] 
adults are buried in a rather curious fashion. A pile of dry wood, leaves, & 
about three feet in height and six or seven in length. On the pile the body is 
bock, having the face directed towards the rising sun. The fishing apparatus, s 
other weapona and implemeats of the dead man are next laid on Uie pile, and t 




IO.JW IV 



i^^tts, i/u wiiuiu Yit: tut; iiiucubcu iur »u iiiuuii ui uur Kiiuwieugt:; ui uw .A.usi/iiuiaus, 

iteresting account of the burial of a boy, as described to him by an eye-witness : — 
iously to burying the corpse of the boy, a contest with clubs and spears took 
no injury was done to the parties engaged. The body was placed in a bark 
b to the proper length, a spear, a fishing-spear, and a throwing-stick, with 
her articles, being placed besides the corpse. The women and children made 
entations during the ceremony, and the father stood apart, a picture of silent 

canoe was- placed on the heads of two natives, who proceeded with it slowly 
he grave ; some of the attendants waving tufts of dried grass backwards and 
inder the canoe and amongst the bushes as they passed along. The grave being 
ive strewed it with grass, and stretched himself at full length in the grave, first 
k and then on bis side. As they were about to let down the child into the 
y first pointed to the deceased and then to the skies, as though they had a 
I that the spirit had ascended to another world. 

body was then laid in the grave, with the face looking towards the rising sun, 
ler that the sunshine might fall upon the spot, care was taken to cut down all 
>und that could in any way obstruct its beams. Branches were placed over the 
ss and boughs on them, and the whole was cix)wned with a log of wood, on 
ative extended himself for some minutes, with his face to tlie sky." 
! beginning of this description is mentioned a sham fight. This is held in con- 
of a curious notion prevalent among the aborigines, that death from natural 
ist be ransomed with blood. It suffices if blood be drawn even from a friend, 
aode by which they make the required oftering, and at the same time gratify 
>ative nature, is by getting up a sham fight, in which some one is nearly sure to 
?d more or less sevei-ely. 

imes the body of the dead man is disposed of rather oddly. In some parts of 
the natives, instead of consuming the body by fire, or hiding it in caves or in 
ike it a peculiarly conspicuous oQect. Should a tree grow favourably for their 
dey will employ it as the final resting-place- of the dead body. Lying iu its 
n, and so covered over with leaves and grass that its shape is quite disguised, 
s lifted into a convenient fork of the tree, and lashed to the boughs by native 
o further care is taken of it, and if, in process of time, it should be blown out of 



'It J 1 J I J 11 



90 



AUSTRALIA. 



banquet upon the body of the dead man does not seem to trouble the tnirviTon in tbk 
least ; and it often happens that the traveller is told by the croak of tlje disturbed Taveai 
that the body of a dead Australian is lying in the branches over his head. 

The aerial tombs a,re mostly erected for the bodies of old men who have died i 
natural death ; but when a young warrior has fallen in battle, the body is treated in avei; 
different manner. A moderately high platform is erected, and upon this ia seated tlw 




TBEE-TOMB OP AUSTRALIA. 



body of the dead warrior, with the face towards the rising sun. The legs are crossed, sn 
the arms kept extended by means of sticks. The fat is then removed, and, after beir 
mixed with red ochre, is rubbed over the body, which has previously been carefiiU 
denuded of hair, as is done in the ceremony of initiation. The legs and arms are covoM 
with zebra-like stripes of red, white, and yellow, and the weapons of the dead man m 
laid across his lap. 

The body being thus arranged, fires are lighted under the platform, and kept up forV 
days or more, during the whole of which time the friends and mourners remain hj -^ 
body, and are not permitted to speak. Sentinels relieve each other at appointed interv^-s 
their duty being to see that the fires are not suffered to go out, and to keep the flies a^a 
by waving leafy boughs or bunches of emu-feathers. When a body has been treate^k 
this manner, it becomes hard and mummy-like, and the strangest point is, that the ^^ 
dogs will not t^uch it after it has been so long smoked. It remains sitting on the plal^H 
for two months or so, and is then taken down and buried, with the exception o^^ 
skull, which is made into a drinking-cup for the nearest relative, as has already 
mentioned. 

Considering the trouble which is taken in the preparation of these bodies, iiii^^ 
evident respect which is felt for a brave warrior in death as well as in life, th& - 
treatment of them is very remarkable. When a friend, or even an individual of th.*; — ■. 
tribe, sees one of these mummitied bodies for the first time, he pays no honour to ~ 
loads it with reproaches, abusing the dead man for dying when the tribe stood i: ^ 
need of brave and skilful men, and saying that he ought to have known better li^^ 
die when Uieie was plenty of food in the countiy. Then, after contemplating tl»— -^^ 



f 


^\^HB*J 







aHOKINO THB BODIES OP BL&IN WASRIOBS. 



FortlaDd Bay, &nd towards tlie south-eastem parts of the coDtineut, the 
1 a curious combination of entombment and burning. They let the dead body 
me of the hollow trees, where it is supported in an upright position. A 
diY leaves and grasa is then heaped upon the tree, and the whole consumed 
1 the dismal screams and cries of the womea 

tier corious that funeral ceremonies are only employed in the case of those 
\ is supposed to be a loss to the tribe. Men, and even boys, are therefore 
ith funeral rites, because the younger men are warriors, the boys wonld have 
re, and the old men have done service by arms, and are still useful for their 
Ten young women are buried with some amount of show, because they pro- 
sn for the tribe. 



92 AUSTEALIA. 

the bodies of men. The corpse is allowed to remain on the branch until it falls to 
pieces ; and when any of her relatives choose to take the trouble, they will scrape a hok 
in the sand and bury the scattered bones. 

The shee-oak, or casuarina, is the tree which is generally selected for this purpose, 
partly because it is one of the commonest trees of Australia, and partly because the 
peculiar growth of its boughs affords a firm platform for the corpse. 

The time of mourning does not cease with the funeral, nor, in the case of a taer 
tomb, with the subsequent interment of the bones. At stated times the women, by whom 
the mourning is chiefly performed, visit the tomb, and with their kattas, or digging-stickB, 
peck up the earth around them, and make the place look neat. This done they sit dowa^ 
and utter their most doleful cries and lamentations. In some places they content them- 
selves with vocal lamentations, but in others the women think it necessary to show their 
grief by repeating the head-chopping, limb-scarring, and other marks of blood-letting 
which accompany that portion of the funeral ceremonies. 

In one part of Austmlia, near the north-west bend of the Murray, a most remarkable 
custom prevails. Widows attend upon the tombs of their dead husbands, and, after 
shaving their heads, cover them with pipe-clay kneaded into a paste. The head is fint *" 
covered with a net, to prevent the pipe-clay from sticking too tightly to the skin, a mis- 
fortune which is paitly averted by the amount of grease with which every Australiai is £ 
anointed. f 

A layer of this clay niore than an inch in thickness is plastered over the Lead,^!^ 
when dry it forms a skull-cap exactly fitting the head on which it was moulded, aad eaU 
account of its weight, which is several pounds, must be very uncomfortable to the 
These badges of mourning may be found lying about near the tumuli, and, until 
real use was discovered, they were very mysterious objects to travellers. In the illi 
on the following page is seen a burying-place near the river. Several of the mound 
of the natives are shown, and in the foreground are two widows, seated in the pooditf j 
attitude of Australian women, and wearing the widow's cap of pipe-day. Several otter] 
caps are lying near the tombs, having been already employed in the 
mourning. 

So careful are the natives of the marks of respect due from the survivors to the dull 
that a widow belonging to one of the tribes on the Clarence Kiver was put to deitk 
because she neglected to keep in orider the tomb of her late husband, and to dig t^j 
periodically the earth around it. 

From the disposal of the dead, we are naturally led to the religious belief of tlie 
AiLstraliaus. Like all savages, they are very reticent about their religious feelings, coa- 
cealing as far as possible their out\yard observances from the white people, and avowipgi 
ignorance, if questioned respecting the meaning of those which have become known Ml 
the strangers. Some observances, however, have been explained by Gi*6m, the unfiffsl 
tunate Scotch woman who had to reside so lon^ among the Kowraregas, and others W 
native converts to Christianity. Even these latter have not been able to shake off thl^ 
superstitious ideas which they had contracted thix)Ui;h tlu^ whole of their pi'evious lively 
and there is no doubt that they concealed much from tlieii* interi'ogators, and, if preMet 
too closely, wilfully misled them. 

The following short account will, however, give an idea of the state of religiotf 
feeling among the aborigines, as far as can be ascei-tained. And, in conse(]uence of Ult 
rapid and steady decrease of the native tribes, it is possible that our knowledge of tUl 
subject will never be greater than it is at present. 

In the first place, there are no grounds for thinking that the aborigines believe in mf 
one Supreme Deity, nor, in fact, in a deity of any kind whatever. As is usual with molt 
savage nations, their belief in supernatural beings is limited to those who are capable of ^ 
doing mischief, and, although the conception of a beneficent spirit which will do gmni 
never seems to enter an Australian's mind, he believes fully, in his misty fashion, in thl^ 
existence of many evil spirits which will do harm. 

Of these there are many. One of them is the Arlak, a being which takes the ahiftf! i 







tmmoii, they have great difficulty in describing it, and, as far as can be &'3cer- 
their statements, it is like a huge star-fish. This demon inhabits the fresli 
ere might have been grounds lov believing it to be merely an exaggeration of 
ish. 

lont the greater part of Australia ia found the belief in the Bunyip, a demon 

ita woods, and which has been seen, as is said, not only by natives but by 

TTie different accounts of the animal vary extremely. Some who have seen 

I be as iaigfi as a horse, to have a ])air of eyes as bif^ as saucers, and a pair of 



94 AUSTRALIA. 

Thinking that some large and now extinct beast might have lived in Australia, yrl 
might have been traditionally known to the aborigines, scientific men have taken ] 
ticular pains to ransack those portions of the country which they could reach, in hope 
finding remains which might be to Australia what those of the megatherium and oi 
huge monsters are to the Old World. Nothing of the kind has, however, been foi 
Some very large bones were once discovered on the banks of a shallow salt lagoon ( 
the place for the bunyip), but when sent to the British Museum they were at once fo 
to be the remains of a gigantic kangaroo. At present, the legend of the bunyip stt 
on a level with that of the kraken — every native believes it, some aver that they 1 
seen it, but no one has ever discovered the' least tangible proof of its existenca 

To these evil spirits the natives attribute every illness or misfortune, and in « 
sequence are anxious to avoid or drive them away. All meteors are reckoned by t 
among the evil spirits, and are fancifully thought to be ghosts which multiply by 
division. The aborigines think, however, that by breathing as loudly as they can, 
repeating some cabalistic words, they disarm the demons of their power. 

They have one very curious belief, — namely, that any one who ventured to sleej 
the grave of a deceased person, he would ever afterwards be freed from the power of 
spirits. The ordeal is, however, so terrible that very few summon up sufficient coura§ 
face it. " During that awful sleep the spirit of the deceased would visit him, seize him b] 
throat, and, opening him, take out his bowels, which it would afterwards replace, and < 
up the wound ! Such as are hardy enough to go through this terrible ordeal — encov 
the darkness of the night and the solemnity of the grave — are thenceforth * korac 
men, or priests, and practise sorcery and incantations upon the others of their tribe.** 

In Southern Australia, the natives believe that the sun and moon are human bei 
who once inhabited the earth. The planets are dogs belonging to the moon, who 
about her ; and the various constellations are groups of children. An eclipse of ei 
the sun or moon is looked upon as a tenible calamity, being sure to be the forem 
of disease and death. 

All burial-places of the dead are held as liable to be haunted by evil spirits, anc 
therefore avoided. Promontories, especially those which have rocky headlands, are 
considered as sacred ; and it is probably on accoimt of that idea that the skull mi 
ments, mentioned on page 88, are raised. 

Some of these places are rendered interesting by specimens of native draw! 
showing that the aborigines of Australia really possess the undeveloped element 
artistic power. Owing to the superstition which prevails, the natives can scarcel 
induced to visit such spots, giving as their reason for refusing that *' too much dil 
dibbil walk there." Mr. Angas was fortunate enough, however, to discover a considei 
nimiber of these drawings and carvings, and succeeded in impressing into his sei 
an old native woman. His description is so vivid, that it must be given in his 
words: — 

" The most important result of our rambles around the bays and rocky promont 
of Port Jackson was the discovery of a new and remarkable feature connected witi 
history of the natives formerly inhabiting this portion of New South Wales. 

" I refer to their carvings in outline, cut into the surface of flat rocks in the n« 
bourhood, and especially on the summits of the various promontories about the harl 
of the coast. Although these carvings exist in considerable numbers, covering all tin 
rocks upon many of the headlands overlooking the water, it is a singular fact that i 
the present time they appear to have remained unobserved ; and it was not unti 
friend Mr. Miles first noticed the rude figure of a kangaroo cut upon the surface of ) 
rock near Gamp Gove, that we were led to make a careful search for these singula] 
interesting I'emains of a people who are now nearly extinct 

*' About a dozen natives of the Sydney and Broken Bay tribes were encamped ami 
the bushes on the margin of a small fresh- water lake, close to Gamp Cove ; and 
amongst them we selected * Old Queen Gooseberry ' (as she is generally styled b] 
colonists) to be our guide, promising her a reward of flour and tobacco if she would tc 
wHat she knew about these carvings, and conduct us to all the rocks and headlands ii 



•om the tact that trom several of them we were compeUed to clear away soil and 
i of long-continued growth, it is evident that they have been executed a very 
ime. 

it first we could not bring ourselves to believe that these carvings were the work of 
js, and we conjectured that the figure of the kangaroo might have been the work of 
European ; but when, pursuing our researches further, we found all the most out- 
way and least accessible headlands adorned with similar carvings, and also that 
lole of the subjects represented indigenovs objects — such as kangaroos, opossums, 
, the heileman or shield, the boomerang, and, above all, the human figure in the 
^£S of the corrdtiboree dances — we could come to no other conclusion than that they 
)f native origin. Europeans would have drawn ships, and horses, and men with 
pon their heads, had they attempted such a laborious and tedious occupation. 
\ji old writer on New South Wales, about the year 1803, remarks, when referring 

natives, ' They have some taste for sculpture, most of their instrumente being 
[ with rude work, effected with pieces of broken shell ; and on the rocks are 
ntly to be seen various figures of fish, clvhs, swords, animals, cfcc, not contemptibly 
euted' 

Jome of the figures of fish measured twenty-five feet in length ; and it is curious 
le representetions of the shield exactly corresponded with that used by the natives 
1 Stephens at the present day. These sculptured forms prove that the New 
ideis exercised the arts of design, which has been questioned, and they also serve 
roborate Captain Grey's discoveries of native delineations in caves upon the north- 
coast of Australia, during his expedition of discovery. At Lane Cove, at Port 
, and at Point Piper, we also met with similar carvings. Whilst on a visit at the 
place, it occurred to me that on the flat rocks at the extremity of the grounds 
ong to the estate where I was staying, there might be carvings similar to those at 
[eads; and on searching carefully I found considerable numbers of them in a 
bly perfect state of pi-eservation. Of all these I took measuremente, and made 
1 fac-simile drawings on the spot." 

the appendix to his work, Mr. Angas gives reduced copies of these figures, some of 
are executed with wonderful spirit and fidelity. Even the human figures, which 
own with extended arms and spread legs, as in the dance, are far better than those 
y drawn by savages, infinitely superior to those produced by the artists of Western 
1^ while some of the animals are marvellously accurate, reminding the observer of 
otliiie drawings upon Eg}rptian monuments. The best are, perhaps, a shark and a 



96 



AUSTRALIA. 



large cave, out of which ran a number of smallev cavea, tlie explorers were struck by a 
really astonisliing trick of native art The sculptor had selected a rock at the side of 
the cavity, and Imd drawn upon it the figure of a hand and arm. This had then bewi 
painted black, and the rock around it coloured white with pipe-clay, so that on entering 
the cave it appeared exactly as if the hand and arm of a black man were projectii^ 
through some crevice which admitted light. 

Their belief in ghosts implies a knowledge that the spirit of man is immortal Yet 
their ideas on this subject are singularly misty, not to say inconsistent, one part of thdr 




belief entirely contradicting the other. They believe, lor example, that when the apirii 
leaves the body, it wanders about for some timu in darkness, until at last it finds a coi^ 
by means of which a " big black-fella spirit " named Oomudoo pulls it up from the earth. 
Yet tliey appropriate certain parts of the earth as the future residence of the diffemit 
tribes, the spirits of the departed Nauos being thought to dwell in the islands of Spencer's 
Gulf, while those of the I'anikallas go to other islands towards the west As if to con- 
tradict both ideas, we have already seen that throughout the whole ot Australia the 
spirits of the dead are supposed to haunt the spots where their bodies lie buried. 

And, to make confusion M'orse confounded, the aborigines believe very firmly in trans- 
migration, some fancying that the spirits of the departed take up their abode in aniniab, 
but by far the greater number believing that they are transformed into white mea Thji 
latter belief was put veiy succinctly by a native, who stated in the odd jargon employed 
by them, that " when blaick-fella tumble down, he jump up all same white-raUa." 



names of those whom they represented. Mr. M'Gillivray mentious that the 
Port Essington have a slight modification of this theory, believing that after 
r become Malays. 

ir belief in the metempsychosis, or transmigration into animal forms, there are 
camples. Dr. Bennett mentions that on one occasion, at B^rana Plains^ when 
n was chasing one of the native animals, a native who was with him begged 
o kill it, but to take it alive, as it was " him brother." When it was killed, 
cy angiy^ and, as a proof of his sincerity, refused to eat any of it, continually 
: and complaiiiing of the " tumbling down him brother." 
ano tribe preserve a tradition which involves this metempsychosis. Once upon 
tertain great warrior, named Willoo, fought their tribe, and carried off all the 
nd kille d all the men except two. The survivors climbed up a great tree, 
jjr Willoo. They, however, broke off the branch on which he was climbing, 
' fdl to the ground, and was seized by a dingo below, when he immediately 
ms ehanged into an eagle hawk, which has ever afterwards been called by the 

ime tribe think that a small lizard was the originator of the sexes, and in con- 

mU it by different names ; the men using the term ibirri, and the women waka. 

m the ide% the men kill every male lizard that they can find, while the women 

aebj the fmales. 

eled with this subject is their idea of creation. Of a single Creator of all 

y have not the least notion, but they possess some traditions as to the origin of 

tnal objects. The Kowrarega tribe say that the first created man was a huge 

ed Adi One day, while he was fishing ofif Hammond Island, he was caught 

e and drowned, a great rock starting up to mark the spot. This is now called 

fs Bock. His wives saw his fate, committed suicide by flinging themselves 

»» and were immediately changed into a series of dry rocks on a neighbouring 

»e rocks are still called by the natives Iplle, i.e. the Wives. 

stives of the Lower Murray have a curious tradition respecting the origin of 

and the Alexandrina and Albert Lakes. The river was made by Oomudoo, the 

k-fella spirit," already mentioned. He came down from the sky in his canoe, 

3d the water to rise and form the river, which he then clothed with bulrushes 

lated with fish. He brought two wives with him, but they unfortunately -. j 

tractable, and ran away from him, whereupon Oomudoo made the two lakes 1 j 



CHAPTER VIII. 



AUSTRALIA— Continued, 



ARCHITECTURE AND BOAT-BUILDING. 



PABALLEL BETWEEN THE BOSJESMAN AND THE AUSTBALIAN MODES OF BUILDINO HUTS — A 

BNCAICPMBNT — BUDE NATURE OF THE HUTS — ^RETBBATS OF THE WOHSN ^BOMS BUTI Cf | 

BNGOUNTEB BAY — WINTEB HOUSES — HUTS NEAB THE COOBUNG FQLE-] 

A SBLF-ACTING SNABE BOAT-BUILDINO USES OF THE 8TBINGY BABK A 

CANOE FOB GENEBAL USB THE BEED CANOE — GBADUAL EXTINCTION OF NATIVB 



In many points the Australian savage bears a curious resemblance to the Boq^ 
Southern Africa, of whom the reader will find a full account in VoL I, 

So similar, indeed, are they, that the colonists use the word Buahman to 
the native savage, just as they call the spotted dasyure by the name of cat^ 
wombat by that of badger. Much confusion has consequently arisen ; and there is 
before me a book descriptive of savage life, in which the author has mixed up 
Bosjesman of Africa and the Bushman of Austmlia in the most amusing maniMi^ 
actually transplanting a quotation from a book of African travels into the acooiuit 
Australia. 

like the Bosjesman, the Australian depends upon his weapons for the greater partofi 
his food, living almost entirely upon the game which he kills, and being skilled in thi 
art of destroying the wariest and most active of animals with the simplest of weapon&i 
He lives in a state of perpetual feud, his quarrels not being worthy of the name of] 
warfare ; and his beuu idM of a warrior is a man who steals upon his enemy by craft j 
and kills his foe without danger to himself 

He cultivates no land, neither has he the least notion of improving his social condit 
He cares nothing for clothes, except, perhaps, as a partial shelter from the elements, 
utterly ridicules the notion that there is any connexion between clothing and modesty. 

Indeed, on one occasion, when a girl had been presented with a petticoat by a wl 
lady, and returned to her people, displaying with pride her newly-aoquired property, 
companions, instead of displaying envy at her finery, only jeered at her, inquiring wh< 
she thought herself so much better than her forefathers, that she should want to 
clothes like the white strangers. The consequence was, that in a day or two the solil 
garment was thrown aside, and she walked about as before, in the primitive accout 
ments of her tribe. 

Like the African Bosjesman, the Australian native has no settled home, although 
considers himself as having a right to the district in which his tribe have teiken up tb 
abode. Contrary to the usage of civilized life, he is sensitive on the general questaca^ 
and careless in detail With civilized beings the hearth and home take the first plaoa 
in the afiections, the love of country being merely an extension of the love -of home*- 
With the Australian, however, as well as the Bosjesman, the case is just lev e iged? 
He has no home, and cares not for any one spot more than another, except that aomtf 



THE SFMMER ENCAMPMENT. 



99 



iheltered and others exposed He passes a semi-nomad existence, not unlike 
e Arab, save that Instead of pitching his tent on a convenient spot, and taking 
ben he leaves it, he does not trouble himself even to carry the simple materials 
but builds a rude hut in any spot which he may happen to fancy, and leaves it 
rhen he forsakes the spot 




^ BUMHBB ENCAHFMENT. 



ief object of the ordinary hut made by an Australian savage is to defend the 
im the cold south-west breezes. Consequently, the entrances of the huts may 
as a rule, turned towards the north-east, whence come the warm winds that 
d over the equator. 

mmer encampment of an Australian family is very simple. A number of leafy 
s stuck in the ground in a semicircular form, the size of the enclosed spaca 
.th the number of the family. These boughs are seldom more than four feet in 
1 often scarcely exceed a yard, their only object being to keep off the wind from 
d from the bodies of the natives as they squat round the flame or lie asleep, 
one should expect a shelter while he is standing never seems to enter the 
Q of an Australian savage, who, like other savages, never dreams of standing 
m sit, or, indeed, of taking any trouble that is not absolutely necessary. 
: stories that are told of the industry of savage life are pure inventions, and 
«, as we are often told, the truest nobility, we ought to hear no more of the 
fage." Consistently with this idea, the native Australian's only idea of the 
ice where he can sit and gorge himself with food, and lie down to sleep after 
us meal A fence a yard in height is therefore quite good enough for him, 
g as no tain falls, he thinks a roof to be a needless expenditure of labour. 
h2 



100 ArSTltALIA. 

In tlie precediug illuBtration ve have an example of an encampment on which tfai 
natives have bestowed rather more care than usual, and have actually taken the paini 
to form the branches into rude huts. The speara, shields, and other weapons of tlie 
natives are seen scattered about, while round the fire sit or lie the men who have satisfied 
their hunger. The reader will perceive that from a little distance such an encampmat 
would be almost invisible ; and indeed, except by the thin smoke of the fire, the mnt 
practised eye can scarcely detect the spot where natives are encamping. Even the speu 
which project above the bush-huta look at a little distance merely like dried sticks ; vti,i 
the inhabitants be very anxious to escape observation, they establish their encampmat 
in a retired spot, where the surrounding objects Iiarmonize as closely as possible with tb 
rude shelter which answers all their needs. 

lu many places the natives construct a habitation similar in principle, hut difTenngi 
in structure. Should the locality abound in the eucalyptus, or stringy-bark tree, tfaH 
natives make a hut altogether different in appearance. With wonderfiS dexterity, thm 
strip off the bark of the tree in large flakes, six or seven feet in length. A few IjigK 
branches of trees are then laid on the ground, so that they form a rough sort of frane^ 
work, and upon these bi-anches the flakes of bark are laid. An hour's labour will m&kej 
one of these huts, so that the natives have really no inducement to take any care (?i 
them. Eveu the very best hut which a native Australian ever made would be iDferio 
to the handiwork of an English boy of ten years old. For my own part. I reniBiulx 
building far better huts than those of the Australians, though I was at the time muc 
below ten years of age, and tiad gained all my knowledge of practical architecture 
" Sandford and Merton." 

There is, however, one great advantage in these bark-huts — namely, the rapidity 
which they can be made, and the shelter which they really do give from the travdW 
great enemy, the night wind. Even European tmvellera have been glad to avail tlieia 
selves of these simple structures, and have appreciated the invaluable aid cf ii few ih» ' 
of bark propped against a fallen branch. Those who have been forced to travel withe 
tents through a houseless country have learned by experience that the very best shell* 
&om the night winds is not height, but width. A tree, for example, fonus but a itt 
poor shelter, while a low wall bai-ely eighteen inches high and six feet in length keeps o 
the wind, and enables the wearied traveller to rest in comparative comfort. Such 
shelter is easily made from the sheets of stringy bark, one or two of which will fon 
a shelter for several sleepers. 

Perhaps the simplest huts that human beings ever dignified by the name of hahititia 
are those which are made by the women of a tribe when the men are away. It uoi 
times happens that the whole of the adult males go off on an expedition which will ll 
for a considerable time — -such, for example, as a mid upon a neighbouring tribe — ^letn'- 
the women and children to take care of themselves. These, knowing that they mjgbil; 
pounced upon by enemies who would take advantage of the absence of their defend^ 
retire into the recesses of the woods, where they build the oddest houses imaginaUe^M- 
burrows scraped among the roots of trees, and half huts made of bark and decayed wgtf , 
These habitations are so inconspicuous that even the practised eye of the natin m 
scarcely discover them. ; 

On the shores of Encounter Bay may be seen some very curious habitations. Eh| 
now and then a whale is thrown ashore by a tempest ; and in such a case the tribaM 
the neighbourhood flock round it with great rejoicings, seeing in it an unlimited sttfA 
of food. Huge as the animal may be, it is ei-e long consumed, and nothing left but 91 
skeleton. Of the bones the natives make the frami'work of their huts, the ends of tl 
ribs being fixed in the ground, so that the bones form the supports of the arched IM 
which is nothing more than houghs, grass, and matting thrown almost at random Vf§ 
the bony framework. 

During the winter time the native huts are of better construction, although tbe tW.' 
hut that an Australian ever made is but a very rude and primitive specimen ^ tnlittll 
ture. These winter huts are made on the same principle as those employed in aimaMt^ 
but the matcrialii are more closely put together. The framework of these huts la mida^ 



THE WINTER ENCAMPMENT. 



101 



lamber of s&ptiiigs ia the ground, and tying them together. Smaller branches 
ire then passed lo and out of the uprights, and pressed down so aa to make a 
rm wall Orer the wait comes a layer of large leaves, and an outer covering 
bark ia placed over the trees, and held in its place by a lashing of rattan, 
es are about five feet in height, and have an arched opening just Jaxge enough 
o enter on his hands and knees, 

luta as these, however, are but seldom seen, the ordinary winter dwellings 
; of bushes, as seen in the illustration. Near the entrance, but not within it, 
kindled, and at night the natives crowd into the hut, fillii^ it bo completely 
of the interior displays nothing but a confused maaa of human limbs. The 



^// ; 


^ 


W^^^^^^^^SSS^^B^^ '^^^jn 


gdk^ , -^ 


'"'[J^^^ 


'W ''"^' 






--• *"^_ 


Wi^^^B^^^kS^^^^^l 



WINTER UUTS. 



perceive that the luxury of a door has not been contemplated by the native 
-an omission wldch ia perhaps rather fortunate, considering the crowded state 
ior. 

he shores of the Coorung a rather peculiar kind of habitation is used, 
first be mentioned that the Uoorung is a back-water inlet of the sea, nmning 
it for some ninety miles or so, never more tlian a mile and a half from the sea, 
d from it only by a range of enormous sandhills. It is a wild and desolate 
is inhabited by the Milmendiira tribe, who made themselves so notorious for 
re of the passengers and men of the ship Maria. The natives probably like 
icause in the Coorung. which is protected from the ocean waves by the sand- 
:»n take fish without danger, and because the sandhills furnish a fruit called 
xy, or native apple, as, although a berry growing upon a creeping plant, it 
astes like a miniature apple. 

lation is much exposed in the winter time to the cold south-west blasts, and 
accordingly make comparatively strong huts. Their dwellii^ are formed of 
■k of sticks, over which is plastered a thick layer of turf and mud. In addi- 
they heap over the hut a great quantity of the sand and shells of which the 
tiiefly composed, so that the houses of the Milmendura look like mere mounda 
rising &om the sandy soil. 



102 AUSTRALIA. 

The fire which is found in every Australian encampment is generally procnied bj 
friction from two pieces of wood, one being twirled rapidly between the hands and the otha 
held firmly by the feet Indeed, the Australian savage produces fire exactly as does ihi 
South African (see Vol. L p. 101). This accomplishment, however, is not nniverBa] 
some tribes being unable to produce fire, and being dependent on the " fire-sticks " whicl 
the women carry with them. It has occasionally happened that the women have bea 
careless enough to allow all their fire-sticks to expire, and in such a case they are obligw 
to go to the nearest friendly tribe, and beg a light from them, in order to procure nn 
wherewith to cook the game that their husbands have brought home. 

Before leaving this part of the subject, it will be as well to mention briefly a few o 
the devices used by the Australian natives in taking their game. 

One of these devices is remarkably ingenious, and is principally employed in duck 
catching. The natives find out a spot where the ducks resort in order to feed, anc 
arrange their nets so that they may intercept birds that fly down upon them. When tht 
ducks are all busy feeding, the native hunter, who has concealed himself near the place; 
alarms the birds by suddenly imitating the cry of the fish-hawk, one of their deadliest 
foes. The terrified ducks rise in a body ; but, just as they ascend, the wily native fling! 
into the air a triangular piece of bark, imitating again the cry of the hawk. The birds, 
fancjdng that the hawk is sweeping down upon them, try to escape by darting into the 
reeds, and are caught in the nets. 

Another ingenious plan is used for capturing birds singly. The native makes t sort 
of screen of branches, and conceals himself witliin it. In his hand he carries a long and 
slender rod, at the end of which there is a noose, and within the noose a bait. Unda 
cover of the screen he comes close to the bird, and gently places the treacherous nooae 
near it. By degrees the bird comes closer and closer to the beat, and, as soon as its head 
is fairly within the noose, it is secured by a dexterous twist of the hand. Sometimes th 
native does not employ a bait. He builds his simple shelter by some spot where birds 
are accustomed to drink, and calls them by imitating their note. They come to the spot 
and, not seeing their companions, perch upon the sticks under which the hunter is cou- 
cealed, a large bunch of grass being generally used to prevent the birds from seeing him. 
As soon as the bird perches, he slips the noose over its head, draws it inside the ^d\ff, 
kills it, and waits for another. 

In some parts of the country the natives make a self-acting snare, very much on the 
principle of the nets used in snaring rabbits. It consists of a sort of bag, and has its 
opening encircled by a running string, the other end of which is fastened to some fixed 
object, such as a tree-stump. The bag is made of split rattans, so that it remains open, 
and, as the meshes are very wide, the bait which is placed within it can easily be seen. 

If a bird or animal should come to the bait, which is fixed at the very extremity ol 
the bag, it naturally forces its way towards the tempting object, and in so doing pnlh 
upon the string and closes the mouth of the bag behind it. The more it struggles, tin 
firmer is it held ; and so it remains until it is taken out, and the trap set again. This ver 
ingenious snare is used mostly for bandicoots and similar animals, though birds are some 
times caught in it 

The natives have another self-acting trap, which is identical in principle witi 
the eel-baskets and lobster-pots of our own country. A number of these traps wei 
found by Mr. Carron in some huts near Princess Charlotte's Bay. They were made c 
strips of cane, and were about five feet in length by eight or nine inches in diameter I 
the mouth. From the opening they gradually tapered for some four feet, and the 
suddenly enlarged into a large round basket or pocket, the lower ends of the neck projeci 
ing into the basket so as to hinder any animal from returning through the passage I) 
which it entered. This trap was used indiflferently for catching fish and small anmial 
For the latter purpose it was laid in their track, and for the former it was placed in 
narrow channel, through which the fish were forced to pass by being driven by a party < 
natives in the water. 

The reader wiU remember that on page 100 there is a reference to the " stringy bark 
and its use in architectura The same bark is used for a great number olpuTposeSp amoi 



CANOE-EUILDING. 



103 



rtich that of boat-building is perhaps the most conspicuous. Should a native come to 
Ibe side of a river which he does not wish to swim, he supplies himself with a boat in a 
my expeditious manner. Going to the nearest stringy-lmrk trees, and choosing one 
vhich has the lines of the bark straight and not gnarled, he chops a circle round the tree 
» ts to sever the bark, and about seven or eight feet higher he chops a second circle. His 
Kit proceeding is to make a longitudinal cut down one side of the tree, and a corre- 
qnn^Dg one on the other side. He then inserts the handle of his tomahawk, his digging- 
- ilick, or any such implement, between the bark and the wood, and, by judicious handling 




AUSTRALIAN 



*itiip« off the bark in two aemi-cylindrical, trough-like pieces, each of which is capable of 
king made into a boat. 

Should he be alone, he seldom troubles himself to do more than tie the bark together 
A etch end of the trough, and in this frail vessel he wUl commit himself to the river. 
IM if his wife, or any second person, should be with him, he makes the simple boat more 
Iwtworthy by di^ng a quantity of clay out of the river-bank, kneading it into each 
»d of the trough, and tying the bark over the clay. As soon as he reaches the opposite 
Acre, he lands, pushes the canoe back into the river, and abandons it, knowing that to 

I toke a second canoe will not be nearly so troublesome as to take care of the first 

If, however, he wants a canoe in which he goes fishing, and which, in consequence, 

' mnst be of a stronger make, he still adheres to the ."jtringy bark as his material, though he 

I tikra more care in the manufacture. The centi-al figure of the illustration represents one 
rf'fliese cftDOefl, and is taken from a sketch made on the Eiver Murray. Here it will be 
Mb that there is some attempt at producing a boat-shaped vessel, and, fragile as it may be. 



104 AUSTRALIA. 

it is evidently a boat, and not a mere trough of bark, stopped with clay at the ends, and 
called by courtesy a canoe. The bark is bent, like the birch-bark of the North American 
Indians, by moisture and heat ; and even with this better kind of boat clay is required at 
each end, and is also used for stopping up any leakage. 

The lower figure displays a stiU better use of the stringy bark. In this specimen the 
bark is not only formed into a boat-like shape, but it is kept in its form by cross-pieoei 
of wood. The edges are also strengthened : and altogether this canoe shows a wonderfal 
advance in boat-building. By the side of the canoe is a water-bucket, made, like tiu 
canoe, of stringy bark, sewn neatly together, and used either for carrying water or baling 
it out of the canoe. The vessel is propelled with a regular paddle instead of the fish* 
spear : and altogether the boat and the accompanying implements remind the observer of 
the birch-bark canoes and vessels of America. This figure is taken from a sketch mads 
on the north-eastern coast of Australia. 

Another simple form of boat is shown in the uppermost figure, and is drawn from i 
specimen in the British Museum. It is made on a totally different principle from thm 
which have already been described, and, instead of being a hollow trough of bark, k 
a solid bundle of reeds and sticks tied together in a very ingenious manner, and giviif 
support to one or more persons, according to its size. 

Such is the history of the aboriginal tribes of Australia, whose remarkable mannen 
and customs are fast disappearing, together with the natives themselves. The poor 
creatures are aware of the fact, and seem to have lost all pleasure in the games and 
dances that formerly enlivened their existence. Many of the tribes are altogether extinct 
and others are disappearing so fast that the people have lost all heart and spirit, and 
succumb almost without complaint to the fate which awaits them. In one tribe, ftr 
example, the Barrabool, which numbered upwards of three hundred, the births during 
seventeen years were only twenty-four, being scarcely two births in three years ; wMla 
the deaths had been between eighteen and nineteen per annum. 

Mr. Lloyd gives a touching account of the survivors of this once flourishing tribe :— 

" When I first landed in Geelong, in 1837, the Barrabool tribe numbered upwards rf 
three hundred sleek and healthy-looking blacks. A few months previous to my leaving , 
that town, in May 1853, on casually strolling up to a couple of miam-miams, or native 
huts, that were erected upon the banks of the Burwan River, I observed seated there nina 
loobras (women) and one sickly child. ; 

" Seeing so few natives, I was induced to ask after numbers of my old dark friends of 
early days — Ballyyang, the chief of the Barrabool tribe, the great Jaga-jaga, Panigeron^ ' 
and many others, when I re(ieived the loUowing pathetic reply : ' Aha, Mitter Looyedi - 
Ballyj'ang dedac (dead), Jaga-jaga dedac; Panigerong dedac,' &c., naming many otben; 
and, continuing their sorrowful tale, they chanted, in minor and funere^ tones, in their: 
own soft language, to the following efiect : 

" * The stranger white man came in his great swimming corong (vessel), and landed at 
Gorayio with his dedabul boulganas (large animals), and his anaki boulganas (Uttb 
animals). He came with his boom-booms (double guns), his white miam-miams (tenta). 
blankets, and tomahawks ; and the dedabul ummageet (great white stranger) took away tbl 
long-inherited hunting-grounds of the poor Barrabool coolies and their children,' &a Ac. 

'' Having worked themselves into a fit of passionate and excited grie^ weepimt 
shaking their heads, and holding up their hands in bitter sorrow, they exclaimed, in wM 
and frenzied tones : ' Coolie ! coolie ! coolie ! where are our coolies now I Where are oar 
fathers — mothers — brothers — sisters ? Dead 1 — all gone ! dead ! ' Then, in broken Tgn gligl^ 
they said, 'Nebber mind, Mitter Looyed, tir; by 'm by all dem black fella come bade 
white fella, like it you.' Such is the belief of the poor aborigines of Victoria ; henoe wm 
may firmly infer that they possess a latent spark of hope in their minds as to another and 
better world. 

'' Then, with outstretched fingers, they showed me the unhappy state of the aboriginal 
population. From their statement it appeared that there existed of the tribe at that 
moment only nine women, seven men, and one child. Their rapid diminution in numbea 



JUS. 

»ne tribe is bat an example of the others, all of whom are surely, and some not 
^preaching the end of their existence. 

any reasons we cannot but regret that entire races of men, possessing many fine 
should be thus passing away ; but it is impossible not to perceive that they are 
ing the order of the world, the lower race preparing a home for the higher. 
; present instance, for example, the aborigines performed barely half of their 
men. They partially exercised their dominion over the beasts and the birds — 
tit not otherwise utilizing them. But, although they inherited the earth, they 
tubdue it, nor replenish it. They cleai*ed away no useless bush or forest, to 
em with fruits ; and they tilled no land, leaving the earth exactly in the same 
that they found it. Living almost entirely by the chase, it required a very large 
round to support each man, and a single tribe gained a scanty and precarious 
a tract of land sufficient, when cultivated, to feed a thousand times their number, 
ley occupied precisely the same relative position towards the human race as do 
iger^ and leopard towards the lower animals, and suffered in consequence firam 
law of extinction. 

3ces8 of time white men came to introduce new arts into their country, clearing 
less forest, and covering the rescued earth with luxuriant wheat-crops, sufficient 
e whole of the aborigines of the country ; bringing also with them herds of sheep 
led cattle to feed upon the vast plains which formerly nourished but a few 
, and to multiply in such numbers that they not only supplied the whole of their 
and with food, but their flesh was exported to the mother-country, 
uperior knowledge of the white man thus gave to the aborigines the means of 
their supplies of food ; and therefore his advent was not a curse, but a benefit to 
tat they could not take advantage of the opportxmities thus offered to them, 
ead of seizing upon these new means of procuring the three great necessaries of 
ife, food, clothing, and lodging, they not only refused to employ them, but did 
* to drive them out of the country, murdering the colonists, killing their cattle, 
Qg iheir crops, and burning their houses. 

means were ofTered to them of infinitely bettering their social condition, and 
ortonity given them, by substituting peaceful labour for perpetual feuds, and of 
professional murderers into food-producers, of replenishing the land which their 
ing quarrels, irr^ular mode of existence, and carelessness of human life had weU- 
popokted. These means they could not appreciate, and, as a natural consequence. 



NEW ZEALAND. 



CHAPTER I. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 




LOCALITY OP NEW ZEALAND — GENERAL AFPEABANCE OF THE PEOPLE THE TWO CA8TBSy 

TUEIIl SUPPOSED ORIGIN — CONTRAST BETWEEN THE SEXES LAXNESS OF MORALS NUICBIB 

THE POPULATION, AND THE DIFFERENT TRIBES — MODE OF GOVERNMENT — DISTINCTION BE1 
RANKS — FORMATION OF THE CLANS, OR SUB-TRIBES — THE SLAVES, THEIR VALUE AND 

MENT — THE TENURE OF LAND A COMPLEX ARRANGEMENT AND CONSEQUENT DIFFICULTm* 

ESTABLISHING A CLAIM NATIVE LAW — THE " LEX TALI0NI8 " SENSITIVENESS TO D] 

THE PREVALENCE OF SUICIDE — STRANGE CONDUCT OF A MAORI CHIEF — THE SISTEB'S VRNe] 

SouTirvTARD and eastward of Australia we come to the group of islands known coll< 
as New Zealand. Like Australia, New Zealand possesses many peculiarities of e 
and natural productions, and is inhabited by a number of tribes which are generally h 
to each other, but which are almost identical in appearance and habita We shall th 
be enabled to treat of this important portion of the globe with much more brevity 
could be the case if, as in Africa, the tribes differed from each other in hue, 
and customs. 

Taken as a whole, the New Zealanders are a singularly fine race of people — ^tall, 
fnl, and well made. Though varying somewhat in shade, the colour is always a biown 
some kind, the complexion being sometimes as light as that of a Spaniard, and sonu 
of a dark umber. It is, however, always of a clear tint, and never approaches to the 
black of the Australian. Tlie nose is straight and well formed, in many cases being 

aquiline ; and the mouth is rather large, and the lips moderately foil, though not : 

bUng those of the negro. The cheekbones are rather high, but not much more promi]Mi| 
than those of a genuine Scotchman ; and the eyes are large, dark, and vivacious. j 

The teeth are remarkably wliite and even, and the feet and hands small and ynm 
proportioned. The foot is very well developed, the native never having spoiled its ben- 
tiful mechanism with shoes or boots, and being accustomed to use the toes in many tuikl 
wherein a civilized European requires his fingers. The toes are, for example, contdniiaPf 
employed in holding one end of a rope, while the fingers are engaged in twisting Oil 
plaiting it ; and the consequence is that the natives are able to ridicule with justice tbi 
misshapen feet and toes of the European. ■ ; 

The men have naturally a full beard ; but they always remove eveiy vestige of lodl^ 
on the face, in order to show the patterns which are tattooed upon it. Now and thai i 
very old and powerful chief will dare to allow his beard to grow ; but, as a role, tlra tu$ 



second race, according to Dr. Dieifenbach, " is mixed in insensible gradations with 
ler, and is far less numerous ; it does not predominate in any one part of the 
or does it occupy any particidar station in a tribe ; and there is no diiference made 
the two races among themselves. 

b I must observe that I never met any man of consequence belonging to this tribe, 
, although free men, tliey occupied the lower grades : from this we may, perhaps, 
i relation in which they stood to the earliest immigrants into the country, although 
ditions and legends are silent on the subject. 

)m the existence of two races in New Zealand the conclusion might be drawn that 
:er were the original proprietors of the soil, anterior to the arrival of a stock of 
yrnesian origin ; that they were conquered by the latter, and nearly exterminated, 
inion has been entertained regarding all Polynesian i^ands ; but I must observe 
J very doubtful whether those differences which we observe amongst the natives 
Zealand are really due to such a source. We find similar varieties in all Poly- 
dands, and it is probable that they are a consequence of the difference of castes so 
ely spread amongst the inhabitants of the tribes of the great ocean, 
one part of the population of New Zealand are a distinct race — a fact which 
)e denied as regards other islands — it is very curious that there should be no 
f such a blending in the language, where they would have been most durable, or 
aditions, which certainly would have mentioned the conquest of one race by the 
'it had happened. Captain Crozet, a Frenchman, who early visited New Zefidand, 
it he found a tribe at the North Cape darker than the rest. I could observe 
of the kind there, though I visited all the natives. Nor are those darker-coloured 
jbJs more common in the interior ; I should say, even less so. 
ere is undoubtedly a greater variety of colour and countenance among the natives 
Zealand than one would expect — a circumstance which might prove either an 
mding of different races, or a difference of social conditions, which latter supposi- 
ild go far to explain the fact All the New Zealanders speak of the Mango-Mango, 
a of New South Wales, as unconnected with and inferior to themselves ; but they 
ake such a distinction r^arding their own tribes." 

8 often the case with uncivilized people, the women are decidedly inferior to the 
ing much shorter, and not nearly so well made. They are not treated with the 



108 



NEW ZEALAND. 



palpable. This is the very lax code of morality whicH prevails among them, a youi 
being permitted the utmost freedom until she is married, although afterwards sb 
model of constancy. This privilege is exercised at a very early age, and the natun 
sequence is that the due development of the frame ia checked. This vicious system 

much a matter of course, t 
carries no reproach with i 
the young girls are rema 
for their modest and chi 
demeanour. 

Of course they become 
much earlier tiian those 
development takes place at 
period of life ; but they co 
sate for their deteriorated a] 
ance by their peculiar kinc: 
of demeanour. 

Unlike the men, the v 
do not disfigure their faces 1 
tattoo, which gives to the 
stem and fixed expressii 
characteristic of a New Zi 
warrior ; and they thus all< 
really flexible and intel 
features to have full play, 
only portions of the face tli 
marked with the tattoo m 
lips, which are rendered bl 
the process, as it ia cons 
disgraceful for a woman tc 
red lips. The tattooing is i 
performed when the chi 
allowed to take her place i 
women ; and, as may be ims 
it gives a livid and altogeth 
pleasant appearance to the i 
The children are very pi 
and interesting little cie 
They are full of intelligenc 
unusually free and open ii 
manner. Unlike the child 
most savage nations, they 1 
much with the men as iri 
women, and partake even 
councils of their parenta 
having their faculties sliarpened at a very early age. The illustration on page lOS 
typical examples of the New Zealander from childhood to c^e, and the refuder will 
the contrast between the soft and rounded outlines of the youth and the harab 
coontenances of the old man and his consort. 

In proportion to the dimensions of New Zealand, the population is very smaU 
even in the earliest days of our acquaintance with it, the land seems to have be 
thinly inhabited. 

^niat such should be the case is very remarkable, as a very thin population is ge 
found in those countries where, as in Australia, the inhabitants live principally 
chase, and therefore require a very large tract of land to support tham. The Ne 
landen, however, do not live by the chase, for the simple reason that there an no a 




WOMAN AND BOX. 



TYPICAL PORTRAITS. 109 

rlnch aie worth the trouble of hunting ; so that a family of twenty or so, even if they had 
be eotiie country as a hunting-ground, would find themselves in veiy great straits were 
hty obliged to procure their food by the chase. The reasons for this thin population will 
« pres^itly aeea 




Aocmdiiig to DieETenbach's calculation, the native population of tlie entire country 
My be reckoned rather below one hundred and fifteen thousand. These are divided 
■to twelve great tiibea, which are again subdivided Into sub-tribes, or clans, each of 
4idk fau itB separate nam^ and is supposed to belong to a certain district. The fighting 



110 NEW ZEALAND. 

inen, or warriors, form about one-fourth of the whole population ; the remaining three- 
fourths being made up of old men, women, and children. Since this calcnlatioii tha 
numbers of the aborigines have considerably lessened. The most important of the tribei 
seems to be the Waikato, which is divided into eighteen clans, and which occupies a voy 
large proportion of the country. This tribe alone can bring into the field six thousand 
fighting men ; so that the entire number of tlie tribe may be calculated at twenty-fou 
thousand or so. 

The Waikato clans have managed to preser\'^e their individuality better than the 
others, and, though brought much in contact with civilization, and having adopted some 
of the habits of their white visitors, they have still retained many of their ancient custom^ 
and, as DiefTenbach remarks, have preserved much of their ancient vigour and origimt 
virtues. 

The tribe that is strongest in mere numbers is the Nga-te-kahuhuna, which inhaUi 
the east coast, and may be reckoned at thirty-six thousand strong. In fact, these two 
tribes alone outnumber the whole of the others taken collectively. One tribe, the Bangi* 
tani, is interesting from the fact that it was described by Captain Cook. In his daya i|; 
was evidently a large and flourishing tribe, but some few years ago it could scarce^ 
muster tliree hundred warriors, representing a total number of twelve hundred. Thi 
decadence of this tribe is probably owing to the destructive wars in which the Ner 
Zealanders engage, and which are often so fierce as to erase a tribe entirely. 

The government of the New Zealanders is a curious mixture of simplicity and com[ 
cation. Monarchy is unknown, each tribe having its own gi*eat chief, whUe an inferifl| 
chief presides over each clan, or sub-tribe. The whole of the population may be rou] 
divided into three ranks. First come the nobility, then the free men, and lastly 
slaves. The nobility go by the general name of Eangatira — a title which is always giv«^ 
to officers, missionaries, and other white men who are placed in command over others. 

In each tribe one of the Eangatira is the Ariki, or principal chief; but, as he TM 
necessarily a Eangatira, he is always addressed by that title, and, in consequence, a^ 
stranger finds some difficulty, even after a prolonged visit, in ascertaining who is fh^ 
Ariki. Among the New Zealanders there is no Salic law, so that the Ariki need not be a' 
warrior, and may be a woman. The office is hereditary, and the existing Ariki is alwaji 
held in the highest veneration in virtue of his descent. Even the hostile tribes respect am 
Ariki, and in most cases, if he should be captured in battle, the victors will spare his lift; 
One or two of the most powerful chiefs living have been captured and afterwards released^ 
whereas, had they been common men, or even ordinary Eangatiras, they would have been 
killed, their bodies eaten, and their heads dried and fixed as trophies on the houses of 
their conquerors. 

A sort of tax, or tribute, is paid by the different families, though the tax is entirely a 
voluntary one, and may be great or small, or withheld altogether, at pleasure. Mostly thft 
Ariki is a man of considerable mental powers, and, in such a case, he exercises gmt 
authority over the tribe, either as a priest or a warrior. There is nothing to prevent thft 
Ariki from assuniing the office of priest, and in many instances he has been able to 
exercise a far greater influence by spiritual than by physical means. 

The Eangatira are the great men, or nobles, of the land, and with them, as with the 
Ariki, the rank is hereditary. The law of succession is very remarkable, the eldest son 
being the heir to his father's rank ; but if the child dies, the youngest, and not the next 
eldest, becomes the lawful successor. These two heirs, the eldest and the youngest sonS) 
are called by a name which signifies the fat of the eartk 

Each Eangatira is independent of his fellows, though they collectively form a sort d 
body which we may compare with our House of Peers. Any liangatira who has sufficieni 
influence may gather together tlie members of his clan, build a fortified village, or pah, 
and become a petty sovereign in his own dominions. It is in this way that the vanoni 
elans, or sub-tribes, are formed, each gathering round a noble of more than usual ability, 
and adopting a name by which the members will ever afterguards be known. 

The free men form the great body of the warriors ; some of them being the sons o| 
Bangatira, and others merely having the privilege of free birth, which carries with it the 



THE LAND QUESTIOlT. Ill 

ight of tattooing the face. Sometimes a free man who is remarkable for his generalship 
Dd courage will take the command of an expedition, even though men of higher rank 
lian himself should be engaged in it. 

Last come the slaves. These are always procured from two sources : they are either 
iptives taken in battle, or are the children of such captives. The value of such slaves is 
ery great. All savages are idle, but the New Zealander is one of the laziest of mortals in 
me of peace. In war he is all fire and spirit ; but in peace he lounges listlessly about, 
id will not do a stroke of work that can possibly be avoided. 

He may, perhaps, condescend to carve the posts of his house into some fantastical 
anblance of the human form, or he may, perchance, employ himself in slowly rubbing a 
sone club into shape, or in polishing or adorning his weapons. Whatever real work is 
> be done is left to the women or the slaves, and a man who values his wife or daughter 
ill endeavour to procure slaves who will relieve her of the drudgery. 

There are slaves of both sexes, to whom the appropriate work is allotted. They are 
ODsidered the absolute property of their owner, who may treat them as he pleases, and, 
r he prefers to kill them, may do so without attracting any attention. Of course he 
nrald not do so except for very good reasons, as he would deprive himself of a valuable 
iticle of property. There have been cases, as we shall presently see, when the owner of 
lives has deliberately murdered them for the sake of selling their heads. 

Once a slave, always a slave. Should one of these unfortunates manage to escape and 
1^ back to his own tribe, his owner would apply for him, and he would be given up, the 
ifjai of the master to his slave being universally recoguised. Still, as a rule, the slaves 
Wt treated well, and some of them, who have attained excellence in certain arts, often 
kwome richer men than their owners. So gi'eat is the value of slaves, that many a war 
bs been undertaken for the mere purpose of slave-hunting, and some of the most 
fiMstzous and obstinate feuds have originated in a slave-hunt. 

Connected with the government of the New Zealanders is the land question. This 
h a strangely complicated business, as every inch of ground has an actual owner, 
slile there are usually several claimants who allow their rights, real or imagined, to 
jfa in abeyance as long as the land is owned by one who can hold his own, while they 
Wl all prefer their claims at his death, or even during a lengthened absence. 

So it has oftefn happened that the white men, while desiring to act according to law 
Mi honour, have involved themselves in a very net of difficulties. A chief, for example, 
*iy agree to seHr'a portion of territory, will receive the price, and will sign a deed, which 
■win be witnessed by natives as well as by Europeans. No sooner has he done so, than a 
dumant comes forward, declaring that the chief in question had no real right to the land, 
[tad therefore had no right to sell it. 

His claim will be inquired into, and, if it seems to be tolerably consistent with likeli- 

the man will be paid an additional sum for his consent to the sale. The matter, 

er, is not at an end, for such is the jealousy with which the natives regard land, that, 

nlmg as a foreigner holds an inch of ground, so long will there be a native who prefers a 

■ dDm to it. Strange as it may seem, the white man would incur less odium by taking the 

Ittl by force, and seizing it by right of conquest, than by trying to act according to 

jvtiee and equity. 

War is a fertile source of misunderstanding about land. A tribe may be driven out 
' rf I district, and their land given to others, who hold it as long as they can keep it, the 
*9nal possessors being sure to reconquer it if possible. It has sometimes happened 
ttit a chief to whom such lands have been presented has transferred them to another 
ckiet and he, in his turn, has sold them to European settlers, the bargain being ratified by 
b own followers, who are considered as having a share in such property. 

The colonists take the land, clear it, cultivate it, and when the crops are fairly in the 
pnuid, the dispossessed tribe will come forward and prefer their claim to it. Those to 
rtom it was sold have already received their price, and do not trouble themselves to 
^po8e the claim ; and the consequence is, that the colonists are obliged either to make 
^leoond payment or to run the risk of war. 

A? to the claims themselves, they are of the most curious and unexpected character,, 




112 NEW ZEALAND. ^ 

such as no European would be likely to anticipata According to Dieffenbach, "There 
exists a very distinct notion of the rights of landed property among the natives, and eroy 
inch of land in New Zealand has its proprietor. Sometimes land is given io a stiange 
tribe, either as pay, or from other considerations, but the proprietor reserves certain rights, 
some of which are what we should term manorial. 

" It was formerly very common that the fat of the native rats (Kiore) killed on suck 
lands should be given to the principal proprietor, and in many cases a title to land seem 
to have been derived from the fact of having killed rats on it. Thus a chief will aaji 
* This or that piece of land is mine ; I have killed rats on it/ Generally, however, \aai 
descends, as with us, by inheritance." 

Such being the complicated tenure on which land is held — a tenure which is oftet 
puzzling to the natives themselves — it is no matter of wonder that English settlers should 
have found themselves in difficulties. It is said that the colonists tried to make themselvH 
masters of the land by unfair means, i,e, either by forcibly taking possession of it, or ly 
inveigling the ignorant natives into signing documents which they did not understaiM^ 
and thus selling their paternal estates for rum, tobacco, and a few blankets. 

This may to some extent have been the case when the colonists first came to settle ift 
the country. But the natives are far too intelligent to remain long ignorant of the powtf 
of pen, ink, and paper, and there is no doubt that in many cases they intentionally od^ 
witted the purchaser, either by putting forward a sham owner of the groimd, who had ~" 
right to sell it, and wIk) vanished with his share of the prize as soon as the bargain 
concluded, or by asserting ignorance of the meaning of the document which had 
signed, and refusing to carr}^ out its conditions. That the white men succeeded too of 
in cheating the natives is unfortunately true, but it is no less true that the natives 
often cheated the colonists. 

Law among the New Zealanders seems to be of the simplest kind, and, as far as 
know, is not so well developed as among some of the tribes of Southern Africa, 
three offences of which tho law takes cognisance are murder, theft, and adultery. Fn 
the first of these offences a sort of lex tcdionis holds good, the relatives of the slain 
being sure, sooner or later, to kill the murderer, unless he manages to compromise 
them. Even theft is punished in a similar fashion, the thief being robbed in his turn. 

As to the third offence, it is punishable in various ways ; but both the offending partiM 
are supposed to have forfeited their lives to the husband. If, therefore, the fact be difr^ 
covered, and the culprit be a person of low rank, he seeks safety in flight, whUe, if he he 
a man of rank, he expects that the offended husband will make war upon him. 

Sometimes, if a wife discovers that her husband has been unfaithful to her, she will 
kill his paramour, or, at all events, disgrace her after the native custom, by stripping df 
all her clothes, and exposing her in public. Even the husband is sometimes subject^ to 
this punishment by the wife's relations ; and so much dreaded is this disgrace that mctt 
have been known to commit suicide when their offence has been discovered. 

Suicide, by the way, is not at all uncommon among the New Zealanders, who alwayi 
think that death is better than disgrace, and sometimes destroy themselves imder tha 
most trivial provocation. One such case is mentioned by Mr. Angas. " On arriving 
at the village or kainga of Ko Nghahokowitu, we found all the natives in a state of extnr 
ordinary excitement We had observed numbers of people running in that direction, 
along the margin of the river, from the different plantations, and, on inquiry, we learned 
that an hour previously to our arrival the son of an influential chief had committed 
suicide by shooting himself with a musket. 

" Our fellow-travellers, with Wisihona their chief, were all assembled, and we followrf 
them to the shed where the act had been perpetrated, and where the body stiD lay «• 
it fell, but covered with a blanket The mourners were gathered round, and the wom}a 
commenced crying most dolefully, wringing their hands, and bending their bodies t0' 
the earth. 

" We approached the body, and were permitted to remove the blanket from the ftc* 
and breast The countenance was perfectly placid, and the yellow tint of the skin, ooo- 
bined with the tattooing, gave the corpse almost the appearance of a wax model The: 



A SISTEE'S EEVENGE 113 

leoeBsed was a fine and well-made young man. He had placed the musket to his breast, 
ud delibeiately pushed the trigger with his toes, the bullet passing right through his 
imgEL Blood was still oozing from the orifice made by the bullet, and also from the 
Doath, and the body was still warm." 

The cause of this suicide was that which has already been mentioned. The young 
■an had been detected in an illicit correspondence with the wife of another man in the 
■me village. The woman had been sent away to a distant settlement, a proceeding which 
■d already made her lover sullen and gloomy ; and, on the day when Mr. Angas visited 
he place, he had become so angry at the reproaches which were levelled at him by some 
i lus relEUions, that he stepped aside and shot himself 

The determined manner in which the New Zealanders will sometimes commit suicide 
ns exemplified by the conduct of another man, who deliberately wrapped himself up in 
in Uanket, and strangled himself with his own hands. The crime was perpetrated in 
he eonmion sleeping-house, and was achieved with so much boldness that it was not 
Inovered until the man had been dead for some time. 

A remarkable instance of this phase of New Zealand law took place when Mr. 
Keflfenbach visited the Waipa district He was accompanied by a chief, who called a 
to him, and handed her over to the police magistrate as a murderess. The fact was, 
her brother, a married man, had formed an intimacy with a slave-girl, and, fearing 
vengeance of his wife's relatives, had killed himself. His sister, in order to avenge 
death of her brother, fotmd out the slave-girl in the bush, and killed her. The 
part of the business was, that the accused girl was the daughter of the chief 
lonced her. 
The girl pleaded her own cause well, saying, what was perfectly true, that she had acted 
to the law of the land in avenging the death of her brother, and was not 
hie to the laws of the white man, which had not yet been introduced into her 

imMMAjm 

As might be imagined, her plea was received, and the girl was set at liberty ; but her 
"^ was so earnest in his wish to check the system of retaliatory murder, that he 
ly offered himself in the place of his daughter, as being her nearest relation. 



TOLn. 



CHAPTER II. 



DRESS. 



DBE8S AND OENAMEXTS OF THR NKW ZEALANBER — THE TATTOO OB THE MOKO — ITS FOBSODil 
CHABACTEB — THE TATTOO A HARK OF FREEDOM — THE TATTOO OF THR FACE, AMD 1 
DIFFERENT PORTIONS— COST OP THE OPERATION — THE IMPLEMENTB, AND MODE OF VWDXQ Tfl 

TIME OCCUPIED IN COMPLETING IT — PAYMENT OF THE OPERATOR, AND THE TATTOO 80*1 

SOURCE WHENCE THR PIGMENT IS OBTAINED — SCARLET PAINT, AND MODE OF MAKINfl B 
THE NEW ZEALAND BELT — SYMBOLISM OF THR TATTOO— PBESERVINO THE HEADS OF WAUH 
THE TRAFFIC IN HEADS — A COOL BARQAINER. 

We will now proceed to the appearance and dress of the natives of New Zealandi 
Maories, as they term themselves. As the most conspicuous part of the New Zealaiidl 
adornment is the tattooing with which the face and some other portions of the body I 
decorated, we will begin our account with a description of the moko, as it is called 
the natives. 

There are many parts of the world where the tattoo is employed, but in none is it 
so formidable a description as among the New Zealanders. As the reader is piobd 
aware, the tattoo consists of patterns made by introducing certain colouring matters ubi 
the skin ; charcoal, variously prepared, being the usual material for the purpose. We hi 
already seen among the Kaffirs examples of ornamenting the skin by cutting it deeplf 
as to form scars, and in Australia a similar but more cruel custom prevails. In neil) 
of these countries, however, is there any attempt at producing an artistic efifect, whih 
New Zealand beauty of design is the very object of the tattoo. 

There is a distinction between the tattoo of the New Zealanders and the Polynesiai 
that of the latter people being formed by rows of little dots, and that of the foimer 
lines cut completely tlirough the skin. On account of this distinction, though a M 
Zealander and a Polynesian be covered from head to foot with tattoo marks, mere is 
possibility of mistaking the one for the other. 

The moko of the New Zealander is a mark of rank, none but slaves being withoo 
more or less complete tattooing of the fece. In the present day, even the chiefe h 
begim to discontinue the ancient custom, chiefly owing to the exertions of the missionai 
who objected to the practice as a mark of heathendom. Consequently, several of 
most powerful convert chiefs present a very curious, not to say ludicrous, aspect, wh 
can hardly have a good effect in recommending Christianity to the people. Having b 
converted before the moko was completed, and being unwilling to continue the proc 
and unable to obliterate those portions which were already drawn, they appear n 
one half of their faces tattooed and the other half plain, or perhaps with a soutaiy t 
round one eye, and a couple of curves round one side of the mouth. 

As, however, the present work treats only of the native customs, and not of mod 
civilization, the New Zealanders will be described as they were before they had learned 



TATTOOING. 



116 



abandon the once-prized tattoo, to exchange the native mat for the English blanket, the 
picturesque war-canoe for the commonplace whaling-boat, and the spear and club for the 
rifle and bayonet • 

The principal tattoo is that of the face and npper part of the head, which, when 
completed, leaves scarcely an untouched spot on which the finger can be placed. When 
finished, the whole face is covered with spiral scrolls, circles, and curved lines ; and it 
is remarkable, that though a certain order is observed, and the position of the principal 
marks is the same in every case, no two persons are tattooed in precisely the same 
manner, the artists being able to produce an infinite variety with the few materials at his 
command. 

For example, the first portion of the tattoo is always a series of curved lines, reaching 
fiom the comers of the nose to the chin, and passing round the mouth. This portion of 
the tattoo goes by the name of rei^epL Next comes a spiral scroll on the cheek-bone ; 
and below it is another spiral, reaching as low as the jaw-bone. These are called respec- 
tively kakoH and korohnha. Next come four lines on the middle of the forehead, called 
tiii; and besides these there are several lines which run up the centre of the nose and 
cover its sides, some which spread over the forehead, others which occupy the chin ; and 
even the lips, eyelids, and ears are adorned with this singular ornament. 

Besides possessing these marks, a great chief is seldom content unless he can cover 
his hips with similar lines, each of which has, like those of the face, its proper name. 

Although the moko was considered as a mark of rank, there were no sumptuary laws 
vfaich forbade its use. Any one, provided he were not a slave, might be tattooed as much 
M he pleased ; but the expense of the 
iperation was so great, that none but 
men of position could afford a com- 
plete suit of moko. No man could 
tattoo himself, and the delicacy of 
touch and certainty of line was so 
iiflicnlt of attainment, that tattooing 
became an art or science, which was 
left in the hands of a few prac- 
dtioners, who derived a good income 
from their business. Some of those 
who had attained much reputation for 
their skill used to command very high 
fees when called in to decorate a 

dient, and their services could therefore only be secured by the men of high position. It 
is rather remarkable that some of the luo^^t celebrated operators wei*e slaves, men who 
▼ere forbidden to wear the tattoo on their own persons. 

The mode of operation is as follows. The patient lies on Ids back, and places his 
lead between the knees of the operator, who squats on the ground after the usual native 
khion. The latter then takes a little of the black pigment, and draws on the face the 
Koe of the pattern which he intends to follow ; and in some cases he slightly scratches them 
with a sharp instrument, so as to make a sketch or outline drawing. The object of 
this scratching is to prevent the pattern from being obliterated by the Sowing blood and 
the black pigment which is rubbed into the wounds. 

Kext, he takes his instrument or chisel, which is usually made of teeth, or the bone of 
third, and with it follows the pattern, cutting completely through the skin. Sometimes, 
then engaged in tattooing the face, a careless operator has been known to cut completely 
through the cheek, so as to put a temporary check to smoking, the sufferer experiencing 
wme difficulty in getting the smoke into his mouth at all, and then finding it escape 
through the boles in his cheek. The accompanying illustration will give the reader 
I good idea of the different forms of the chisel. 

As the operator proceeds, he continually dips the edge of his chisel in the black 
pigment, and, when he has cut a line of a few inches in length, he rubs more of the 
pigment into the wound, using a little bunch of fibre by way of a brush or sponge. 

i2 







TATTOOING CHISELS. 



116 NEW ZEALAND. 

The cutting is not done as with a knife, but by placing the edge of the chisel on ihe 
skin, and driving it along the lines of the pattern by repeated blows with a small mall^ 
As may be imagined, the pain caused by this operation is excruciating. It is painM 
enough to have the skin cut at all, even with the keenest blade, as any one can testify 
who has been unfortunate enough to come under the surgeon s knife. But when the 
instrument employed is a shark's tooth, or a piece of bone, when it is driven slowly through 
the skin by repeated blows, and when the wound is at once filled with an irritating 
pigment, it may be imagined tliat the torture must be dreadful. It is, however, reckoned 
a point of honour to endure it without giving any signs of suffering. 

Owing to the character of the tattoo, the destruction of the skin, and the consequent 
derangement of its functioas, only a small portion can be executed at a time, a complete . 
moko taking from two to three years, according to the constitution of the individuiL . 
Dreadful swellings are always caused by it, especially of the glands in the neighbourhood 
of the wounds, and the effects are so severe that men have died when too laige a portion 
has been executed at one time. 

Every stroke of the chisel or uki leaving an indelible mark, it is of the greatest con- 
sequence that the operator should be a man of skill, and devote all his energies to tracing 
a clear though elabomte pattern, in which the lines are set closely together, sweep in 
regular curves, and never' interfere with each otlier. 

While a man is being tattooed, his friends and those of the operator sing songs to lun, 
in which lie is encoumged to endure the pain boldly, and to bear in mind the lasting beantj 
which will be conferred upon him when the pattern is completed. The songs of ib 
operator's friends contain some very broad hints as to the scale of payment which ii 
expected. Although, as has been stated, the best of tattooers are paid very highly, there 
is no definite fee, neither is any bargain made, the operator trusting to the libendity of 
his client. But, as a man would be contemned as a skulking fellow if he were to ask 
the services of a good operator and then pay him badly, the prtujtical result is thst a 
good tattooer always secures good pay. 

Moreover, he has always the opportunity of avenging himself. As only a small portuA 
of the moko can be executed at a time — say, for example, the spiral curve on one cheek— 
if the operator be badly paid for the first portion of his work, he will take care to let the 
chisel slip out of its course when he proceeds to the second part, or will cut his liiM 
coarsely and irregularly, thus disfiguring the stingy man for life. 

Mr. Taylor gives a translation of one of these tattooing songs : 

" He who pays well, let him be beautifnlly ornamented ; 
But ho who forgets the operator, let him be done carelessly. 
Be the linens wide apart. 

hiki Tangaroa ! 

hiki Tang;iroa I 
Strike that the chisel as it cuts along may sound. 

hiki Tangaroa ! 
Men do not know the skill of the operator in driving his sounding chisel alone. 

hiki Tangaroa ! " 

The reader will see that the song is a very ingenious one, magnifying the skill of ths 
operator, promising a handsome moko to the liberal man, and threatening to disfigure hut 
if he be niggardly in his payments. 

While the operation of tattooing is going on, all persons in the pah, or endosun^ 
are under the tabu, or tapu, lest any harm should happen to them ; the work of 
tattooing being looked upon with a kind of superstitious reverence. The meaning of ths 
word " tapu " will be explained when we come to treat of the religious system of the New 
Zealander. 

The effect of the moko on the face is well shown in the illustration on the following 
page, which rei)resent3 a chief and his wife. The reader will probably observe that oo 
the face of the woman there are marks which resemble the tattoo. They are, however, ths 
scars left by mourning over the body of some relative, a ceremony in which the womsB 
cut themselves unmercifully. The dress worn by both persons "will be present^ 
described. 



THE WAR-PAINT. 



iir 



The pigment nsed in tattooing is made from the resin of the kauri pine, and the 
jtaiet part of it is made at one spot, where the tree grows plentifully. There ie a 
ocky precipice, and a little distance from its edge a deep and narrow pit is sunk. A 
hannel is cut through the face of the cliff into the pit, and the apparatus is complete. 
?hen a native wishes to make a supply of tattooing pigment, he cuts a quantity of kauri 




tood, places it in the pit, and sets fire to it, thus causing the burnt resin to fall to the 
iiottom of the pit, whence it is scraped out through the channel. 

Scarlet paint is much employed by the natives, especially wheu they decorate them- 
tlfes for battle. It is obtained from an ochreous substauce which is deposited in many 
^kcfs whei-e water has been allowed to become staguant. Some spots are celebrated for 
4e eicellence of the ochre, and the natives come from great distances to procure it. 
IHjen they wish to make their scarlet paint, they first carefully dry and then bum the 
die ; the result of which operation is, that a really fine vermilion is obtained. 

This paint is used for many purposes, and before being used it is mixed with oC 
Uained from the shark The natives are fond of decorating their houses with it, and 
y means of the scarlet lines increase, according to their own ideas, the beauty of the 
irved work with which every available point is adorned. Even their household goods 
n painted after a similar manner, the fashionable mode being to paint all the hollows 
wiet, and the projecting portions black. Their canoes and wooden omaments are 
rofbsely adorned with red paint. But the most valued use of this pigment is the part 
'hidi it plays in the decoration of a warrior when he goes to battle. 

In rach cases paint constitutes the whole of his costume, the mats in which he takes 
g gteftt a piide in time of peace being laid aside, many warriors being perfectly naked. 



118 



NEW ZEALAND. 



VARBIOR'B BEIT. 



and with the others the only covering of any kind being a belt made of pluted 

leaves. 

One of these belts in my collection is seven feet in length, and only three and ahaU 

inches wide in the broadest part ; while at either end it diminishes to a mere plaited 

thong. It 13 folded fourfold, and on opening it the mode of construction is plainly seen; 

all the loose ends being tucked inside. 

The material is phormium leaf cut into strips an inch in width, each alternate 

atrip being dyed black. Each strip is then divided into eight little strips or thongs, and 
they are so plaited as to produce an artistic chequered patten 
of black and white The ingenuity in forming so elaborate a 
pattern with so simple a material is extreme ; and, aa if to uU 
to tlie difficulty of his task, the dusky artist has entirely chai^ 
the pattern at either end of the belt, making it run at ri(^ 
angles to the rest of the fabric. The belt is also used in lienot 
clothing when the men are engaged in paddling a canoe. 

The paint, therefore, becomes the characteristic portion of tk 
New Zenlander's war-dress, and is applied for the purpose of 
making himself look as terrible as possible, and of stiikiin 
terror into his enemies. It is, however, used in peace as well 
as in war, being regarded as a good preservative i^inst the 
bites and stings of insects, especially the sandflies and mosqnitwi 
It is also used in mourning, being rubbed on the body as a sign 
of grief, precisely as ashes are used among some of the Oriental 
nations. Some travellers have thought that the continual use dt 
this pigment gives to the New Zealanders the peculiar softnoi 
and sleekness of skin for which tliey are remarkable, and whidi 
distinguishes them from the Fijians, whose skin feels as if it . 
had been roughened with a file. This theory, however, is scarcely . 
tenable, the soft texture of the skin being evidently due to ; 
physical and not to external causes. 

A warrior adorned in all the pride of the tattoo and scariet 
paint is certainly a ten'ific object, and is well calculated to strika 
terror into those who have been accustomed to regard the Maoii 
warriors with awe. When, however, the natives found that all 
the painting in the world had no effect upon the disciplined 
soldiers of the foreigner, they abandoned it, and contented them- 
selves with the weapons that none are more able to wield thia 
themselves. 

Moreover, the paint and tattoo, however well it might look 
on a warrior armed after the primitive fashion, has rathor s 
ludicrous effect when contrasted with the weapons of civilizatkn. 
There is now before me a portrait of a Maori chief in full hetSt 
array. Except a bunch of feathers in his hair, and a checked 
handkerchief tied round his loins, evidently at the request d ■ 
the photographer, he has no dress whatever. He is tall 
splendidly made, stern, and soldieriike of aspect. But instead : 
of the club, liis proper weapon, he bears in his hand a - 

Belgian rifle, with iixed bayonet, and has a cartouche-box festeoed by a belt round hii - 

naked body. 

His face is tattooed, and so are his hips, which are covered with a most elahoratt j 

pattern, that contnists boldly with his really fair skin. Had he his club and chief's stiff I 

in his hands, he would look magnificent ; having a rifle and a cartouch&-box, he lo(^ ; 

absurd. Even a sword would become him better than a rifle, for we are so accustomed ti '- 

associate a rifle with a private soldier, that it is difficult to understand that a powerfd ' 

chief would cany such a weapon. 

The curions mixture of native and European dieas vhicli the Maoriea an toaA d ' 



THE TRADE IN HEADS. 119 

ireaiing is veil described by Mr. Angas. "Baupahara's wife is an exceedingly stout 
poman, and wears her hair, which is very stiff and wiry, combed up into an erect mass 
opon her head about a foot in height, somewhat after the fashion of the Tonga islanders 
vhich, when combined with her size, gives her a remarkable appearanca 

" She was well dressed in a flax mat of native manufacture, thickly ornamented with 
tofts of cotton wool ; and one of her nieces wore silk stockings and slippers of patent 
leather. This gay damsel was, moreover, a very pretty girl, and knew how to set off her 
channs to advantage ; for over a European dress she had retained her native ornaments, 
ind had wrapped herself coquettishly in a beautiful ' kaitaka,' displaying her large hazel 
QFeB above its silky folds." 

It has often been thought that the warrior regarded his moko, or tattoo, as his name, 
pennanently inscribed on his face ; and this notion was strengthened by two facts : the 
aoe^ that in the earlier times of the colonists the natives signeu documents by appending 
i copy of their moko ; and the other, that each man knows every line of his tattoo, and 
wmetimes carves a wooden bust on which he copies with admirable fidelity every line 
vhich appears on his own head or face. Such a work of art is greatly valued by the 
Ihoriea, and a man who has carved one of them can scarcely be induced by any bribe to 
put with it. 

Moreover, the moko of a warrior is often accepted as the conventional representation 
of himselC For example, on the pillars of a very celebrated house, which we shall 
pteaently describe, are numerous human figures which represent ceitain great chiefs, 
wliile men of lesser mark are indicated by their moko carved on the posts. Thus it will 
lie seen that the moko of a chief is as well known to others as to himself, and that the 
pactised eye of the native discerns among the various curves and spirals, which are 
eommon to all free men, the characteristic Imes which denote a man's individuality, and 
m producing which the tattooer's skill is often sorely tried. 

It has already been mentioned, that when a warrior falls in battle, and his body can 
le carried off by the enemy, the head is preserved, and fixed on the dwelling of the 
conqueror. No dishonour attaches itself to such an end ; and, indeed, a Maori warrior 
wodd feel himself direfully insulted if he were told that in case of his death in the field 
kis body would be allowed to remain untouched. In fact, he regards his moko precisely 
in the same light that an American Indian looks upon his scalp-lock ; and, indeed, there 
Me many traits in the character of the Maori warrior in which he strangely resembles the 
liest examples of North American savages. 

In order to preserve the head of a slain warrior, some process of embalming must 
eridently be pursued, and that which is commonly followed is simple enough. 

The head being cut off, the hair is removed, and so are the eyes ; the places of which 
ire filled up with pledgets of tow, over which the eyelids are sewn. Pieces of stick are 
ften placed in the nostrils in order to keep them properly distended, and the head is hung 
in the smoke of the wood fire until it is thoroughly saturated with the pyroligneous acid. 
Ihe result of this mode of preparation is, that the flesh shrinks up, and the features 
lieoome much distorted ; though, as the Maori warrior always distorts his countenance as 
■nch as possible before battle, this effect is rather realistic than otherwise. 

It is often said that heads prepared in this fashion are proof against the attacks of 
insects. This is certainly not the case, as 1 have seen several specimens completely 
riddled by the ptilinus and similar creatures, and have been obliged to destroy the little 
pest8 by injecting a solution of corrosive sublimate. In spite of the shrivelling to which 
the flesh and skin are subject, the tattooing retains its form ; and it is most curious to 
observe how completely the finest lines retain their relative position to each other. 

Not only are the heads of enemies treated in this fashion, but those of friends are also 
preserved. The difference is easily perceptible by looking at the mouth, which, if the head 
be that of a friend, is closed, and if of an enemy, is widely opened. 

Some years ago, a considerable number of these preserved heads were brought into 
Eoiope, having been purchased from the natives. Of late years, however, the trade in 
them has been strictly forbidden, and on very good grounds. In the first place, no man 
who was well tattooed was safe for an hour, unless he were a great chief, for he might at 



120 NEW ZEALAND. 

sny time be watched until be was off bis gaard, and tben knocked down, killed, and 1 
bead sold to the traders. Then, when the natives became too cautious to tender ha 
hunting a profitable trade, a new expedient was discovered. 

It was found that a newly-tattooed bead looked as well when pieserred as one wlii 
bad been tattooed for yeais. The chiefs were not slow in taking advantage of this i 
covei7, and inunediatdy set to work at killing the least valuable of their slaves, tattooi 
their heads as though they had belonged to men of high rank, drying, and tben aelli 
them. 

One of my friends lately gave me a curious illostration of the trade in beads. 1 
lather wanted to purchase one of the dried heads, but did not approve of any that w< 
brought for sale, on the ground that the tattoo was poor, and was not a good example of t 
skill of the native artists. The chief allowed the force of the argument, and, pointing 
a number of bis people who had come on board, he tamed to uie intending pnrchae 
saying, " Choose which of these heads you like best, and when you come back I will it 
care to have it dried and ready for your acceptance," 

As may be imagined, this speech put an abrupt end to all head-purchasing and gi 
an unexpected insight into the mysteries of trading as conducted by savage nationa 




CHAPTER III. 

DBESS-^ontinued. 

fWt ** MATS " OP THK NEW ZEALAK0RB8 THE MATERIAL OP WHICH THEY AEE MADE — THE NEW 

ZKALAND FLAX, OR PHOEMIUM — MODE OF MAKING THE MATS — VARIOUS KINDS OF MATS— *THR 

EAIN-MAT AND ITS USES THE OPEN-WORKED MAT — THE DIFFERENT ORNAMENTS OF THE 

mat; STRINGS AND TAOS, SCARLET TUPTS AND BORDERS WAR-CLOAKS OP THE CHIEFS — THE 

]K)6S'-HAIR MAT THE CHIEF PARXTENE IN HIS CLOAK MODE OP MAKING THE WAB-CL6AK8 

^BRIEP ACCOUNT OP THE CHIEF— AMUSING INSTANCE OP VANITY IN A CHIEF — SUBSTnTTION 
OF THE BLANKET AND ITS ATTENDANT EVILS — ORNAMENTS OP THE NEW ZEALANDER*S HEAD— 

nUTHERS, AND FEATHER-BOXES — VARIOUS DECORATIONS OP GREEN JADE TIKIS AND EARRINGS 

—A REMARKABLE AMULET — THE SHARk's TOOTH — MODES OP DRESSING THE HAIR — HAIR- 
CrmXO AND SHAVING A FRIMITrVE RAZOR. 

TfB now come to the costume of the Kew Zealanders. This is of a rather remarkable 
ifcaracter, and may be characterised by the generic title of mat, with the exception of the 
It which has just been described. The costume of the New Zealander consists of a 
or oblong mat, varying considerably in size, though always made on the same 
iple. In this mat the natives envelop themselves after a very curious fashion, 
Uy muffling themselves up to the neck, and often throwing the folds round them 
the fashion of a conventional stage villain. 
These mats are of various textures, and differ as much in excellence and value aa do 
fabrics of more civilized lands. The material is, however, the same in all cases, and 
the mode of wearing the garment, the value being estimated by the fineness of the 
ial, the amount of labour bestowed upon it, and the ornaments introduced into it. 
The material of which the mats are made is the so-called New Zealand " flax," scien- 
Hfcally known by the name of Phormium tenax. It belongs to the natural family of the 
•fliaceaB, and the tribe Asparagaceae. The plant has a number of showy yellow flowers 
^tinged on a tall branch-panicle, and a number of straightish leaves, all starting from 
ke root, and being five or six feet long, and not more than two inches wide at the 
ttttdest part 

The fibres which run along these leaves are very strong and fine, and, when properly 
less^ and combed, have a beautiful silky look about them. At one time great quan- 
ties of New Zealand flax, as it was called, were imported into Europe, and the plant was 
iltivated in some of the southern parts of the Continent. Strong, however, as it may be, 
has the curious fault of snapping easily when tied in a knot, and on this account is 
ot valued so much in Europe as in its own country. I have before me a large roll of 
liflg made by natives from the phormium. It is very strong in proportion to its thick- 
ess, and much of it has been used in suspending various curiosities in my collection ; 
ot it cannot endure being made into a knot It is useful enough in hitches, especially 
be "clove-hitch ;" but as soon as it is tied into a knot, it will haidly bear the least straia 
The principle on which the mats are made is very simple. 




122 



NEW ZEALAND. 



A weaving-frame is erected on sticks a foot or so from the ground, and upon it ii 
arranged the veft, made of strings or yams, placed as closely together aa possible, and 
drawn quite tight. The weft is double, and is passed under and over each yam, and tlit 
upper one is always passed between the ends of the under weft before it is drawn ti^ 
The mat ia therefore nothing more than a number of parallel strings laid side by aide, ui 
coiiQected, at intervals of an inch or so, by others that pass across them. 

More care is taken of the edges, which are turned over, and the yams are ao into- 
woven as to make a thick and strong border. 

When the wefts are hauled tight, they are beaten into their place by means of a bou 
instmment, very much like a pnper-kuife in shape; and in every respect the weavinftd 




A New Zealander most strongly reminds the spectator of the process of makins 
Gobelin tapestries. In both cases there is a fixed warp on which the weft is lahorioo 
woven by hand, and ia kept stmight and regular by being struck with an inatmoient i 
pasaes between the threads of the warp. Although at the present day the warp of I 
Gobelin tapestry ia stretched perpendicularly, in former times it was stretched Ion 
tudinally in a low frame, exactly similar in principle to that which ia employed by " 
New Zealander. 

Tlie reader will perceive that the process of weaving one of these mats must be aw 
of considerable time, and au industrious woman can scarcely complete uven a comn 
mat under eighteen months, while one of the moi-e elaborate robes will occupy U 
that time. 

The accompanying illustration is drawn from a sketch of a house belonging to one 
the great chiefs, and in it are seen some women busily employed in making mata. Q 



MAT-MAKlN(i: 123 

if them 13 Bcrapmg the leaves with & shell or stone, while another is engt^d at the 
ffimitlTe loom. The mat is repreaented as nearly completed, and the woman is seen with 
ht four ends of the double weft in her hand, passing theiu across each other before she 
Inws them tight. A heap of di-essed leaves of the phormium is seen in the background, 
md a handle of the long swordlike leaves is strewn on the floor. Various baskets and 
ither implements, made of the same material, are hung from the rafters ; and in front is 
nte of the cimously-carved poles which support the roof. 

It has been mentioned that there is but one principle on which all the mats are made, 
hd that there is a very great variety in making them. 

There is, for example, the rain-mat, which is used in wet weather. As the structure 
piDoeifdc, the manutacturei inserts into each knot of the weft an undressed blade of the 

timitun, npoa which the epidermis has been allowed to remain. When wrapped round 
body, the leaves all fall over each other, so as to make a sort of penthouse, and 
te ■Qdw the rain to run over theu' smooth and polished surfaces until it foils to the 
pnauL 

When rain comes on, and a number of natives are seen squatting on the ground, each 
vmatg liis rain-mat, they have a most absurd appearance, and look like a number of 
huBaa beings who had hidden themselves in haycocks. On page 117 may he seen the 
Sgm «f ft (£ief wearing one of these dressea The name of the mat is £ tnangaika. 

IllBTe seen anotiier land of mat, which is made in a kind of open-work pattern, pro- 
ImbI by crossing every fifth strand of the warp. This mat is of the very best quality, 
uit oooeidenDg the nature of the material of wliich it is made, is wonderfully light, soft, 

Jnnther kind is the woman's mat, of which there are several varieties. It is of larger 
liafhau that employed by the men, and is capable of enveloping the entire figure from 
kid to foot It is ill' mtiier lighter material tlian the rain-mat, and is decorated on the 
titOMff with n iiuni)>er of strings, varying in length from a few inches to three feet or so. 
A ndety of thi? mat is distinguished by having the strings white instead of black, 
^jodraens of both these mats are in my collection, and the general etfect of them can be 
*«t by reference to any of the illustrations which represent the native women. 

Slnngi« or tags are undoubtedly tlie most characteristic portion of the dress, and there 
bpicnoely a mat of any description that is not ornamented with them. One vaiiety of 
■1^. "wbioli is called E wakaiwa, is covered with long cylindrical ornaments that look 
pif nraeb as if thej were made of porcupine-quills, being hard, and coloured alternately 
Ifalkad yellow. The ornaments are, however, made of the phormium leaf in a very 
h^tnioiis manner. Thi; epidermis is carefully scra])ed off the under side of the leaf with 
>tWp-«dged sliell, and the leaf is then turned over. On the upper side the epidermis is 
WDOTCd at rejjiilar intervals, so as to expose the fibres. 

The Dext process is to put the scraped leaf into a dye made of a decoction of kinan 
Uifc and to let it remain for a definite time. When it is taken out, the dye has stained 
! tif exposed fibres a deep glossy black, while it has not been able to touch the polished 
jdlfjw epidermis that is allowed to remain. Tlie dyed leaves are next rolled up until 
ttcy form cylinders as large as goose-quills, and are tlien woven in regular rows into the 
Uerial of the mat. As ^e wearer moves about, the cylinders rustle and clatter against 
■eh other, producing a sound which seems to be jteculiarly grateful to the ears of the 
Ndarea. Such a mat or cloak is highly prized. Several of these mats are in my collection, 
*d very curious examjiles of native art they are. 

One' of these has coat the weaver an infinity of trouble. It is nearly five feet wide and 
ftrse in depth. The warp has been dyed black, while the weft is white ; and the effect of 
fie weft passing in reverse lines across the warp is very good. Every other line of weft is 
4o:TOted with the cylindrical tassels, each of which is nine inches in length, and is 
inded into four parts by the removal of the epidermis. These tassels begin at the fourth 
fcie of warp, and are regularly continued to the lower edge, whence they hang so as to 
fcnn a fringe. On account of their number, they would qualify the garment as a rain-mat 
• u emergency ; and the rattling they make as the mat is moved is very much like tliat 
>to ia produced by a peacock when it rustles its train. 



124 NEW ZEALAND. 

Along the upper edge, which passes over the shoulders, the strings have been toM 
together into ropes as thick as the finger, and then plaited so as to form a thick and loft 
border which will not hurt the neck. The portion of the mat which comes between te 
edge and the first row of tassels is ornamented with scraps of scarlet wool plaited into tb 
weft This wool is a favourite though costly ornament to the natives, being procmd 
from seamen's woollen caps, which they unpick, and the yams used to ornament th 
dress. 

One of these mantles brought from New Zealand by Stiverd Vores, Esq., is adorned ia]j 
largely with scarlet wool. It is completely bordered with the precious material, a namM 
line of scarlet running under the upper edge, a broader under the lower, while the t^ 
sides are decorated with a band nearly four inches in width. In this case the wool U 
l)een arranged in a series of loops ; but in another specimen the loops are cut so as to M 
a fringe. 

In this latter mantle the tags, instead of being cylindrical and alternately black 
yellow, are entirely black, each rolled leaf being wholly divested of its epidermis, and 
fibres radiating from each other in tassel fashion. I rather think that the object of 
mode of treatment is to prevent the eye from being distracted by the jangling yellow 
and so to permit the scarlet border to exhibit its beauties to the best advantage. 

Scarlet worsted is, of course, a comparatively late invention, and has only been inlli 
duced since the visits of Europeans. In former days the natives were equally fond I 
ornamenting their cloaks, and were obliged to use the plumage of birds for the p 
The feathers taken from the breast of the kaka (a species of nestor) were mostly 
this purpose. Although the coloured ornaments are generally disposed in lines, they 
sometimes arranged in tufts, which aie disposed in regular intervals over the whole of ( 
dress. Examples of this kind of decoration may be seen in several of the costumes wF 
are drawn in this work. 

The yams or strings of which the warp is made are not twisted or plaited, but 
merely of the phormium fibres as they lie in the leaf The leaves are prepared for 
purpose by scraping off the epidermis on both sides, and then beating them on a flat 
with a pestle made of the hard volcanic stone employed in the manufacture of adies 
other tools. 

The most valuable of all the dresses are the war-cloaks of the great chiefs. They 
very large, being sometimes nearly six feet in depth, and wide enough to be wrapped 
the entire body and limbs. Tlieir native name is Parawai. 

Before making one of these gi-eat war-mats, the weaver collects a large qnantitjf 
dogs'-hair, whicli she assorts into parcels of different colours. She then sets np 
simple loom, and fixes the warp as usual. But with every knot or mesh which she 
with the weft she introduces a tuft of hair, taking care to make each tuft long eno 
overlap and conceal the insertion of the tufts in the next row. She is also careful 
the regular arrangement of the hues, so that when a complete mat is made by a 
weaver, it looks exactly as if it was composed of the skin of some large animal, 
vegetable fibres which form the fabric itself being entirely concealed by the tti 
of hair. 

One of these mats is the result of some four years' constant labour, and causes an 
surprise that a people so naturally indolent as the Maories should prove themaA 
capable of such long and steady industry. But the fact is, the mat-maker is a won 
and not a man, and in consequence is obliged to work, whether she likes it or not. 

In the next place, mat-weaving scarcely comes under the denomination of labour. 1 
woman is not tied to time, nor even bound to produce a given number of mats withi 
given period. Her living, too, does not depend upon the rate of her work, and whet 
she takes eighteen months or two years to produce a garment is a matter of total indil 
ence to all parties. Besides, she never works alone, but is always acc/ompanied by fnei 
one of whom, perhaps, may be occupied in a similar manner, another may be employee 
scraping the phormium leaves, and another is engaged in pounding and softening the fib 
or drying those that have just been dyed black. 

But, whatever their hands may be doing, the weavers' tongues are never stilL 



THE WAR-CLOAK. 125 

a stream of talk flows round the looms, and the duty of mat-making is thua 
: into an agreeable mode of enjoying the pleasures of conversation while the hands 
loyed in a light and easy labour. 

f great ingenuity is displayed by the woman to whom is entrusted the onerous 
making a war-mat No two are alike, the weaver exercising her discretion ra- 
the coloura and their arrangement. Some of tliem are made on the same principle 
Bechuana kaross, — ^namely, 

in the centre, and fading 
J lightest hues round the 

Others are white or pale in 
He, and edged with a broad 

black or dark brown hair, 
les the colours are arranged 
gzag pattern, and several 
■e striped like tiger-skins. 
ffays have a sort of collar, 
d of strips of fur, which 
x)ut six inches over the 
:s. 
I'ew Zealand there are one 

dresses which are made 
mtirely of fur, the skins 
esseAwith the hair adhering 
., and then sewn together. 
emarkable mat is possessed 
■erful chief named Panitene 
It is made of strips of 
r sewn over a large flaxen 
f this garment he is very 
id reserves it to be worn on 
casions. A portrait of this 
•d chief is given in the 
nying illustration, partly to 
'. aspect of a Maori chief in 

peace, and partly to give 
jr an idea of the peculiar 
he war-cloak. 

i is also before me a photo- 
urtrait of Paratene, authen- 
)y his autograph, in which 
esented as clad inadilferent 
He wears two mats or 
le lower being of the finest 
I called by the natives 

A description of this kind 

will be presently given. 
: kaitaka he wears a very 

>le war-cloak, which ia made of dogs' fur sewn upon a flax mat. It reaches 
slow the knees, and is made in perpendicular stripes alternately dark and pale, 
imished with a thick collar or cape of the same material. This cape, by the 
IS a curious resemblance to the ornament which is worn by the Abyssinian 

rtunately for the general effect of the picture, Paratene has combed, divided, and 
lis hair in European fashion ; and muffled up as he is to the chin, it is too evident 
) wearing a complete European suit under his mats. The cape has fallen off a 
Hie right aide, and we nave the absurd anomaly of a face profusely tattooed 




BiTENE IIAIOHA IN HIS ST.VTB WAR-CLOAK. 



126 NEW ZEALAND. 

surmounted with hair that has just been brushed and combed, a dog-skin waMuti 
from which protrudes a bare right arm, a jade earring six inches long, and a black dant 
and turn-down collar. 

In his right hand he grasps his cherished merai ; his staff of office, or E'hani, lesfci 
against his shoulder ; and by his side is his long battle-axe, adorned with a tuft of feathen 
and dog-skin. This same Paratene is a man of great mark among the l^Iaories. 

As is the case with natives of rank who have associated with Europeans, he is knowi 
by several names. The following account of him is given by Mr. G. F. Angas : 

" Fardtene (Broughton), whose native name was Te Maihoa, is a cousin of Te Wheio- 
whero, and one of the leading men of the Ngatimahuta branch of the Waikato tribA 
He generally resides in a village (or kainga) on the northern bank of the pictureaqv 
little harbour of Waingaroa, on the west coast of the Northern Island ; and the correctiiM 
of his general conduct, and the gravity of his demeanour, has obtained' for him a niadni 
ascendancy over many of his equals in rank. 

" Eccentricity is the principal feature in the character of this chief ; and the scrajM* 
lous attention which he imvariably pays to those trifling circumstances which coustilstBi 
his notions of etiquette often renders his conduct higlily curious. He has gained, If 
unwearied application, a smattering of arithmetic, and one of his most self-satisfactoiyi 
exploits is the correct solution of some such important problem as the value of a m 
of a certain weight, at a given price per pound, making the usual deduction for the oMj 
His erudite quality and the dignified gravity of his carriage have commanded tU 
deferential respect of his people, and encouraged them to consider him quite an orada 

'' One little incident will place the harmless foible of this chief's character in a 
light. 

" When the author was about to employ his pencil in the delineation of his fi| 
Pardtene desired to be excused for a few moments. Having gained his point, he sought 
interview with Mrs. Wells, the missionary's wife (under whose hospitable roof his po: 
was taken), and, preferring his request with some solemn intimations of its paramoiuii 
importance, b^ged 'Mother' to lend him a looking-glass, that he might compose bil 
features in a manner suitable to his own idea of propriety ere he took his stand befbdl 
the easel of the artist" 

It may be observed by the way, that " Mother" is the term always employed by tkij 
natives when addressing the wife of a missionary. The autograph of Paratene, to whioH 
allusion has already been made, is written with pencil, and is perfectly intelligible, thoi^ 
the characters are shaky, large, asd sprawling, and look as if they had been made 
fingers more accustomed to handle the club than the pencil. 

The last kind of mat which wUl be mentioned is the kaitaka. This garment is 
of a peculiar kind of flax, cultivated for the express purpose, and furnishing a fibre wl 
is soft and fine as silk. The whole of the mat is plain, except the border, which is in 
cases two feet in depth, and which is most elaborately woven into a vandyked pattern 
black, red, and white. At the present day a good kaitaka is scarcely anywhere to be 
the skiU required in making them being so great that only a few weavers can prod^ 
them, and European blankets being so easily procured that the natives will not take 
trouble of wearing garments that take so much time and troubla 

Handsome as are these native garments, they arc not very pleasant to wear. As 1W 
threads are only laid parallel to each other, and are not crossed, as in fabrics woven in iU 
loom, they form scarcely any protection against the wind, although they may serve to " 
out the rain. The mats are very heavy, my own small specimen of the waikawa 
weighing five poimds and a half, and so stiff* that they cannot be conveniently rolled 
and packed away when out of use. An English blanket, on the contrary, is close-te 
resists the wind, is very light, and can be rolled up into a small compass ; so that it is 
wonder that the natives prefer it 

Unfortunately for them, it is not nearly so healthy a garment as that which is made 
themselves, as it is worn for a long time without being washed, and so becomes satnxat 
with the grease and paint with which the natives are fond of adorning their bodies. ' 
consequence, it fosters several diseases of the skin to which the Maories are subject^ 



FEATHEK ORNAMENTS. 



127 



: has been fooud that those who wear blankets are much more subject to such ailments 
ban those who adhere to the native raiment. 

In some parts of the country, where the ground is hard and stony, the natives plait 
n themselves sandals or slippers, which very much resemble those which are used by the 
■panese. They consist of the ever-useful phorminm fibres, which are twisted into cords, 
Dd then plaited firmly into the shape of a shoe sola 

We now proceed from the dress to the ornaments worn by the New Zealanders. 

In some respects they resemble those which are in use among other dark tribes, 
eathera are much valued by them, and among the commonei^t of these adornments is a 
onch of white feathers taken from the pelican, and fastened to the ears so as to fall on 
M shoolder. An example of this may be seen in the portrait of the old warrior on 
■ge 109. Sometimea the skin of a small bird is rudely stuffed, and then suspended as 
n earring, and sometimes one wing will be placed at each side of the head, the tips nearly 
letfing above. 

The moat prized of these adornments are the tail feathers of the bird called by the 
•tives E Klia. or E Huia {Neomorpha Gouldii). It is allied to the hoopoos, and is re- 
Daikable for the fact that the beak of the male is straiL'ht and stout, while that of the 




CAUVED FEATIIEK-BOSI 



enale is long, slender, and sickle-shaped. The colour of the bird is a dark glossy green 
t to deep a hue that in some lights it seems to bo black. The tail feathers, however, are 
^ped with snowy white, so that when the bird spreads its plumnge for flight, the tail looks 
t a little distance as if it were black, edged with white. 

The bird is only found in the hills near Port Nicholson, and, as it is very waiy, can 
tticely be obtained except by the help of a native, who imitates its cry with wonderful 
cdection. The name E Elia is said to be merely an imitation of the long shrill whistle 
t the \iaA. The birds are so valued by the Maories that in all probability the species 
nmld have been extinct by this time, but for the introduction of European customs, 
rhich to a certain degree have driven out the ancient customs. 

The feathers of the tail are the parts of the bird that ai« most valued by the chiefs, 
iho place them in their hair on great occasions. So much do they prize these feathere, 
liat they take the treable to make boxes, in which they are kept with the greatest care. 
Ihne boxes aie made by the chiefs themselves, and are covered with the most elaborate 
wrings, some of them being the finest specimens of art that can be found m New 



128 NEW ZEALAND. ; 

Zealand. They are of various shapes, but a very good idea of their usual fonn may h ', 
obtained from the preceding illustration, which represents two such boxes. The mul 1 
forma are simiJar to those of the illustration, but in some cases the boxes aie oblott I 
There is now before me a drawing of one of these boxes, which is covered with an eqmlfy J 
elaborate pattern, in which the lines are mostly straight instead of curved, the pattern "' 
being of a vandyked character, similar to that upon the kaitaka cloak. There ii i J 
projecting handle upon the lid, and an almost similar handle upon each end. S 




GREEN J.^DK OUNAMENTS. 

The natives do not, however, confine themselves to wearing the tail feathen, 
when they can obtain so valuable a bird, are sure to use every portion of it. The 
seems to be thought of next importance to the tail, and is suspended to the ear by 
thong. 

Perhaps the most characteristic ornaments that are worn by the New Zealanden 
those which are made of green jade. This mineral, called by the natives Foonamo,i 
mostly found near the lakes in the Middle Island, and is valued by them with 
superstitious reverence. If a very large piece be found, it is taken by some chiet 
sets to work to make a club from it This club, called a merai, will be described wl 
we come to treat of war as conducted by the Maories. 

In the accompanying illustration are represented some of the most characteristie jl 
ornaments. 

Fig. 1 is a flat image bearing the rude semblance of a human being, and made 
various sizes. That which is here given is rather smaller than the usual dimenaionB. 
is called by the natives Tiki, and is at the same time one of the commonest 
highest prized articles among the New Zealanders. A new one can be purchased foi l] 
sum which, though it would be considered absurdly high in England for such an otjeo^ 
is in New Zealand really a low price, and scareely repays the trouble of carving it 

Jade is an extremely hard mineral, ranking next to the ruby in that respect, and, 
consequence of its extreme hardness, taking a peculiar glossy polish that is seen on M 
other substance. The time which is occupied in carving one of these oinamenti il 
necessarily very great, as the native does not possess the mechanical means which tfod^ 
its manipulation a comparatively easy task to the European engraver, and can 01^ 
shape his ornimjents by laboriou^y rublung one piece of stone upon another. 



TIKIS AND EAERINGS. 129 

That ornaments made of such a material should he highly prized is not a matter of 
surprise, and it is found that a wealthy chief will give an extraordinarily high price for a 
hmdsome jade ornament There is in my collection a very ancient Buddhist amulet, 
made of the purest green jade, and beautifully carved, the remarkable portion of it being a 
revolving wheel with spiral spokes, the wheel being cut out of the solid jade. 

The amulet was found in the apartments of the Queen of Oude, and had evidently 
been imported irom China, where it was engraved, the whole character of the work 
belonging to a very ancient epoch of Chinese art It was shown to a Maori chief, who 
was then visiting England, and who was intensely pleased with it, saying that, if it were 
gent to New Zealand and offered for sale to one of the great chiefs, it would be purchased 
for £20 or £25 of English money. 

It has been just mentioned that, in spite of the labour bestowed on the ornament, a 
new tiki can be purchased for a moderate sum. Such, however, would not be the case 
▼ere the tiki an qld one. These ornaments are handed down from father to son, and in 
process of time are looked upon with the greatest reverence, and treated as heirlooms 
vhich no money can buy. 

One of these tikis was seen by Mr. Angas lying on the tomb of a child, where it had 
been placed as an offering by the parents. It had lain there for a long time ; but, in 
«pite of the value of the ornament, no one had ventured to touch it It was a very small 
one, even less in size than the drawing in the illustration, and had in all probability been 
worn by the child on whose topib it lay. 

Most of these tikis are plain, but some of them have their beauty increased by two 
patches of scarlet cement with which the sockets of the eyes are filled. 

The tikis are worn on the breast, suspended by a cord round the neck ; and almost every 
peison of rank, whether man or woman, possesses one. They are popularly supposed to 
be idds, and are labelled as such in many museums ; but there is not the least reason for 
believing them to fulfil any office except that of personal decoration. The Maories are 
fcnd of carving the hufnan figure upon everything that can be caiTed. Their houses are 
covered with human figures, their canoes are decorated with grotesque human faces, and 
tliere is not an implement or utensil which will not have upon it some conventional 
Representation of the huTuan form. It is therefore not remarkable that when a New 
2^ander finds a piece of jade which is too small to be converted into a weapon, and too 
fct to be carved into one of the cylindrical earrings which are so much valued, he should 
bee upon it the same figure as that which surrounds him on every side. 

The most common foims of earring are those which are shown at figs. 4 and 5, the 
atter being most usually seen. It is so strangely shaped that no one who did not know 
ts use would be likely to imagine that it was ever intended to be worn in the ear. 

Two rather reinaikable earrings are worn in New Zealand as marks of rank ; one 
eiDg a natural object, and the other an imitation of it. This earring is called Mako 
unina, and is nothing but a tooth of the tiger shark. Simple though it be, it is greatly 
nized, as being a mark of high rank, and is valued as much as a plain red button by a 
Chinese mandarin, or, to come nearer hoxne, tjie privilege of wearing a piece of blue 
ribbon among ourselves. 

Still more prized than the tooth itself is an imitation of it in pellucid jade. The 
native carver contrives to imitate his model wonderfully well, giving the peculiar curves 
rf a shark's tooth with singular exactness. Such an ornament as this is exceedingly 
Karce, and is only to be seen in the ears of the very greatest chiefs. 

Anything seems to ser\'e as an earring, and it is not uncommon to see natives of 
cither sex wearing in their ears a brass button, a key, a button-hook, or even a pipe. 

There is very little variety in the mode of dressing the hair, especially among women. 
Men generally keep it rather short, having it cut at regular intervals, while some of the 
elders adhere to the ancient cystopi of wearipg it long, turning it up in a buuch on the 
top of the head, and fastening it with combs. 

Two of these combs are seen in the following illustration. One of them is 
liiBpIy cut out of a solid piece of wood, and is rather rare. The other is formed after a 
fuhion common to all Polynesia, and extending even to Western Africa. The teeth are 
VOL. a K 



no 



NEAV ZEALAND. 



not cut out of e single piece of wood, but each is made sepnrately, and fastened 
iieif!;hbonr by a strong cross-lashing. The teeth, although slight, are strong and ( 
and are well capable of endnring the rather rough handling to which they are subjc 
Children of both sexes always wear the hair short like the men ; but as the girli 
up, they allow the hair to grow, and permit it to flow over their shoulders on eithi 
of the face. They do not part it, but bring it down over the forehead, and cut i 
straight hne just above the eyebrowB. When they raarry, they allow tlie whole 
hair to grow, and part it in the middle. They do not plait or otherwise dress 
merely allow it to bang loosely in its natural curls. 

Hair-cutting is with the New Zealanders a long and tedious operation, and i 
ducted after the fashion which prevails in so many parts of the world. Not knowi 
use of scissors, and being incapable of producing any cutting instniment with ai 
Iteen enough to shave, they use a couple of shells for the operation, placing the e 
cue under the hair that ia to he cut, and scraping it with the edge of the other. 

Although this plan is necessarily a very slow one, it is much more eflicaciou 
might be imagined, and is able not only to cut the hair of the head, hut to shave i 
beards of the men. In perfonning the latter operation, the barber lays the edge 
lower shell upon the akin, and pre-s-sea it well downwards, so as to enable the uppt 
to scrape off tiie hair close to the skin. IJoard-ahavin!* is necessarily a longer procei 
hair-cuttiug, because it is not possible to cut more than one or two hairs at a tin 
each of them takes some little time in being rubbed asuuder between the edges 
shells. 




CHAPTER IV, 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 



CBOXOinES ATTENDANT ON BIRTH — PBEVALENCR AND CAUSES OP INFANTICIDE A CUBIOUS 

INSTANCE OF SUPERSTITION — NAMES AND THEIR SIGNIFICATION THE CEREMONY OF SPRINKLING 

— THE RECITATIONS — CHANGES OF NAME — MARRIAGE COURTSHIP AND "WIFE -SNATCHING 

AMUSEMENTS OF THE NEW ZEALANDERS — THE SWING, OR GIANT STRIDE — DRAUGHTS AND OTHER 

SEDENTARY GAMES CHILDREN'S SPORTS — TOP-SPINNING, KITE-FLYING, AND CAT's-CRADLE 

SVniMINO AND DRIVING — CURIOUS PETS: DOGS, PIGS, AND PARROTS BALL-PLAYING MUSIC 

AXD SINGING CHARACTER OF THE SONGS — MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS — THE FIFE, THE WAR- 
TRUMPET, AND THE WAR-BELL CURIOUS MODE OF SALUTATION-- THE " TANGI," AND ITS 

LUDICROUS APPEARANCE — ITS WEARISOME EFFECT ON A FOREIGNER — UNCERTAIN TEMPER OF 

' THE MAORIE8 STRENGTH OF MEMORY, AND CURIOSITY. 

I 

i^t will now examine the domestic life of the New Zealander, and begin at the begin- 
^* ie. with his birtL 

As is mostly the case in those nations which do not lead the artificial life of civiliza- 
'fco, there is very little trouble or ceremony about the introduction of a new member of 
^ety. The mother does not trouble herself about medical attendants or nurses, but 
imply goes oflF into some retired place near a stream, and seldom takes with her even a 
itepanion of her own sex. When the baby is born, the motlier bathes her child and 
ben herself in the stream, ties the infant on her back, and in a short time resumes the 
Hsiness in which she was engaged. Until the child is named the mother is sacred, or 
tapa," and may not be touched by any one. 

The New Zealand women are too often guilty of the crime of infanticide, as indeed 
cii^t be imagined to be the case in a land where human life is held at so cheap a rate, 
^•lious causes combine to produce this result If, for example, the child is deformed or 
>ttiiia sickly, it is sacrificed as an act of mercy towards itself, the Maories thinking that it 
• better for the scarcely conscious child to be destroyed at once than to die slowly under 
liaease, or to live a despised life as a cripple. 

Eevenge, the leading characteristic of the Maori mind, has caused the death of many 
H infant, the mother being jealous of her husband, or being separated from him longer 
Um she thinks to be necessary. Even a sudden quarrel will sometimes cause thd 
iDman, maddened by anger, to destroy her child in the hope of avenging herself upon 
ber husband. 

Slave women often systematically destroy their children, from a desire to save them 
Brom the life of servitude to which they are bom. In many cases the life of the child is 
ittrificed through superstitious terror. 

A very curious example of such a case is given by Dr. Diefifenbach. A recently- 
JMiried wife of a young chief was sitting near a pah or village, on the fence of which an 
«M priestess had hung her blanket As is generally the case with New Zealand garments, 

k2 



132 NEW ZEALAND. 

the blanket was infested with vermin. The young woman saw one of these loathe 
insects crawling on the blanket, caught it, and, according to the custom of the couii 
ate it. 

The old woman to whom the gannent belonged flew into a violent passion, pouie 
volley of curses on the girl for meddling with the sacred garment of a priestess, 
finished by prophesying that the delinquent would kill and eat the child which she 
expecting. 

The spirit of revenge was strong in the old liag, who renewed her imprecat 
whenever she met the young woman, and succeeded in terrifying her to such a de 
that she was almost driven mad. Immediately after the child was bom, the old woi 
found out her victim, and renewed her threats, until the young mother's mind wa 
completely unhinged, that she hastily dug a hole, threw her child into it, and bn 
it alive. 

She was, however, filled with remorse for the crime that she had committed ; 
before very long both she and her husband had emancipated themselves from t 
superstitious thraldom, and had become converts to Christianity. 

It is seldom, however, that a mother kills her child after it has lived a day ; and, ; 
general rule, if an infant survives its birth but for a few hours, its life may be considt 
as safe from violence. 

Both parents seem equally fond of infants, the father nui-sing them quite as tend 
as the mother, hilling it to sleep by simple songs, and wra,ppiug its little naked bod; 
the folds of his mat. 

Soon after its birth the child is named, either by its parents or other relatives, 
name always having some definite signification, and mostly alluding to some suppc 
quality, or to some accidental circumstance which may have happened at the tim( 
birth. Much ingenuity is sliown in the invention of these names, and it is very seld 
found that the son is named after his father or other relative. All the names 
harmonious in sound, and end with a vowel ; and even in the European names t 
are given by the missionaries at baptism the terminal syllable is always changed int 
vowel, in order to suit the native ideas of euphony. 

When the child is about two or three months old, a ceremony is performed whicl 
remarkable for its resemblance to Christian baptism. The origin of the ceremony is 
known, and even the signification of the words which are employed is very obsci 
Very few persons are present at the ceremony, which is carried on with much mysti 
and is performed by the priest. 

The three principal parts of the rite are that the child should be laid on a mat, \ 
it should be sprinkled with water by the priest, and that certain words should be n 
As far as has been ascertained, the mode of conducting the ceremony is as follows : 

The women and girls bring the child and lay it on a mat, while the priest stands 
with a green branch dipped in a calabash of water. A sort of incantation is then 8 
after which the priest sprinkles the child with water. The incantation differs accord 
to the sex of the child, but the sense of it is very obscure. Indeed, even the nati 
cannot explain the meaning of the greater part of the incantation : so that in all i 
bability it consists of obsolete words, the sounds of which have been retained, while i 
sense has been lost. 

As far as can be ascertained, the incantation consists of a sort of dialogue beti 
the priest and the women who lay the child on the mat. The following lines are gi 
by Dietfenbach, as the translation of the begiiming of the incantation said over fen 
children. He does not, however, guarantee its entire accuracy, and remarks that the 1 
sense of several of the words is very doubtful The translation runs as follows : 

Girls, "We wish this child to be immersed." — Priest. " Let it be sprinkled." 

Girls, " We wish the child to live to womanhood." — Priest, " Dance for Atua." 

Girls, " Me ta nganahau." (These words are unintelligible.) — Priest, ''Itissprinl 
in the waters of Atua." 

Girls. " The mat is spread." — Pnest. ** Dance in a circle." 

" Thread the dance." 



COUKTSHIR 133 

The reader must here be told that the word "Atua" signifies a god, and that the word 
irhich is translated as " womanhood " is a term which signifies the tattooing of the lips, 
vhich is performed when girls are admitted into the ranks of women. The above 
lentences form only the commencement of the incantation, the remainder of which is 
viioUy unintelligible. 

When the child is old enough to undertake a journey to the priest's house, another 
eeremony takes place, in which the baby name which the parents have given to the 
infant is exchanged for another. According to Mr. Taylor's interesting account, when 
Bie child has arrived at the house of the priest, the latter plants a sapling as a sign of 
rigorous life, and holds a wooden idol to the ear of the child, while he enumerates a long 
itnng of names which had belonged to its ancestors. As soon as the child sneezes, the 
priest stops, the name which he last uttered being that which is assumed by the child. 
ne are left to infer that some artificial means must be used to produce sneezing, as 
nfiiennse the task of the priest would be rather a tedious one. 

After the requisite sign has been given, and tlie child has signified its assent to the 
lame, the priest delivers a metrical address, differing according to the sex. Boys are 
hild to clear the land and be strong to work ; to be bold and courageous in battle, and 
Bnnport themselves like men. Girls are enjoined to " seek food for themselves with 

Fting of breath," to weave garments, and to perform the other duties which belong to 
irsex. 
Even this second name is not retained through life, but may be clwuged in after life 
consequence of any feat in war, or of any important circumstance. Such names, 
the titles of tlie peerage among ourselves, supersede the original name in such a 
iner that the same person may be known by several totally distinct names at different 

Is of his life. 
There seems to be no definite ceremony by which the young New Zealand lad is 
itted into the ranks of men. The tattoo is certainly a sign that his manhood is 
lowledged ; but this is a long process, extending over several years, and cannot be 
ddered as an initiatory rite like those which are performed by the Australians. 
When a young man finds himself able to maintain a wife, he thinks about getting 
toied^ and sets about it very deliberately. Usually there is a long courtship, and, as a 
B&era) fact, wlien a young man fixes his affections on a girl, he is sure to marry her in 
fce end, Jiowever much she or her friends may object to the match. He thinks his 
iDOur involved in success, and it is but seldom that he fails. 

Sometimes a girl is sought by two men of tolerably equal pretensions ; and when this 
flbe case, they are told by the father to settle the matter by a pulling match. This is a 
ay simple process, each suitor taking one of the girl's arms, and trying to drag her 
ray to his own house. This is a very exciting business for the rivals as well as for the 
lends and spectators, and indeed to every one except the girl herself, who is always 
ach injured by the contest, her arms being sometimes dislocated, and always so much 
lained as to be useless for some time. 

In former times the struggle for a wife assumed a more formidable aspect, and several 
Ddem travellers have related instances where the result has been a tragic ona If a 
onng man has asked for a girl and been refused, his only plan is to take her by force. 
or this purpose he assembles his male friends, and makes up his mind to carry ^the lady 
I forcibly if he cannot obtain her peacefully. Her friends in the meantime know weU 
ikt to expect, and in their turn assemble to protect her. A fierce fight then ensues, 
bbe and even more dangerous weapons being freely used ; and in more than one case the 
ftended bride has been killed by one of the losing side. Sometimes, though not very 
[ten, a girl is betrothed when she is quite a child. In that case she is as strictly sacred 
I if she were actually a married woman, and the extreme laxity of morals which has 
em mentioned cannot be imputed to such betrothed maidens. Should one of them err, 
be is liable to the same penalties as if she were actually married. 

The New Zealanders seldom have more than one wife. Examples are known where 

ehief has possessed two and even more wives; but, as a general rule, a man has but one 

rife. Among the Maories the wife has very much more acknowledged influence than is 



134 NEW ZEALAND. 

usually Uie caae fttnong uncivilized people, and the wife always expects to \ie consn 
by her husband in every important undertaking. Marriage iisually takes place about 
age of seventeen or eighteen, sometimes at an earlier age in the case cf ^e woman 
a later in the case of the man. 

As to the amusements of the New Zealanders, they are tolerably varied, and an 
superior to t^e mere succession of ainginf; and dancing, in which are summed up 

amusements of many uncivilized races. Songs and dances form part of the a 

of this people, but onlv a port, and they are supplemented by many others. 




NEW ZEALAND SWINQ 

One of the most curious is that which is represented in the accompanying illuatn 
It was seen by Mr. Angas in the interior of the country, but never on the coasts ; ant 
scene which is here represented was witnessed in the villages about Taupo. A tall 
stout pole, generally the trunk of a pine, is firmly set in the ground on the top of a i 
bank, and from the upper part of the pole are suspended a number of ropes mai 
phormium fibre.' The game consists in seizing one of the ropes, running down the 1 
and swinging as far as possible into the air. Sometimes they even run round and r 
the pole as if they were exercising on the giant stride ; but, as they have not learni 



A WARM BATH. 135 

luke a revolving top to the pole or swivels for the ropes, they cannot keep up this 
imnsement for any long time. 

They have a game which is very similar to our draughts, and is played on a chequered 
ward with pebbles or similar objects as men. Indeed, the game bears so close a resem- 
Jance to draughts, that it may probably be a mere variation of that game, which some 
^tw Zealander has learned from a European, and imported into his country. 

There is also a game which much resembles the almost universal " morro," and which 
ioniusts in opening and closing the hand and bending tlie elbow, performing both actions 
?ery sharply, and accompanying them with a sort of doggrel recitj^on, which has to be 
aid in one breath. 

The children have many games which are very similar to those in use among 
wiselves. They spin tops, for example, and fly kites, the latter toy being cleverly made 
)f the flat leaves of a kind of sedge. It is triangular in form, and the cord is made of 
die universal flax fibre. Kite-flying is always accompanied by a song ; and when the 
dtes are seen flying near a village, they are a sign that the village is at peace, and may 
be approached with safety. 

Perhaps the chief amusement of the children is the game called Maui, which is in 
fcct a sort of " cat's-cradla" The Maori children, however, are wonderful proficients at 
the game, and would look with contempt on the few and simple forms which English 
Aildren produce. Instead of limiting themselves to the "cradle," the "pound of 
eandles," the "net^" and the "purse,** the New Zealander produces figures of houses, 
Buioes, men and women, and various other patterns. They say that this game was 
left to them as an inheritance by Maui, the Adam of New Zealand, and it appears to be 
o&nately connected with their early traditions. 

The elder children amuse themselves with spear-throwing, making their mimic 
eapons of fern-stems bound at the end. These they throw with great dexterity, and 
aiQate each other in aiming at a small target. 

Swimming is one of the favourite amusements of the New Zealanders, who can swim 
most as soon as they can walk, and never have an idea that the water is an unfriendly 
^ment Both sexes swim alike well, and in the same manner, i.e, after the fashion 
lich we call " swimming like a dog," paddling the water with each arm alternately. 
sing constantly in the water, they can keep up the exertion for a long time, and in their 
thmg parties sport about as if they were ampliibious beings. They dive as well as 
ey swum, and the women spend much of their time in diving for crayfish. 

In those parts of the country where hot springs are found the natives are fond of 
ithing in the heated water. Mr. Angas makes the following observations on this 
Lstom : — '* Upon the beach of the lake, near Te Kapa, tliere is a charming natural hot 
ith, in which the natives, especially the young folks, luxuriate daily. Sunset is the 
.vourite time for bathing, and I have frequently seen of an evening at least twenty 
JTsons squatting together in the water, with only their heads above the surface. 

** Boiling springs burst out of the ground, close to a large ciicular basin in the volcanic 
)ck, which, by the assistance of a little art, had been rendered a capacious bath. The 
oiling stream is conducted into this reservoir gradually, and the temperature of the water 
\ kept up or decreased by stopping out the boiling stream with stones, through which 
i trickles slowly, whilst the main body runs steaming into the lake. 

"The medicinal properties of these hot mineral springs preserve the natives in a 
ealthy state, and render their skins beautifully smooth and clear. Indeed, some of the 
nest people in the island are to be observed about Taupo, and the beauty and symmetry 
f the limbs of many of the youth would render them admirable studies for the 
ailptor.'' 

Pei^ps the oddest amusement with which 'the New Zealanders have ever recreated 
lemaelves is one that only occurred som6 sixty years ago, and is not likely to be repro- 
oced. About that date Captain King took away two New Zealanders to Norfolk Island 
V the purpose of teaching the settlers the art of flax-dressing. 

When he came back to restore them to their homes, he planted a quantity of maize^ 
ffcicb was Uien new in the coujitry, and jiresented the natives with three pigs. Most of 



136 



NEW ZEALAND. 



them liad never seen any animal larger than a cat, and the others, who had 
lection of seeing horses on hoard Captain Cook's vessel, naturally mistook 
animals. Thinking them to he horses, tliey treated them as horses, and sp 
of them to death. The third did not come to a better end, for it atraye 
ground, and was killed by the indignant natives. 

Nowadays the Maories understand pigs far too well to tide them. Pij 
quite an institution in New Zealand. Every village is plentifully popul 
and, as may be seen in the illustration of a village which will be given 01 
one of the commonest objects is a sow with a litter of pigs. 

Little pigs may be seen tottering about the houses, and the natives 
women, pet pigs exactly as European women pet dogs and cats. They 

their arras, fondle and 
nothing is more comn 
a young girl unfold 
discover a pig nest 
folds. Such a girl, for 
one who is representei 
panying illustration 
likely indeed to hav 
arms under the a 
iLiautle. 

The figure in q 
portrait of the dang] 
Her name is Tit-i 
the daughter of a ver 
celebrated chief H 
like her character, an 
civilization and natui 
is the native ilaxmi 
she may probably \vt 
even silken, garment, 
of which the young 1 
was, when her port 
exceedingly proud, 
wears a common strai 
from the trader at soi 
]jer cent, or so ahov 
round it she has tw'i 
ft species of clemati 
with great luxurianci 
It is a curious st 
different characteristi 
mind. An Oriental 
unspeakable disgust 
touch of a pig, and 
fastidious coneeminj 
the inhabitants of 
group of islands whit 
Asia to America lu 
all'inity for both the 
especially for pigs, d 
that aeenis 




THE CHir.FS 



shall find on a future page, their affection in a 
extremely ludicroua. 

Pigs are now fast becoming acclimatized to the Countr}-, junt like the 
of America. When a tribe has suffered extinction, as too often liappeos ir 
and ferocious vara in which the people engine, the pigs escape as well ai 



AMUSEMENTS. 137 

tho?e that evade the enemy have to shift for themselves, and soon resume all the habits 
of the wild swine from which they were originally descended. Those which now inhabit 
the coontry are easily to be distinguished from their immediate ancestors, having short 
beads and legs and round compact bodies. 

The native name for the pig is "poaka," a word which some have thought to be derived 
from the English word " pork." Dr. DieflFenbach, however, differs from this theory, and 
thinks that the native word, although of European origin, is derived fix)m,a source common 
both to England and New Zealand. He thinks that the New Zealanders had some know- 
ledge of the pig previous to its introduction by England, and that they derived their 
knowledge from Spanish voyagers. He is strengthened in this opinion by the fact that 
fte name for dog, " pen-o," is likewise Spanish. 

Pigs and dogs are not the only pets, the natives being in the habit of catching the 
kaka parrot, which has already been mentioned, and keeping it tame about their hooises. 
They make a very effective and picturesque perch for the bird, covering it with a sloping 
loof as a protection against the sun, and securing it to the perch by a string round its 
kg. Mr. Angas mentions that he has brought these birds to England, but that the climate 
dU not agree with them, and they all died. 

Many of the New Zealanders, especially the women, are dexterous ball-players, throw- 
ing four balls in various ways so as always to keep them in the air. Some few of them 
ire so skilful that they surpass our best jugglei-s, playing with five balls at a time, and 
: throwing them over the head, round the neck, and in various other ingenious modes of 
I increasint]^ the difficulty of the performance. 

Most of their sports are accompanied with songs, which, indeed, seem to be suited 
■ to all phases of a New Zealander's life. In paddling canoes, for example, the best 
iBngster takes his stand in the head of a vessel and begins a song, the chorus of which is 
Ween up by the crew, who paddle in exact time to the melody. 

Respecting the general character of these songs Dieffenbach writes as follows : *' Some 
•ongs are lyric, and are sung to a low, plaintive, uniform, but not at all disagreeable tune. 
. . E* Waiata is a song of a jo^-ful nature ; E* Haka one accompanied by gestures 
>t mimicry ; * E* Karakia is a prayer or an incantation used on certain occasions. In 
ftying this prayer there is generally no modulation of the voice, but syllables are 
engthened and shortened, and it produces the same effect as reading the Talmud in 
ynagogues. 

** Most of these songs live in the memory of all, but with numerous variations. Certain 
Karakia, or invocations, however, are less generally known, and a stranger obtains them 
irith difficulty, as they are only handed down among the tohunga, or priests, from father 
bo son. 

•* To adapt words to a certain tune, and thus to commemorate a passing event, is 
Momion in New Zealand, and has been the beginning of all national poetry. Many of 
these children of the moment have a long existence, and are transmitted through several 
generations ; but their allusions become unintelligible, and foreign names, having under- 
gone a thorough change, cannot be recognised." 

All these songs are accompanied by gesticulations more or less violent, and in that 
which is known as E' Haka the bodily exertion is extreme. The singers sit down in 
a drde, throw off their upper mats, and sing in concert, accompanying the song with the 
wildest imaginable gestures, squinting and turning up their eyes so as to show nothing 
hot the whites. 

Of musical jinstruments they have but very vague and faint ideas. Even the drum, 
which is perhaps the instrument that has the widest range through the world, is unknown 
to the native New Zealander. Drums resound in all the islands of the Pacific, but the New 
Zealander never indulges himself in a drumming. The sole really musical instrument 
which he possesses is a sort of fife made out of human bone. Generally, the flute is 
fonned from the thigh-bone of a slain enemy ; and when this is the case, the Maori warrior 
prizes the instrument inordinately, and carries it suspended to the tiki which he wears 
Amf^ on his breast 

There are certainly two noise-producing instruments, which have no right to be 



138 NEW ZEALAND. 

lionoured with the title of tuusical instruments. These are the war-beU and the m- 
trumpet. 

The former is called the war-bell in default of a bettor word. It consists of a Uodt 
of hard wood about six feet long and two thick, witli a deep groove in the centre. TUi 
" bell" is suspended horizontally by coi'ds, and struck by a man who squats on a scafBdd 
under it. With a stick make of heavy wood he delivoi-s slow and r^ular strokes in flu 
groove, the effect being to produce a. most melancholy sound, dully booming in the itill- 
uess of the night Tiie wav-bell is never sounded by day, the object being to tell tti 
people inside the pah, or village, that the sentinel is awake, and to tell any approaidib| 
enemy that it would be useless for hiin to attempt an attack by surprise. Its natin 
name is I'ahu. 

The war-trumpet is called Putam-putara. It is a most unwieldy instrument, at iMt' 
seven feet in length It is hollowed out of a suitably-shaped piece of haitl wood, 
un expanding mouth is given to it by means ef several pieces of wood laslied togetlw 
with flaxen fibre, and fitted to each other like the slaves of a cask. Towards the mi 
piece it is covered with the grotesque carvings of which the New Zealanders are so boil 
It is only used on occasions of alanu, when it is laid over the fence of the pah, ui 
sounded by a strong-lunged native. The note which the trumpet prodncee is a loot 




bUKLI.-TILUJU'BT. 



roaring sound, which, as the natives aver, can be heard, on a calm night, the distance tt. 
several miles. In fac;t, the sound appears to be very much the same as that wbicli ili( 
produced by the celebrated Blowing Stone of Wiltshire. 

In some places a smaller trumpet is used in time of war. The body of this tmnipet- 
is always made of a lai^ shell, generally that of a triton, and the mode of blowing il> 
differs aecoi'ding to the locality. The simplest kind of shell-trumpet is that which is nti 
wse throughout the whole of the Pacific Islands. It is made by taking a large emp^ 
shell, aud boring a round hole on one side near the point. Tlie shell ia blown like «' 
Hute, being placed horizontally to the lips, and the air directed across the aperture, h 
fact, it exactly resembles in principle the horn and ivory trumpets of Africa, which an 
shown in Vol. I. 

There is, however, in the British Museum a much more elaborate form of trumpet 
which is blown with a mouthpiece. In this case the point of the shell has been remoni 
and a wooden mouthpiece substituted for it, so that it is blown at the end, like tnimpell 
in our own country. 

Tlie dances of the New Zealander are almost entirely connected with war and will 
therefore be mentioned when we come to treat of that subject. 

Tlie mode of salutation at parting and meeting is very curious, and to a Europeia 
sufliciently ludicrous. When two persons meet who have not seen eiuih other for sotna 



THE TANGI. 139 

t is considered a necessary point of etiquette to go through the ceremony called 
The * g," by the way, is pronounced hani, as in the word " begin." They envelope 
ilves in their mats, covering even their faces, except one eye, squat on the ground 
te each other, and begin to weep copiously. They seem to have tears at command, 
ley never fiail to go through the whole of the ceremony as often as etiquette 
ds it Having finished their cry, they approach each other, press their noses 
sr for some time, uttering the while a series of short grunts ! Etiquette is now 

d, and both parties become very cheerful and lively, chatting and laughing as if 
lad never been such a thing as a tear in existence. 

: Angas tells a ludicrous story of a tangi which he once witnessed. A woman was 
ig a very small canoe, and fell in with the exploring party, who were in two large 
Seeing some friends on board of the la^e canoes, she ran her little vessel 
n them, and b^an a vigorous tangi 

06 being pressing, she could not stop to wrap herself up in the orthodox style, but 
into a flood of tears in the most approved fashion, and paddled and howled with 
vigour. Still crying, she put on board a basket of potatoes as a present, and 
d in return a fig of tobacco. The tangi being by this time complete, the old 
L burst into a loud laugh, had a lively talk with her friends, turned her little canoe 
and paddled briskly out of sight 

one instance this force of habit was rather ludicrously exemplified. The writer 
ell his own story. 

X Hopeton we met with a sister of Karaka, or Clark, the chief of Waikato Heads, 
portrait I had painted when at Auckland. This portrait I showed to the old 
1, who had not seen her brother for some time, when, to my surprise and amusement, 
once commenced a most affectionate tangi before the sketch ; waving her hands in 
oal manner, and uttering successively low whining sounds expressive of her joy. 
Ifter she had, as I imagined, satisfied herself with seeing the representation of her 
r, I was about to replace the sketch in my portfolio, when she begged of Forsaith 
le might be permitted to tanffi over it in good earnest, saying, ' It was her brother — 
other ; and she must tahgi till the tears come.' And sure enough, presently the 
lid come, and the old woman wept and moaned, and waved her hands before the 

e, with as much apparent feeling as if her brother himself had thus suddenly 
:ed to her. I could not prevail upon the old creature to desist, and was at length 
Ued to leave the portrait in Forsaith's care, whilst I was employed in sketching 
lere. In future I shall be more cautious how I show my sketches to the old 
1, finding that they are liable to produce such melancholy results." 

r. A Christie, to whom I am indebted for much information about the country, told 
anecdote of a tangi performed in England by a party of Maories who had visited 
ountiy. They were about to bid farewell to one of their friends, and visited his 
for that purpose, desiring to be allowed to perform the tangi. 
lowing their customs, their host took them into an empty room, previously 
oing his famOy not to be surprised at the ceremony. The whole party then sat 
on the floor, and raised a most dismal howl, wailing, waving their hands, shediiing 
of tears, and, in fact, enjoying themselves in their own queer way. The tangi 
over, they all became lively and chatty, and finally took leave after the undemon- 
e English fashioa 

a stranger the performance of the tangi is very amusing for the first few times of 
eing it ; but he soon becomes tired of it, and at last looks upon it as an unmitigated 
ice, wasting time, and subjecting him to a series of doleful howls from which he 
> mode of escape. Mr. Angas describes a tangi to which he was subjected, 
^t sunset we reached a small fortified port, on the summit of a hill overlooking the 
There were but few natives residing in it, to whom the sight of a pakeha (white 
was indeed astonishing ; and, after the salutation of welcome, they commenced a 
at my guides and myself. 

[he man who introduced us uttered a faint sound in his throat, like that of a person 
I at a distance, and continued to look mournfully on the ground. The welcome of 



140 



NEW ZEALAND. 



the men was voluble and loud : tlify liowled dismally, and their tears fell fast foi 
some time. 

"Another female soon arrived, wlio, squatting on the ground, commenced a iangiviOi 
her ftiends, so loud and doleful — ^now muttering and anon howling like a hyena — that it 
mfide me feel quite dismal There she sat, yelling horribly, to my great annoyance Imt 




Maori etiquette compelled me to look grave and not to disturb lier. Tliere seemed to bl 
no end to this woman's waitings of welcome. The night was cold, and she still continiui 
to sit by the fire prolonging her lugubrious and discordant strains. Sometimes she wodi 
pitch a higher key, going upwards with a scream, shaking her voice, and mutterinf 
between eveiy howl ; then it would be a squall with variations, like ' housetop cats d> 
moonlight nights.' 

" Then, blowing her nose witli her fingers, she made some remarks to the womau next 
her, and recommenced howling in the most systematic way. Once again she becant 
furious ; then, during an interval, she spoke about the pakelia, joined in a hearty lan^ 
with all the rest, and at last, after one long continued howl, all was silent^ to my greit 
relief," 

The manner in which the natives can produce such torrents of tears b mSj 
marvellous! and they exhibit such apparent agony of grief, acting the part to sou 
perfection, that for some time a stranger can hardly believe that the profusely weeiHOg 
natives are simply acting a conventional part. 

In the accompanying illustration is shown the sort of scene which takes place at a 



CHARACTER. 141 

n some of the inhabitants return after a long absence — a scene which would be 
lietic did it not trench upon the ludicrous. 

Q a party of strangers arrive at a pah, the preliminary part of the tangi, i.e. the 
lown and weeping, is omitted, another ceremony being substituted for it. The 
ire introduced into the interior of the pah, where a large space has been kept 
?he principal chief of the village then advances, clad as if for war, i.e, wearing 
but his moko and plenty of scarlet paint, and bearing a spear in his hand. He 
es and aims the spear as if he meant to pierce the chief of the opposite party, 
I throws it towards, but not at, the stranger. The visitors then squat silently on 
ad, according to Maori etiquette, and presently each stranger is faced by one of 
ving tribe, who goes through the ceremony of ongi, or pressing noses, which is 

part of the tangL This lasts for some time, and, when it is completed, the 
18 are brought out and a great feasting ensues. 

> the geneml character of the natives, it presents a curious mixture of wildness 
icityy aflection and fickleness, benevolence and vengefulness, hospitality and 
oesa The leading characteristic of the Maori mind is self-esteem, which some- 
ces the form of a lofty and even chivalrous pride, and at other times degenerates 
dish vanity. It is this feeling which leads a New Zealander to kill himself 
an live to suffer disgrace, and which causes him to behave with the politeness 
1 the well-bred New Zealander is so conspicuous. Degenerating into vanity, it is 
ounded ; and hence the accidentally hurt feelings of a Maori, added to the 
tiess which forms so large a portion of his nature, have occasioned long and 
g wars^ in which whole tribes have been extinguished. 

:einper of the Maories is, as is often the case with uncultivated natures, quick, 
ady though pleasing enough as a general rule, is apt to change suddenly without 
v provocation ; a lively, agreeable person becoming suddenly dull, sullen, and 
md. This fickleness of demeanour is very troublesome to Europeans, and, 
I aometiinep assumed by the natives, for the purpose of seeing how much their 
OBponiou will endure. When they find that he meets them with firmness, they 
y toeir unpleasant manner, and become quite gay and sociable. 
i^ however, a European hurts their feelings quite unintentionally, through sheer 
e of the minute code of etiquette which they observe. If, for example, two 
DB meet and wish to discuss a subject, they stand still and have their talk, or 
they wal|c backwards and forwards. Two New Zealanders, on the contrary, 
ways sit down, as it is thought a mark of inattention to stand while addressed 
ler. Again, when a New Zealander enters a house, he makes his salutation and 
lats down in silence for some time, the omission of this ceremony being looked 

great a mark of ill-breeding as to go into a drawing-room with the hat on is 
ed among ourselves. 

curious trait of the Maori character is the inability to keep a secret. This 
disposition sometimes subjects the natives to very unpleasant consequences. 
>r example, who have adopted the laws of the white man, have discovered that 
I many delinquencies which can be done with impunity, provided that they are 
ed in secret. But, according to Diefifenbach, "with the art of keeping a secret the 
ilander is little acquainted. Although he possesses in many other respects great 
rol, the secret must come out, even if his death should be the immediate 
iuce." 

' have a strong and tenacious memory, easily acquiring knowledge, and retaining 
vonderful accuracy. The strength of their memory is well exemplified by the 
onverts to Christianity, who will repeat long passages of the Bible and many 
rith absolute exactness. 

of the most remarkable examples of this characteristic is afforded by an old chief 
loromana Marahau, who is popularly known as Blind Solomon. H^ has led a 
liting and varied life, having been engaged in war ever since he wai? a boy, and 
lally taken prisoner by the ferocious chief K Hongi, or Shongi, as he is generally 
He has capt^red many a pah, and assisted in eating many a slain en^my, ^^d 



142 NEW ZEALAND. 

had he not escaped when he himself was made prisoner, he would have shared thi 
same fate. 

His last exploit was an attack on Poverty Bay, where he and hw followers took Ae 
pah, and killed and afterwards ate six hundred of the enemy. Shortly after this feat lie 
became blind, at Otawaho, where he first met with the missionary. ^ In process of tiinft 
he became a convert, and afterwards laboured as a teacher, displaying the same earneik 
energy which distinguished his military career, and, though an old man, undertaking low 
and toilsome journeys for the purpose of instmcting his fellow-countrymen. Mr. Angv 
once heard him deliver a funeral oration over the body of a child, which he describes m 
one of the finest and most impassioned bursts of eloquence he ever heard. 

Horomana was peculiarly suited for the office of instructor in consequence of \m 
exceptionally retentive memory. He knows the whole of the Church Service by heai^ 
together with many hymns and long passages of the Bible, and when he was exanuofli 
in the Catechism, it was found that he knew every word correctly. This strength <f 
memory, by the way, useful as it is when rightly employed, is sometimes abu^ Iff 
becoming an instrument of revenge, a Maori never forgetting an insult, whether real ot 
imaginary, nor the face of the person by whom he was insulted. 

The curiosity of the people is insatiable, and they always want to hear all a 
everything they sea This spirit of curiosity has naturally led them to take the 
interest in the various arts and sciences possessed by the white man, and in order 
gratify it they will often hire themselves as sailors in European ships. Accustomed 
the water all tlieir lives, and being admirable canoe-raen, they make excellent sailors, 
soon learn to manage boats after the European fashion, which differs essentially 
their o>vn. Some of them penetrate into the higher mysteries of navigation, and in 1 
a New Zealander was captain of a whaler. 

They take quite as much interest in the familiar objects of their own country as i 
iliose which are brought to them by foreigners. They have names for all their 
Vi*»i;etable, and even mineral productions, pointing out and remarking upon any 
liarities which may be found in them. 




STONE MERAI. (From my own Collection.) 



CHAPTER V. 



FOOD AND COOKERY. 



.ITT OF THK NRW ZBALANDERS — EFFECTS OF CIVILIZATION — THE CHURU8R HOSTS AND 

K BBWABD A NEW ZEALAND FEAST THE WALL OF PROVISIONS FOOD-BASKETS THE 

iRA OB 8WEKT POTATO — WASHING AND COOKING VEGETABLES THE CABBAGE PALM AND 

BOOT — A NATIVE LEGEND — THE PAWA SHELL THE MUSSEL AND OTSTBB FISHING 

OTST, THE TBAP, THE HOOK, AND THE SPEAB BIRD-CATCHUMI — CAPTUBINO THE KIWI- 

AND PABBOT — PIG-CATCHING AND COOKING CANNIBALISM, ITS SIGNIFICATION AND BXTENT 

TIKO HUMAN FLESH A SUPERSTITIOUS CUSTOM — ANECDOTES OF CANNIBALISM. 



w Zealanders are the most hospitable and generous of people ; a stranger, whether 
)r Earopean, is welcomed into the villages, is furnished with shelter, and provided 
with food. Should the visitor be a relative, or even an intimate friend, they hold 
r property in common, and will divide with him everythinpj that they poesesa. 

a Maori has earned by long labour some article of property which he was very 
\ to possess, he will give it to a relation or friend who meets him after a long 
ion. 

3 generosity of disposition has unfortunately been much checked by contact 
le white man, and those natives who have much to do with the white settlers have 
ach of their politeness as well as their hospitality. Instead of welcoming the 
nr, housing him in their best hut, providing him with their choicest food, and 
I him as if he were a near relation, they have become covetous and suspicious, and 

of offering aid gratuitously will sometimes refuse it altogether, and at the best 
i a high rate of payment for their assistance. 

J native converts to Christianity have deteriorated greatly in this respect through 
sjndged zeal of the missionaries, who have taught their pupils to refuse food and 
to, or to perform any kind of work for, a traveller who happens to arrive at their 

on a Sunday — a circumstance which must (continually occur in a country where 



144 NEW ZEALAND. 

want any native helpers, to treat them with attention, and rather as belonging to the 
family than as servants. They have this feeling of independence very strongly, and it ii 
very creditable to them. 

*' There is every reason to believe that in a short time the character of the New 
Zealanders will be entirely changed, and any one who wishes to see what they wwb 
foiinerly must study them in the interior, where they are still little influenced by into- 
course with us, which I must repeat has been little advantageous to them." 

The same writer relates an amusing anecdote respecting the ancient custom d 
hospitality. He had been travelling for some distance with scarcely any provisions,- nl 
came upon a tribe which churlishly refused hospitality to the party, and w*ould not em 
furnish a guide to show them their way. One of them condescended to sell a smiBi 
basket of potatoes in exchange for some needles, but nothing more could be obtained, aod, 
after spending a day in vain, the party had to pack up and resume their march. 

After they had left the pah, they came suddenly across a family of pigs. One of the: 
native attendants immediately killed a large sow, and in a few minutes the animal ini 
cut up and the pieces distributed. Not likipg to take food without paying for it, Di 
Dieffenbach hung the offal of the pig on a bush, together with an old pair of trousers anl 
an iron kettle. His attendants, however, went back and took them away, saying that % 
was the custom of the country that a stranger should be supplied with food, and that, 3 
it were not given to him, he had a right to take it when, where, and how he could. Thej 
were very much amused at the whole proceeding, and made many jokes on the di^ 
pointment of the churlish people who refused to sell a pig at a good price, apd then 
that it had been taken for nothing. 

Hospitality being such a universal and impemtive charficteristic of the aborij 
Maori, it may be imagined that when a chief gives a feast he does so with a li' 
hand. Indeed, some of these banquets are on so enormous a scale, that a whole 
is mnsacked to furnish sufficient provisions, and the inhabitants have in consequence 
live in a state of semi-starvation for many months. Mr. Angas mentions that, when 
visited the celebrated chief Te Whero-Whero, he saw more than a thousand men pkni 
sweet potatoes in order to furnish i^rovisions for a feast that the phief intended to give 
all the Waikato tribes in the following spring. 

These feasts are continued as long as any food is left, and a very liberal cWef 
sometimes get together so enqrpous a supply of provisions that the banquet lastB 
several weeks. Songs and dances, especially the war-dance, are performed at ini 
throughout the time of feasting. 

The following illustration giv^ a good idea of the preliminari^ which •» 
observed before the celebration of an prdinary feast, such as would be given by a ireH-tor 
do Rangatira. A sort of scaffold is erected, on the bars of which are hung lai|[e snjpBfli 
of fish, mostly dried shark, together with pieces of pork, and similar luxuries. Tin 
upper part of the scaffold is formed into a flat stage, on which are placed large haskdl 
full of sweet potatoes and common potatoes. 

The guests range themselves in a circle round the scaffold, and the phief who givei 
the feast makes a speech to them, brandishing his staff of office, running up and dowi 
the open space, leaping in the air, and working himself up by gestures to an ejctn- 
ordinary pitch of excitement. 

One of my friends was distinguished by having a feast given in bis honour, anf 
described the ceremony in a very amusing manner. The generous founder of the feii 
had built a sort of wall, the contents of which were potatoes, sweet potatoes, i»gi 
and fish. By way of ornament, he had fixed a number of sticks into the wall, like • 
many flagstaffs, and to the top of each he had fastened a living eel by way of a 11^ 
or streamer, its contortions giving, according to his ideas, a spirit to the whol 
proceedings. 

He then marched quickly backwards and forwards between the wall of provisiaii 
and his guests, who were all seated on the groimd, and as he marched uttered a fin 
broken sentences. By degrees his walk became quicker and quicker, and changed into 
run, diversified with much leaping into the air, brandishing of imaginary weapons, an 



THE fKAST. 



143 



ttemnce of louil yells. At last lie worked himself up into a pitch of ahimst savaye 
iiy, and then sitddenly sriualteil down silently, nnd made way for nuotlier orator. 

The waste which takes placo at s\ich a feast, which la calleii in the native lai^age 
»%. 18 necessarily ven- great. In one such jwrty mentioned by Mr.Angas, the donor 
mged the provisious and present.^ for his puests in tlie form of a wall, which was 
lePfeet high, as many wide, moiv fhim a mih in. knglh, nnd supplied for many daya 
onsands of natives who came to the feast from ver^- great distances. Tlie great chiefs 
tajnvat pleasure in rivalling each other in their exfienditure, and it was for tho imi-pose 
^fldins a still laiger food-wall thai Te \Vhero-AVhen. was so husily setting his men to 
>rk in planting the kumeras, or sweet potatoes. 




r;i'.\l|[N(J K(l» A FE-VST. 



Consideftble variety is shown in the manner ,(if preseutinf; the (bod to the guests, 
toerally it is intended to be eaten on the spot, but sotnetiines it is meant to 1)6 given 
nvXili the people, to I>e consumed when and where they like. In such a case either the 
iftld or the wall is used. The scaffold is sometimes fifty or siNty feet high^ and 
irided into a number of storeys, each of which is loaded with tbod. If the wall ho. 
nployed, it is separated into a nuniher of divisions. In either case, when tlie guests arc 
Med, a chief who acts as the master of the ceremonies marches about and makes a 
leech, after the fashion of his country ; and, after having delivered his oration, ho jwints 
It to each tribe the portion which is intended for it The chief man of each tribe takes 
DMetsioii of the gift, and afterwards subdivides it among his followers. 

It is rather remarkable that the baskets in which the provisions are served are made 
» the expreas purpose, and, having fulfilled their office, are thrown aside and never used 
WLIL h 



146 



KEW ZEALAND. 



again. Should a chief take one of these baskets and begin to eat from it, not only thf 
basket but any food which he may leave in it is thrown away, no chief ever eating aSft 
any one, or allowing any one to eat alter him. 

So when a chief takes his basket of food, he withdraws himeelf Iroin the rest of tbi 
company and consumes hia food, so that no one shall be incommoded by his nnlL 
Ordinary people, even the Itangatiras, are not nearly so fastidious, one basket ottoti 
sufficing several of them, three or four being the usual number for a basket Each jf 
these baskets contains a complete meal, and is usually supplied with plenty of potaMp 
and kumeras, some fish, and a piece of pork. The meat is passed from one to anotw 
each taking a bite, or tearing off a portion ; and when they have finished, tliey wipe taS 
hands ou the backs of the dogs which are sure to thrust themselves among the revelleM 
These feasts naturally lead us to the various kinds of food used by the Na 
Zealanders, and their modes of procuring and preparing them. 

We will begin with the plant which is the very staff of life to the New Zealasde^ 
namely, the kumera, or sweet potato, as it is popularly though erroneously called. 

Tliis plant is largely cultivated by the Maories, who are very careful in selecting i 
proper soil for it. The best gtoai 
for the kumera is that which hi 
been thickly wooded, and is cli 
for the purpose. The natives 
but little trouble about preparingd 
land, merely cutting down the 
and burning the brushwood, but i 
uttempting to root up the stumps., 
The ground is torn up talk 
than dug by a simple instnuna 
whicli is nothing more than 
sharpened pole with a cross-pil 
t;)stened to it, on which the foot a 
ri'St. As the New ZealandcOL 
not wear shoes, they canaot uf* 
iron spade as we do ; and it 
easily be itnngiued that the unpi 
tooted foot of the Maori would n 
terribly in performing a task wl 
stoutly-shod labourers, forces them to weEir a plate of iron on the 




NATIVE BASKCT. 



even among 
of the boot. 

The kaheru, as this tool is called, is more effective than an iron spade could it,' 
consequence of the peculiar character of the soil, which is thickly iuterlaced wi^ t| 
roots of ferns, brushwood, and shrubs. A few of these curious spades are tipped witi 
piece of green jade, and arc then highly valued by the natives. Such a tool is call 
E Toki, The Maories have also a kind of hoe which is very useful in some soils. 

Tlie kumeras are planted in regular rows, and the greatest care is taken to keep ti 
field clear of weeda The dark agriculturists even remove every caterpillar that is 
upon the plants ; and altogether such elaborate care is taken that the best managed 
in Europe cannot surpass, and very few even equal, a piece of land cultivated iy 
New Zealander. 

Each family has its own peculiar field, the produce of which is presumed to beloigl( 
the family. But a great portion of the labour jierformed in it may be done by poorBij 
who have no laud of tlieir own. In such a ease, they acquire, in virtue of their lahOB 
8 legal right over the fruits of the laud which they have helped to till. Sometintei m 
head or chief of a tribe, considering himself as the father of the family, institutes a genn 
sale, and distributes the proceeds according to the amount of material or labour wUd 
each has contributed. j 

Before the potatoes are cooked, they are carefully washed in a simple and Ttf 
effective manner. A woman puts them into a basket with two handles, popularly o^ 



INTRODUCTION OF THE KUMERA. 147 

' wades into a running stream, puts one foot into the basket, takes hold of the 
, and rocks the basket violently backwards and forwards, while with her foot she 
ally stirs up and rubs the potatoes. In this manner the earth is washed away 
e v^etables, and is carried off by the stream through the interstices of the 

the present day, the kumera, although very highly valued, and used at every 
nt feast, has been rivalled, if not superseded, by the common potato, which can 
jd with less trouble and cooked more easily. Both the kumera and potato are 
in a sort of oven, made by heating stones, and much resembling the cooking- 

the Australians. No cooking is allowed to take place in the house, the act of 
ig food being looked upon as a desecration of any building. Through ignorance 
rurious superstition, Europeans have frequently brought upon themselves the anger 
latives by eating, and even cooking, food within a house which is looked upon 
± 

onsequence of this notion, the oven is either constructed in the open air, or at 
a special house called Te-kauta, which is made of logs piled loosely upon each 
) as to permit the smoke to escape. 

bud, or "cabbage," of the nikau-palm, a species of Areca, is highly prized by the 
, who fell every tree which they think likely to produce a young and tender bud. 
^etable is sometimes eaten raw, and sometimes cooked in the same mode as the 

Fortunately, the tree is not wasted by being cut down, as its leaves are used for 
urposes, such as making temporary sheds when travellers are benighted in the 
;batching houses, and similar uses. Still, the destruction of this useful and 
. palm is very great, and there is reason to fear that the improvident natives will 
extirpate it, unless means be taken to preserve it by force of law. 

Maories have one curious plan of preparing food, which seems to have been 
i for the purpose of making it as disgusting as possible. They take the kumera, 
ato, or the maize, and steep it in fresh water for several weeks, until it is quite 
It is then made into cakes, and eaten with the greatest zest. To a European 
; can be more offensive, and the very smell of it, not to mention the flavour, is so 
disgusting that even a starving man can hardly manage to eat it. The odour is 
rfnl, so rancid, and so penetrating, that when Europeans have been sitting inside a 
nd a man has been sitting in the open air eating this putrid bread, they liave been 
:o send him away from the vicinity of the door. By degrees travellers become 
^customed to it, but at first the effect is inexpressibly disgusting ; and when it is 
the odour is enough to drive every European out of the village. 
former days the fern-root {Pteris escuhnta) was largely eaten by the natives, but 
atoes and maize have so completely superseded it that fern-root is very seldom 
iaccept on occasions when nothing else can be obtained. When the fern-root 
:ed, it is cut into pieces about a foot long, and then roasted. After it is 
atly cooked, it is scraped clean with a shell. The flavour of this root is not 
essing, having an unpleasant mixture of the earthy and the medicinal about it. 
>ut December another kind of food comes into season. This is the pulpous stem 
of the tree-ferns which are so plentiful in New Zealand [Gyathea medullai*is). It 
J long cooking, and is generally placed in the oven in the evening, and eaten in the 



y 

y 



h regard to the vegetables used in New Zealand, Dr. Dieffenbach has the following 
9. After mentioning the native idea that they were conquerors of New Zealand, 
mght with them the dog and the taro plant {Anim escidentum), he proceeds as 
: — " A change took place in their food by the introduction of the sweet potato or 
I {Convolvulvs batata) — an introduction which is gratefully remembered and recorded 
y of their songs, and has given rise to certain religious observances. 
may be asked. What was the period when the poor natives received the gift of this 
5me food, and who was their benefactor ? On the flrst point they know nothing ; 
{collection attaches itself to events, but not to time. The name, however, of the 
ives in their inemorv. It is F Paul, or Ko Paul, the wife of E' Tiki, who bi-ought 

l2 



1 



148 NEW ZEALAND. 

the first seeds from the island of Tawai. E* Tiki was a native of the island of Tawai, whiA 
is not that whence, according to tradition, the ancestors of the New Zealanders had come. 
He came to New Zealand with his wife, whether in less frail vessels than they possess at 
present, and whether purposely or driven there by accident, tradition is silent. 

" H$ was well received, but soon perceived that food was more scanty here than in 
the happy isle whence he came. He wished to confer a benefit upon his hosts, but knew 
not how to do it, until his wife, E' Paui, offered to go back and fetch kumera, that tbe 
people who had received them kindly might not suffer want any longer. This she 
accomplished, and returned in safety to the shores of New Zealand. 

" What a tale of heroism may lie hidden under this simple tradition ! Is it a tab 
connected with the Polynesian race itself ? or does it not rather refer to the arrival in 
New Zealand of tlic early Spanish navigators, who may have brought this valuable 
product from the island of Tawai, one of the Sandwich Islands, where the plant is still 
most extensively cultivated ? There can be scarcely any doubt but that New Zealand 
was visited by some people antecedent t<) Tasman. Kaipuke is the name of a ship is 
New Zealand — huqu4^' is a Spanish word — Kai means to eat, or live. No other Poly- ; 
nesian nation has this word to designate a ship. Pero (dog) and poaca (pig) are also | 
Spanisk Tawai, whence E' Paui brought the kumera, is situated to the east of Net 
Zealand according to tradition, and the first discoverers in the great ocean» Alvai» 
Mendana (1595), Quiros (1608), Lemaire, and others, arrived from the eastward, as they 
did at Tahiti, according to the tmdition of the inhabitants. Tasman did not come to Net 
Zealand uutU 1G42." 

However this may be, the fields of kumera are strictly " tapu," and any theft 
them is severely punished. The women who are engaged in their cultivation are 
tapu. They must pray together with the priests for the increase of the harvest. 
women are never allowed to join in the cannibal feasts, and it is only after the 
dug up that they are released from the strict observance of the tapu. They belim' 
kumera is the food consumed in the " reinga," the dwelling-place of the departed 
and it is certainly the food most esteemed among the living. 

They have several ways of preparing the sweet potato. It is either simply' 
or dried slowly in a " hangi," when it has the taste of dates, or ground into powder 
baked into cakes. 

The kumera, like most importations, is rather a delicate v^etable, and while it 
young it is sheltered by fences made of brushwood, which are set up on the wind' 
side of the plantation when bad weather is apprehended. Great stacks of dried 
wood are seen in all well-managed kumera gardens, ready to be used when wanted. 
great is the veneration of the natives for the kumem, that the storehouses wherein it 
kept are usually decorated in a superior style to the dwelling of the person who own* 
them. 

In the following illustration several of these elaborate storehouses are showiL: 
They are always supported on posts in such a way that the rats cannot get among thtt^ 
contents, and in some instances they are set at the top of poles fifteen or twenty feefc 
high, which are climbed by means of notches in them. These, however, are almoit: 
without ornamentation, whereas those which belong specially to the chief are compani 
tively low, and in some cases every inch of them is covered with graceful or grotesqiM 
patterns, in which the human face always predominates. 1 

Some of these curious storehouses are not rectangular, but cylindrical, the cylindBii 
lying horizontally, with the door at the end, and being covered with a pointed roolll 
Even the very posts on which the storehouses stand are carved into the rude semblance ol 
the human form. 

The Maories also say that the calabash, or hue, is of comparatively late introduction 
the seeds having been obtained from a calabash which was carried by a whale aai 
thrown on their shores. 

A very curious article of vegetable food is the cowdie gum, which issues from i 
8{>ecieB of pine. This gum exudes in great quantities from the trees, and is found in laigl 
masses adhering to the trunks and also in detached pieces on the ground. It is a ck«{ 



ARTICLES OF FOOD. 



149 



wish resin ; and it ia imported into England, wliere it is converted into varnish. The 
:r of the cowdie gnm is powerfully aromatic, and the natives of the northern island 
it just aa sailors chew tobacco. They think so much of this gum, that when a 
^r comes to visit them, the highest compliment that can he paid to him is for the 
So take a partially chewed piece of gum from his mouth, and offer it to the visitor, 
he New Zealanders eat great quantities of the pawa, a species of Haliotis, from 
1 they procure the pearly shell with which they are bo fond of inlaying their 
3gs, especially the eyes of the human figures. Shells belonging to this group are 
IcDOwn in the Channel Islands under the name of Ormer shells, and the molluscs 
avourite articles of diet. Those which are found in New Zealand are very 




CIUEFS' STORIiHOUSSa. 



It lai^er than the species of the Channel Islands, and the inhabitants are tough and, 
oropean taste, very unpalateahle. Great quantities are, Iiowever, gathered for food. 
putrid potato cakes are generally eaten with the pawa ; and the two together form 
Dquet which an Englishman could liardiy prevail on himself to taste, even though 
ere dying of hunger. 

Unssels, too, are largely used for food : and the natives have a way of opening and 
ng out the inmate which I have often practised. If the bases of two mussels he 
ed together so that the projections interlock, and a sharp twist be given in opposite 
:tions, the weaker of the two gives way, and the shell is opened. Either shell 
« an admirable knife, and scrapes the mollusc out of its home even better than a 
liar oyster-knife. 

OyrtcTB, especially the Cockscomb Oyster {OstrtEa cristaia),o.re very plentiful in many 
■ of the coast, ai^ afford aa unfailing supply of food to the natives. They are mostly 



150 NEW ZEALAND. 

gathered by women, who are in some places able to obtaiu them by waiting until low 
water, and at other places are forced to dive at all states of the tide. 

Fish form a large portion of New Zealand diet ; and one of their favourite dished k 
shark's flesh dried and nearly putrescent. In this state it exhales an odour which is only 
less horrible than that of the putrid cakes, 

Mr. Angas mentions one instance where he was greatly inconvenienced by tha 
fondness of the natives for these offensive articles of diet. He was travelling throng 
the country with some native guides, and on amving at a pah had procured for brealdaife 
some remarkably fine kumeras. The natives immediately set to work at cooking Ik 
kumeras, among which they introduced a quantity of semi-putrid shark's flesL Hm 
was not the worst of the business, for they next wove some of the phormiuni baskflli 
which have already been described, filled them with the newly-cooked provisions, ani 
carried them imtil the evening repast, giving the traveller the benefit of the honibb 
odour for the rest of the day. 

Fish are either taken with the net, the weir, or the hook. The net presents nothiqg 
remarkable, and is used as are nets all over the world, the natives weighting them at 
bottom, floating them at the top, shooting them in moderately shallow water, and 
beating the water with poles in order to frighten the fish into the meshes. 

Traps, called pukoro-tuna, are made of funnel-shaped baskets, just like the eel- 
of our own country ; but the most ingenious device is the weir, which is built quite 
the river, and supported by poles for many yards along its side. Often, when the net 
the weir is used, the fish taken are considered as belonging to the community in ge 
and are divided equally by the chief. 

Sometimes a singularly ingenious net is used, which has neither float nor si 
This net is about four feet wude, thirty or forty feet in length, and is tied at each end 
a stout stick. Kopes are lashed to the stick, and the net is then taken out to sen i 
canoe. When they have arrived at a convenient spot, the natives throw the net OTer 
side of the canoe, holding the ropes at either end of the boat, so that the net forms a 
semicircle in the water as the boat drifts along. In fact it is managed much 
English fisherman manages his dredge. 

In the middle of the canoe is posted a man, who beara in his hand a very 1 
light pole, having a tuft of feathers tied to one end of it. With the tufted end he 
and stirs the water, thus driving into the meshes of the net all the small Ashes within 
curve of the net. Those who hold the ropes can tell by the strain upon the cords w! 
there are enough fish in the net to make a haul advisable, and when that is the caae^ 
net LS brought to the side of the canoe, emptied, and again shot. 

Spearing fish is sometimes, but not very largely, employed. 

The hooks employed by the New Zealanders present a curious mixture of sim 
and ingenuity. The two which are given on page 151 are those in general use : and it 
seems strange that any fish should be stupid enough to take such an object in its 
The wooden hook (Fig. 2) is baited, as is the case with our own, and the rude Imb 
found sufficient to hold the fish. 

The more ingenious hook, however, is the other specimen (Fig. 1). Tliis is a sing 
admirable contrivance. The body of the hook is made of wood, curved, and 
hollowed on the inside. The hook itself is bone, and is always made from the 
of a slain enemy, so that it is valued as a trophy, as well as a means of catching 
This bone is fastened to the rest of the hook Ijy a very ingenious lasliing ; and, in 
instances, even the bone is in two pieces, which are firmly lashed together. 

In consonance with the warlike character of the natives, who seem to be as read(f 
offer an insult to other tribes as to take offence themselves, the use of the enemy's 
intended as an insult and a defiance to a hostile tribe. 

The body of the hook is lined with the pawa shell, and to the bottom of it is 
a tuft of fibres. This hook is remarkable for requirhig no bait. It is towed astern of 
canoe, and when pulled swiftly through the water it revolves rapidly, the pearly 
flashing in the light like the white belly of a fish, and the tuft of fibres representii^'fl 
tail. Consequently, the predatorial fish take it for the creature which it represent^ W 



nSH-HOOKS. 



161 



t flashes by them, and are hooked before they diacovet their mistake. If any of 
rrs should happen to be anglers, they will see that this hook of the New Zealander 
J similar in principle witli the " spoon-bait " which ia bo efficacious in practised 
One of these hooks in my collection is quite a model of form, the curves being 
y graceful, and the effect being as artistic as if the maker had been a professor in 
>1 of design. The length of my hook is rather more than four inches : and this 
the aTera<re size of these implements. The string by which it is held is fastened 
lOok in a very ingenious manner; 
;ed it scarcely seems possible that 
■ently slight a lashing couid hold 
.ough to baffle the struggles of a fish 
jugh to swallow a hook more than 
les in length, and three-quarters of 
n width. 

of these hooks are furnished with 
' of the apteryx, \vhicb serves the 
jf an artificial Sy. 

salt and fresh water crayfish are 

laige qnantitiea The latter, which 
large, are almost invariably captured 
Fomen, who have to dive for them, 
brmer are taken in traps baited with 
ch like OUT own lohster-pots. 
are almost always caught by calling 
Ji the voice, or by using a decoy 

ipteryx, or kiwi-kiwi, is taken by 
if these methods. It is of nocturnal 
id 18 seldom seen, never venturing 

I haunts by day. It is very thinly ^ 

. living in pairs, and each puir fish-hooks. 

g a tolerably large district At night 
ont of its dark resting-place among 

where it has been sleeping throughout the day, and sets oft' in search of worms, 
d other creatures, which it scratches out of the ground with its powerful feet. 
he night it occasionally utters its shrill cry ; that of the male being somewhat 
vords " hoire, hoire, hoire," and that of the female like " ho, ho, ho." 
I the natives wish to catch the apteryx, they go to the district where the bird 
imitate its cry. As soon as it shows itself, it is seized by a dog which the 
IS with him, and which is trained for the purpose. As the bird is a very 
le, there is generally a fight between itself and tiie dog, in which the powerfiil 
sharp claws of the bird are used with great effect. Sometimes the hunter has 
arch made of the cowdie resin, and by lighting it as soon as the kiwi-kiwi comes 
le blinds the bird so effectually by the unwonted light that it is quite bewildered, 
know in what direction to run, and allows itself to be taken alive. 
me seasons of the year the bird is very fat, and its flesh is said to be well 
In former days, when it was plentiful, it was much used for food, but at 
Dt time it is too scarce to hold any real place among the food-producing animals 
Zealand, its wingless state rendering it an easy prey to those who know its 
Fhe skiu is very tough, and, when dressed, was used in the manufacture of 

Mrrota are caught by means of a decoy bird. The fowler takes with him a 
uch he has taught to call its companions, and conceals himself under a shelter 
branches. From the shelter a long rod reaches to the branches of a neighbouring 
when the bird calls, its companions are attracted by its cries, fly to the tree, 
walk down the rod in parrot fashion, and are captured by the man in the cover. 




153 



NEW ZEALAND. 



Formerly the native ting used to be iiiiicli eaten ; but as the species has aliuost 
entirely liecn tmnsfonned by admixture with tlie various breeds of English do»s, its use, 
as an article of food, lias been abandoned. Piga are almost the only mammalia ttut 
are now eaten ; but they are not considered as forming an article of ordinary diet, being 
reserved for festive occasions. The pork of New Zealand pigs is said to surpass that irf 
their European congeners, and to bear some resemblance to veal. Thia superioritr of 
flavour is caused by their constantly feeding on the fern-roots. In colour they m 
mostly black, and, although tame and quiet enough with their owners, are teniblj 
lightened when they see a white man, erect theiv bristles, and dash off into the bush. 




We now come to the inicstinn of cannibalism, a custom which seems to have rmri^ 
civilization longer in New Zealand than in any ntlier part of the world. In some plaif 
cannibalism is an exception ; heiv, as among the Neam-ncam of Africa, it is a rule. U 
accomi)aiiying ilhiatRition re]trej!ents a cannibal cooking-house, that was erected bjf 
celebmtcd Maori chief, in the Wailahtinui Pub. This was once a celebrated fort, and W 
originally erected in order to <lefend the inhabitants of Te Ilapa from the attacks of tt 
Waikato trilMjs. Both these and their I'nemies having, as a rule, embraced ChriatianiQ 
and laid aside their feuds, the pah has long been deserted, and will probaldy fall ill 
decay Ixtforu many years have passed. Jlr. Angas' description of this pah is an ezoesd 
ingly intenisting one. 

'* WaitiUianui I'ah stands on a neck of low swampy land jutting into the lake, ul 
broad, deep river, forming a delta called the Tongariro, and by some the AVaikato (as ttl 
river runs out again at the other end of Tainpo Lake), empties itself near tlie pah, Tt 
long facade of the pab presents an imposing appearance when viewed from the l«ke; 



CANNIBALISM. 153 

ine or fortifications, composed of upright poles and stakes, exteudiiig for at least half 
mile iu a direction parallel to the watei'. On tlie top of many of the posta are carved 
j^res, much larger than life, of men iu tlie act of defiance, and in the most savage pos- 
ans, having enormous protruding tongues ; and, like all the Maori carvings, these images, 
r mikapokos, are coloured with kokowai, or red ochre. 

" The entire pah is now iu ruins, and has been made tapu by Te Heuheu since its 
lescrtioQ. Here, then, all was forbidden ground ; but I eluded the suspicions of our natives, 
;nd rambled about all day amongst the decaying memorials of the past, making drawings 
if the moat striking and peculiar objects within the pali. The cook-liouses, where the 
kthcr of Te Heuheu had his original establishment, remained in a perfect state ; the only 
tnlrance to these buildings were a series of circular apertures, in and out of which the 
laves engaged in preparing the food were obliged to crawL 

" Near to the cook-houses there stood a carved patuka, which was the receptacle of 
lie sacred food of the chief ; and nothing could exceed the richness of the elaborate 
srviw that adorned this storehouse. I uiade a careful drawing of it, as the frail material 
nt fuliiig to decay. Buined bouses — many of them once b^utifully ornamented and 
idly eanmd — ^numerous waJa-tapu, and other heathen remains with images and carved 
mt% oocnr in VBiious poitions of this extensive pah ; but in other places the hand of 
Dbb bu HO effectually destroyed the buildings as to leave them but an unintelligible mass 
i nSm Hw ntuatiou of this pah is admirably adapted for the security of its inmates : 
k mBBmdB the lake on the one side, and the other fronts the extensive marshes of 
bkinn, where a strong piJisacle and a deep moat afford protection against any sudden 
ilkck. Water is conveyed into the pah through a sluice or canal for the supply of the 
paieged in times of war. 

j • TheiG was an air of solitude and gloomy desolation about the whole pah, that was 
mibeiud by the screams of the plover and the tern, as they uttered their mournful cry 
pnnj^ the deserted courts. I rambled over the scenes of many savage deeds, rh'eus, 
^ere Intman flesh had buen cooked in heaps, still remained, with the stones used for 
leitiitg ihem lying scattered around, blackened by iire ; and here and there a dry skull 
ty bleaehitig in the sun and wind, a grim memorial of the past." 

The chief reason for tho persistent survival of cannibalism is to be found iu the light 
^ which the natives regard Uie act. As far as can be ascertained, the Maories do not eat 
Iwtr Eeilon'-men simply because they have any especial liking for human tlesh, although, 
|l migbt be expected, there are still to be found some men who have contracted a strong 
hde (or tJie flesh of man. 

Ihe ml reason for the custom is based on the superstitious notion that any one who 
■ta the flesh of another becomes endowed with all the best (polities of the slain person. 
F«r this nason, a chief will often content himself with the left eye of an adversary, that 
portion of the body being considered as the seat of the soul. A similar idea prevails 
i^^ing the blood. 

When the dead bodies of enemies are brought into the villages, much ceremony 
itlends the cooking and eating of tliem. ITiey are considered as tapu, or proJiibitsd, 
■dil the tohunga, or priest, has done his part This consists in cutting off part of the 
Inh, and hanging it up on a tree or a t^ stick, as an ofl'ering to the deities, acconi- 
imying his proceedings with certain mystic prayers and invocations. 

Most women are forbidden to eat human flesh, and so are some men and all young 
dildiien. When the latter reach a certain age. they are permitted to become eaters of 
knan flesh, and are inducted into their new privileges by the singing of chants and 
■ongs, the meaning of which none of the initiates understand, and which, it is probable, 
lie equally a mystery to the priest himself who chants them. 

The palms of the bands and the breast are supposed to be the best parts; and some of 
the elder warriors, when they have overcome their reluctance to talk on a subject which 
ttey know will shock their interlocutors, speak in quite enthusiastic terms of human flesh 
■i in article of food. 

That cannibalism is a custom which depends on warfare is evident from many sources. 
In war, as we shall presently see, the New Zealander can hardly be recognised as the 



154 NEW ZI£ALAND. 

same being in a state of peace. His whole soul is filled with but one idea — that at 
vengeance ; and it is the spirit of revenge, and not the mere vidgar instinct of ghttony, 
that induces him to eat the bodies of his fellow-men. A New Zealander would not dream 
of eating the body of a man wlio had died a natural death, and nothing could be further 
from his thoughts than the deliberate and systematic cannibalism which disgraces Bevenl 
of the African tribes. 

How completely this spirit of vengeance enters into the very soul of the Maories can 
be inferred from a short anecdote of a battla There is a small island in the Bay of 
l^lenty called Tuhua, or Mayor's Island, the inhabitants of which, about two hundred 
in number, had erected a strong pah, or fort, in order to defend themselves from tie 
attacks of tribes who lived on the mainland, and wanted to capture this very convenient 
little island. The fort was built on a very steep part of the island, craggy, precipitous 
and chiefly made up of lava. 

After making several unsuccessful attacks, the enemy at last made an onslaught in 
the night, hoping to take the people off their guard. The inmates were, however, awake 
and prepared for resistance ; aud as soon as the enemy attacked the pah, the defenden. 
retaliated on them by allowing them to come partly up the hill on which the pah stands, 
and then rolling great stones upon them. Very many of the assailants were killed, and 
tlie rest retreated. 

Next morning the successful defenders related this tale to a missionary, and shoved 
the spot where so sanguinary an encounter had taken place. The missionary', finding that 
all the stones and rocks were perfectly clean, and betrayed no traces of the bloody strug^ 
which had taken place only a few hours previously, asked to be shown the marks of thi 
blood. His guide at once answered that the women had licked it off. 

It has sometimes been stated that the Maories will kill their slaves in order to 
furnish a banquet for themselves ; but such statements are altogether false. 

Cannibalism is at the present day nearly, though not quite, extinct. Chiefly by the 
efforts of the missionaries, it has been greatly reduced ; and even in cases where it doei 
take place the natives are chary of speaking about it. In wars that took place som 
forty years ago, we learn that several hundred warriors were slain, and their bodies eatafc 
by their victors. In comparatively recent times twenty or thirty bodies have beet 
brought into the pah and eaten, while at the present day many a native has never seen i ^ 
act of cannibalism. This strange and ghastly custom is, however, so dear to the llaoit 
mind that one of the chief obstacles to the conversion of the natives to Christianity is te; 
be found in the fact that the Christian natives are obliged to abjure the use of hxaom 
flesh. Still, the national instinct of vengeance is rather repressed than extirpated, and 
there are many well-known occasions when it has burst through all its bonds, and thft 
savage nature of the Maori has for a time gained the ascendency over him. 



CHAPTER VI. 

WAR. 

ffemODE OF WARFABK DEPENDENT ON WEAPONS THE SPKAIl, NOW KXTIXCT — THE MERAI, AND TIIK 

• MATERIALS OF WHICH IT IS MADK — THE GREEN JADE MERAl, AND ESTIMATION IN WHICH IT I» 

HELD BY THE CHIEFS- — THE STONE MERAI — THE BONE MERAI, AND ITS VARIED SHAPES — MODE 

t OF USnfO THE WEAPON — CAPTURE OF SHIPS — AN EXCITING SCENE AND TIMELY RELIEF — THE 

Jt lAtTLB-AXR, OR PATU — ITS FORM, AND MODE OF USING IT — THE CHIEF's SPEAR, OR HANI ITS 

W lOEMBLANCE TO THE ANCIENT SCEPTRE — THE TONGUE OF DEFIANCE THE WAR-DANCE — ITS 

F EFFECT ON BOARD SHIP THE PORT, OR PAH, AND ITS CONSTRUCTION NATIVE ENGINEERING 

^ THE RKFULSB AT THE GATE PAH — CONCEALING AN AMBUSH — FATE OF CAPTIVES — THE CHIEF 

1*H0KQI AND HIS BATTLES SLAVE=-DRIVING WITH A MKRAI ETIQUETTE OF WAR A TRUCE 

AXD A BARTKB — RETALIATION FOR BLOODSHED —CEREMONIES BEFORE AND AFTER A BATTLE. 



now come to the one great object of a Maori's life, namely, war. Before we treat of 
warCu-e, it will be necessary to describe the weapons which are used, as much of 
character of warfare materially depends on them. 

In those parts of the world, for instance, where missiles, such as bows and arrows or 

are the principal weapons, war becomes a series of skirmishes, each individual 

to conceal himself as much as possible from the enemy, and to deal his own blows 

mt exposing himself to retaliation. Bnt when the weapons are of a nature that 

itate hand-to-hand combat, warfare naturally assumes a different aspect, and, if the 

be at all disciplined, more resembles the regulated war of civilized nations than the 

•pendent single combats which represent war in most savage countries. 

to this latter category belong the w^eapons of the New Zealander. In former days the 

)ri warriors used to employ the spear, but that weapon has long been laid aside. A 

specimens are still retained, but they are intended, not to be used against an enemy, 

It in welcoming a friend, the chief who receives his guests pointing the spear at them, 

throwing it towards them, as has already been described. When Mr. Angas visited 

islands, he found only a very few of these spears, and they were used entirely for 

fttl purposes. They were of the same character as those of the great Polynesian 

ip, i,e. made entirely of wood, long, sharply pointed, and armed with a series of barbs. 

One of these spears is shown at fig. 1 of the illustration on the following paga The reader 

'^ onderstand that only the head of the spear is shown, the entire length of the weapon 

Vmg aboQt twelve feet The barbs are seen to be arranged in double order, a number of 

ft«a pointing backwards, and then, after a blank space, several rows pointing forwards. 

w object of this device was ingenious enough. The spear was supposed to be pushed 

*Wgh the body of a man until it was stopped by the second row of barbs. It will be 

B« that his body would then rest in the blank space, and the barbs on either side of him 

wild prevent it from being drawn out or pushed through, so that a wound from the 

^'*«pon was necessarily mortaL A spear made on the same principle, and employed by 

4c Becbuaoas^ la shown in Vol. I. page 314. 



NEW ZEALAND. 



The weapons used by tlie Maoriee a 
constnictJon. 



; very few in number, and of the simplest 



It is extraordinary, by the way, what misconceptions exist on this subject. '^ 
generality of persons almost every club, axe, or spear is set down as belonging 

Zealand, especially if it 
carving about it Even 1 
])ublic collections are not f 
these errors, and in one of i 
celebrated collections of am 
covered within five minute 
twelve wrong labels. 

There is now before me 
tratedworkon savage mam 
customs, in which is a ^ 
" New Zealand arraa," co 
thirteen objects. Of these < 
is a genuine weapon of N 
land, and two othets are d 
There are two Fiji clubs 
them with a hollow tubular 1 
one stone knife of New Ca 
two clubs of the Tonga Isla 
itaori chief's staff of offi 
New Zealander's carpentei 
one "poi" mallet and one " 
mallet from Tonga, and two 
which the draughtsman m. 
intended fur clubs, but whi 
been transformed by the en 
art into bottle-gourds, 
there is one nondescript 
wliich may be a drum (an< 
fore cannot belong to Ne 
laud), or it may be a pail, oi 
he a jar, and another non 
article. 

We need not, however, 

at these trifling errors wher 

same work, a scene in a 

American wigwam is desc 

a " New Zealand christenii 

the " Inteiior of a Caffre 

MAORI WEAFOKa fitted with Abyssinian ar 

implements: the men arerepi 

as wearing long two-forked 

like those of the Fans, headdresses like those of Tonga, and capes like those of Ah; 

while a smooth-haired woman, instead of being dressed in Kafir fashion, is nak 

the exception of a white nlotb tied round her hips. The hut itself is a singular 

nious example of perversity on the part of the draughtsman, who has selected p 

those very characteristics which do not belong to tlie Kafir hut In the firs 

the but is three times too large, and the walls are apparently of clay — certai 

of the basket-work employed by Kafirs in house-building. The floor, whic 

Kafir hut is laid down with clay, as smooth as a table and hard as cont 

irregular and covered with grass ; while, by way of climax, the door is high em 

allow a man to pass without stooping, and is finished with a beautiful arched 

covered with creepenb 




THE MERAI. 



157 



lie exception of one man, who nmy, by soiae strebch of imagination, he taken 
ntot, neither the hut, its furniture, its inhabitants, nor their weapons, bear the 
militude to those of any part of Southern Africa. 

eing the cose with museums and books, we need not be surprised that the 
■as respecting the weapons and warfare of New Zealand are very indefinita 
rae, at the present day, the Maories hare practically discarded their ancient 
I favour of the rifle, which they know well how to use, retaining their aboriginal 
ore as marks of rank than for active service. We have, however, nothing to do 
modem innovations, and will restrict ourselves to the weapons that belong to 
r. 

St aud most important of these is the merai, or short club. This weapon is 
al<^us to the short sword used by the ancient Romans, and in some cases 
t so closely that if the cross-guard were removed from the sword, and the blade 




onvex instead of Hat, the shapes of the two weapons would be almost exactly 

aterial of which these weapons ara made is sometimes wood and sometimes 
mostly bona, the latter material being furnished by the spermaceti-whale. The 
i is the most valued, on account of the difficulty of finding a suitable piece for 
«, and of the enormous time which is consumed in cutting it to the desired shape 
ery imperfect instrument which thp Maori possesses In fact, a stone merai is 
i laboriously ground into shape by rubbing it with a piece of stone and a sort 
Dowder. 

merai baa a hole drilled through the end of the handla Through this hole is 
loop of plaited cord, by means of which the weapon is slung to the wrist, to 
le wearer from being disarmed in battle. Drilling the hole is a very slow 
id is done by means of a wetted stick dipped in emery-powder. 
wet merai of this description that I have seen belongs to H. Christie, Esq., and 
ible not merely for its size, but for the regularity and beauty of its curves. The 
IS the dark, dull green volcanic stone of which the New Zealanders make bo 
their implements. It is nearly eighteen inches in length, and rather more than 
« wide at the broadest part. There is a similar weapon, nearly as large, in the 
of the United Service Institution ; but the curves are not so regular, nor is the 



158 NEW ZEALAND. 

One of these weapons is in my collection. It is of equal beauty in shape with that 
which has been described, but is not so long. It is rather more than fourteen inches in 
length, and not quite four inches wida It weighs two pounds six ounces^ and is a hkmI 
formidable weapon, a blow from its sharp edge being sufficient to crash through the skdl 
of an ox, not to mention that of a human being. This handsome weapon was presented 
to me by T. W. Wood, Esq. 

Every chief, however low in rank, is sure to have one of these merais, of which he ii 
very proud, and from which he can scarcely be induced to part The great chiefs han 
their merais made of green jade, such as has already been described when treating rf 
Maori ornaments. These weapons are handed down from father to son, and are so hidi^ 
valued by the natives that it is hardly possible to procure one, unless it be captured it 
battle. If a chief should die without a son to whom liis merai can descend, the weapon il 
generally buried with him. '- 

At fig. 6 in the illustration on page 156 is seen one of these green jade merais. Tto. 
shape is not nearly so elegant as that of my weapon which has just been descn 
Indeed, with so valuable and rare a mineral as this green jade, it is not easy to find 
piece large enough to be cut into an ordinarily-shaped weapon, and the manufacture 
obliged to do his best with the material at his command. 

At fig. 7 is an example of the commonest kind of merai, that which is made of 
As the material of such a weapon is comparatively valueless, the Maories seem to in 
nify themselves by adding ornament to the weapon. For example, they very sdi 
make the merai of the same simple shape as that at fig. 6, but give it a distinct edge 
back, as at fig. 7. In some cases they make it into a most elaborate piece of native 
the whole being so beautifully carved that it looks more like a number of curved pieces 
wood fitted together than a weapon cut out of a solid block. 

A singularly beautiful example of such a weapon is to be seen in the illustration 
page 157. As the reader may see, it is one mass of carving, the design being cut compl 
through the wood, and therefore being alike on both sides. The back of the merai 
carved into a pattern of singular beauty and boldness, and the edge is armed with a 
of shark's teeth, which make its blows very formidable when directed against the 
bodies of the Maori warriors. The specimen from which the drawing was taken may 
seen in the collection of the British Museum. 

The second figure of the illustration shows a merai made of bone. The material 
mostly obtained from the blade-bone of the spermaceti-whale, and in consequence 
weapon is said in books of travel to be made of whalebone, thus misleading the o 
reader, who is sure to understand " whalebone " to be the black elastic substance o 
from the Greenland whale. 

These merais are extremely variable in shape. Some of them are made like the sto^ 
weapons, except that they are much flatter, and have in consequence both edges alita 
Sometimes they are studded with knobs and cut into hollows ; sometimes carved id 
patterns, much resembling that of the wooden merai, but not so elaborate. Tlie spedml 
which I have selected for the illustration shows examples of the ornaments and studs. ^ 

I possess a very good merai which has ])een made from the lower jaw of the spenij 
ceti-whale. Tliis weapon is shown in the illustration on the preceding page, and dd 
by it is a section of the jaw of the whale, in order to show the manner in which it i 
cut. This weapon measures seventeen inches in length by three and a half inches i 
width, and weighs one pound nine ounces. In consequence of this comparative lightnei 
it is a much more efficient weapon than the stone merai ; for the latter is so heavy thl 
if a blow misses its aim, the striker is unable to recover the weapon in time to gnU 
himself, or to repeat the blow, and so lays himself open to the enemy. 

If the reader will look at the section of bone, he will see that it is porous in the cent 
and hard and solid at the edges. It is from the solid part that the merai has been cil 
and in consequence the weapon is very flat. The numerous channels through which pa 
the blood-vessels that nourish the bone are seen in the section, and in the drawing of d 
merai one of them is shown traversing the weapon longitudinally. The name of the HM 
is *• pntu-patu " the u having the .^^ame sound as in flute. 



A CEITICAL SITUATION. 159 

Many of the natives have found out that the English biU-hook answers admirably as 
merai, and can be obtained with very little trouble. Great quantities of them were at 
le time imported from Birmingham ; but the rifle and bayonet have in latter days so 
nnpletely superseded all other weapons that the Maories trouble themselves little about 
te biU-hook. 

When a Maori fights with the merai, he does not merely strike, his usual movement 
nog to throst sharply at the chin of the enemy ; and if he succeeds in striking him with 
16 point, he cuts hun down with the edge before he can recover himself 

At fig. 5 in the illustration on page 156 is seen an axe, or tomahawk. This is a 
nioas mixture of European and Maori work, the blade being obtained from England, 
id the handle made and carved in New Zealand with the usual grotesque patterns which 
Maori likes to introduce into all objects connected with warfare. The thigh-bone of a 
inn enemy is a favourite handle for such a tomahawk. 
Before the fierce and warlike character of the New Zealanders was known, they took 
vessels by the use of the merai. It was easy to suspend the short club over the 
r, where it was hidden by the mat, so that when a party of natives came on board, 
lily unarmed, having ostentatiously left their patus and other weapons in their 
each man was in fact armed with the weapon that he most trusted. The plan 
was, that the Maories should mingle freely with the crew, until each man was 
to one of the sailors. At a signal from the chief, the concealed merai was snatched 
beneath the mat, and in a moment it had crashed through the head of the selected 

Even after this ruse was discovered, the ingenious Maories contrived to get hold of 
than one vessel under pretence of exhibiting their war-dance, which in a moment 

changed from the mimicry of battle into reality, the warriors leaping among the spec- 
and dealing their blows right and left among them. Ship-taking seems, indeed, to 

a proceeding so dear to the New Zealander, that he can scarcely resist the temptation 
it is offered him. In Messrs. Tyerman and Bennetts " Missionary Voyage " there 
anecdote of an adventure that befell them, which, but for the timely aid of a friendly 
would undoubtedly have had a tragic issue. 

The ship had arrived ofif New Zealand, and while at anchor the following events 

'^aA a\^'\A • 

* This morning our little vessel was surrounded with canoes, containing several hun • 
of the natives, of both sexes, who presently climbed up, and crowded it so much 

we were obliged to put up a bar across the quarter-deck, and tabu it from intrusion. 
commerce in various articles, on both sides, went on pretty well for some time, till 
provoking circumstance after another occurred, which had nearly led to the seizure of 
ship and the loss of our lives. 

• In the confusion occasioned by the great throng in so narrow a space, the natives 
to exercise their pilfering tricks, opportunities for \vhich are seldom permitted to 

•way unimproved. Suddenly the cook cried out, * They have stolen this thing ;' but 

had he named the thing (some kitchen article), w^hen he called out again, * They 

stolen the beef out of the pot ! ' and then a third time, * They have stolen my cooking- 

il* Presently another voice bawled out from the forecastle, * Captain ! they have 

open your trunk, and carried away your clothes ! ' 

'Up to this time we had been in friendly intercourse with the chiefs, rubbing noses, 

pnchasiug their personal ornaments and other curiosities, suspecting no mischief 

iiow, in the course of a few moments, without our perceiving the immediate reason, 

ivhole scene was changed. We found afterwards that the captain (Dibbs), on hearing 

tiie iudacious thefts above mentioned, had become angry, and while he was endea- 

lather boisterously, to clear the deck of some of the intruders, one of them, 

H on being jostled by him, fell over the ship's side into the sea, between his own 

e and the vesseL This was seized instantaneously as the pretext for commencing 

jfitieB. The women and children in the course of a few minutes had all disappeared, 

Bg oreilxMUfd into their canoes, and taking with them the kakaous, or mantles, 

J» wairiois. The latter, thus stripped for action, remained on deck ; of which. 



160 NEW ZEALAND. 

before we were aware, they had taken complete possession ; and forthwith made i 
prisoners. 

" Tremendous were the bawlings and screechings of the barbarians, whi] 
stamped, and brandished their weapons, consisting principally of clubs and spears 
chief with his cookies (his slaves) had surrounded the captain, holding their spear 
breast and his sides, on the larboard quarter of the vesseL Mr. Tyerman, under g 
another band, stood on the starboard ; and Mr. Bennet on the same side, but aft, t 
the stern. Mr. Threlkeld and his little boy, not seven years old, were near Mr. '. 
not under direct manual grasp of the savages. The chief who, with his gang, hi 
trafficking with Mr. Bennet, now brought his huge tattooed visage near to 3 
screaming, in tones the most odious and horrifying, *Tongata, New Zealandi, 
kakino ? — Tongata, New Zealandi, tongata kakino ? ' 

" This he repeated as rapidly as lips, tongue, and throat could utter the words, 
mean, * Man of New Zealand, is he bad man ? — Man of New Zealand, a bad 
Happily Mr. Bennet understood the question (the New Zealand dialect much rese 
the Tahitian) : whereupon, though convinced that iue\'itable death was at ha 
answered, 'with as much composure as could be assumed, * Kaore kakino tongal 
Zealandi, tongata kapai * (* Not bad ; the New Zealander is a good man *) ; and so o 
the other, with indescribable ferocity of aspect and sharpness of accent, asked th< 
question (which might be a hundred times), the same answer was returned. 

" * But,* inquired Mr. Bennet, * why is all this uproar ? Why cannot we st 
noses, and buy and sell, and barter, as before ? ' At this moment a stout slave, bel 
to the chief, stepped behind Mr. Bennet, and pinioned both his arms close to hia 
No effort was made to resist or elude the gigantic grasp, Mr. B. knowing that such 
only accelerate the threatened destruction. Still, therefore, he maintained his cal 
and asked the chief the price of a neck-omament which the latter wore. Imme< 
another slave raised a large tree-felling axe (which, with others, had been brought 
sharpened by the ship's company) over the head of the prisoner. This ruffian look© 
demon-like eagerness and impatience towards his master for the signal to strike. 

" And here it may be obsei^ved that our good countrymen can have no idea 
almost preternatural fury which savages can throw into their distorted countenance 
infuse into their deafening and appalling voices, when they ai-e possessed by the legioi 
of rage, cupidity, and revenge. Mr. Bennet persevered in keeping up conversatioi 
the chief, saying, * We want to buy bruaa, kumera, ika, &c. (hogs, potatoes, fish), of 

" Just then he perceived a youth stepping on deck with a large fish in his 
* What shall I give you for that fish?' — * Why, so many fish-hooks.' — * Well, the 
your hand into my pocket and take them.' The fellow did so. ' Now put the fish 
there, on the binnacle, and bring some more, if you have any,' said Mr. Bennet A 
the fish that he had just bought was brought round from behind and presented 1 
again for sale. He took no notice of the knavery, but demanded, * What shall I gii 
for that fish V — * So many hooks.' — * Take them. Have you no other fish to sell 
third time the same fish was offered, and the same price in hooks required and ffs 
rather taken, by the vendor, out of his jacket pockets, which happened to be well 
with this currency for tratfic. A fourth time Mr. Bennet asked, * Have you never ai 
fish V At this the rogues could contain their scorn no longer, but burst into lac 
and cried, * We are cheating the foreigner!' ('Tangata ke! ') supposing that their cm 
^as not aware how often they had caught him with the same bait." 

By this ingenious plan of pretending to be the dupe of the Maories, Mr. I 
contrived to gain time, of which he knew that every minute was of the greatest ii 
ance, and at last he was rewarded for his courageous diplomacy by the arrival of i 
in which was a friendly chief, who at once cleared the ship. 

The reader will observe that at this time the New Zealanders had not abandon> 
use of the spear as a weapon of war, though only twenty years afterwards scarcely a 
could be found that was not intended as an emblem of hospitality instead of strifeL 

At fig. 3 is shown a very curious club, called Patu by the natives, and popular 
wrongly, called by sailors a battle-axe. It is about five feet in length, and bu at oi 



THE STAFF OF OFFICE. 161 

e-like head, and at the other a sharp point. One of these weapons in my 
I, presented to me, together with many similar articles, by E. Randell, Esq., is 
ne inch in length, and weighs two pounds six ounces, being exactly the same 
the stone merai abeady described. The rounded edge of the axe-like head is 
>, and certainly looks ais if it was intended for the purpose of inflicting wounds. 
ever, is not the case, the Maori using the pointed butt as a spear or pike, and 
ith the back of the head and not with the edge. 

jh the lower portion of the head is bored a hole, to which is suspended a bunch 
J and streamers. Sometimes this tuft is only a foot in length, but is often 
n a specimen taken by Sir J. R Alexander it is half as long as the patu itself. At 
this appendage seems, like the multitudinous feathers which decorate a North 
spear or club, to be merely an ornament, and to detract from, rather than add 
ciency of the weapon. But the Maori warrior is far too keen a soldier to sacrifice 
iment, and, if he employs the latter, he is sure to take care that the former is not 
i by it. 
present case, this apparently useless appendage adds materially to the effec- 
r the weapon. When the warrior, armed with the patu, meets an adversary, 
ot rush at him heedlessly, but fences, as it were, with his weapon, holding it 
mds, twirling it about, and flourishing the bunch of feathers in the face of his 
to distract his attention. Neither does he stand in the same spot, but leaps 
here, endeavouring to take the foe off his guard, and making all kinds of feints 

test the adversary's powers. Should he see the least opening, the sharp 
he butt is driven into his adversary's body, or a severe blow delivered with 

the stroke being generally made upwards and not downwards, as might be 

t, the whole management of the patu is almost identical with that of the old 
ff of England, a weapon whose use is unfortunately forgotten at the present day. 

1 of feathers is not an invariable appendage. In my own specimen, for example, 
rer been used, and I have seen many others in which the hole has not been 
the insertion of the string that ties the feathers together. 

ist weapon drawn in this illustration is hardly worthy of the name. It is 
ind is shown at fig. 4, page 156. 

2 of the same illustration is seen an implement which is generally mistaken for 
id is labelled as such in many a collection. It is, however, no spear at all, but 
>r staflF of office belonging to a chief. The Maori name is E' Hani. It is shaped 
t like an exceedingly elongated merai, and indeed the entire implement looks 
lani and the merai were but different modifications of the same weapon, 
s as it may, the hani is no spear, but a staff of office, almost identical in form 
which was home by the ancient kings and heralds in the times of Troy. At the 

is seen the head, which bears some resemblance to the point of a spear, and 
ground to the notion that the implement in question is really a spear. This 
owever, does not serve the purpose of offence, but is simply a conventional 
tion of the human tongue, which, when thrust forth to its utmost conveys, 
to Maori ideas, the most bitter insult and defiance. When the chief wishes 
«rar against any tribe, he calls his own people together, makes a fiery oration, 
tedly thrusts his hani in the direction of the enemy, each such thrust being 
18 a putting forth of the tongue in defiance. 

er to show that the point of the hani is really intended to represent the human 
e remainder of it is carved into a grotesque and far-fetched resemblance of the 
ce, the chief features of which are two enormous circular eyes made of haliotis 

ally, the hani is ornamented with feathers like the patu ; but many of the staves 
at this decoration, which is looked upon as a mere non-essential. These staves 
tly in length. My own specimen is between five and six feet in length, and is 
lie feather ornaments, whereas others are not more than a yard in length, and are 
with a bunch of feathers as long as themselves. The chiefs are nearly as 

M 



162 



NEW ZEALAND. 



AND HAVL 



tenacious of the hani as the merai, and do not e 
easy if it be put out of their reach. Some years i 
Maori chiefs came to visit England, and were taken 
various sights of London. But whether they yi 
theatre, or to the Zoological Gardens, or to make 
invariably took their hanis with them, sometimes 
short one for convenience' sake, but appearing to 
greatest value to its possession. 

One of these curious implements in my collec 
feet in length, and is made of the same wood as tb 
held upright the resemblance of the point to the oi 
tongue is not very plain ; but if it be held horizc 
effect is quite altered, and the whole of the tip 
represent a human head with the tongue thrust 
as possible between the lips. As the tongue is ( 
ventional representation, it is covei^ed with a pattc 
running along the centre, and each side being m^ 
precisely similar curves and semi-spirals. 

In spite of its length, it really makes a very 
walking-staff, and, on an emergency, might do 
weapon, the tongue-like tip being sharp enough 
spear-head, and the flattened butt being heavy enoi 
a man with a well-directed blow. My specimei 
possess the tuft of feathers and dog's-hair whicl 
the hani shown in the illustration (fig. 2, p. 156} 
adornment is not considered as forming a necessi 
the implement. 

Before a party engage in war, they think themsc 
to join in the war-dance. There are war-dances in 
savage tribes, but that of the New Zealander suip 
all. In other cases, each warrior gives himself 
excitement of the moment, and shouts, yells, d 
brandishes his weapons as he seems to think fii 
Maori warrior's dance is of a far different chara* 
guided by a discipline and precision of drill to wh 
the Russians themselves is loose and irregular. 

They begin by smearing the whole of their cl( 
by painting their faces with scarlet ochre, so as 
themselves as hideous as possible. When they as 
the dance, they arrange themselves in lines, txh 
deep, and excite their naturally passionate disposit 
highest pitch by contorting their faces and thrustin 
tongues as an act of defiance, interspersing thes 
with shouts, yells, and challenges to the enemy, 
itself begins with stamping the feet in perfect time 
other, the vigour of the stamp increasing contin 
the excitement increasing in similar proportion. 

Suddenly, with a yell, the whole body of men 
ways into the air, as if actuated by one spirit, ai 
touch the ground, come down on it with a mighty 
makes the earth tremble. The war-song is raised, 
cordance with its rhythm the men leap fix)m side t< 
time coming down with a thud as of some huge ei 
effect of the dance upon the performers is extraon 
seems to make them for the time absolute mai 
whole nature being given up to the furious excitei 



THE WAR-DANCK. 



'■* Wl^ vi il^Hli ^^Tf^-- ' ' - ' -^ '^ - '^ 






"^S^ 


^##1 


^A^' -^ ''1 


«\v ."^^ I- 


-.%^ ' i * 


iSJ^E«« 


^VA€»Tv',k.4.JA>J 


^^^V^ 


SbIS^^^^SHhS 


^^J 



THE MHOni WAR-DANCE, 



their faces contorted (anil this action pves tn tlieir cniintenances an absolutelj 
al expression). 

when war ia not impending, tlie magic influence of the dance affects the per- 
is strongly as if they were closp to a pah or fort of the enemy, ready for battle ; 
M 2 



164 NEW ZEALAND. 

and when, as is sometimes the case, the Maori es give a dance in honour of a visitor 
become so furiously excited that they are quite dangerous until they have had 
to cooL 

On one such occasion a party of Maories who had visited a ship were reques 
exhibit their war-dance, and very good-naturedly did so. But in a short time 
measured leaps became so vehement, and their stamps so powerful, as they shout 
martial rhymes of the war-song, that they shook the whole ship as if by blow 
battering-ram ; and the commanding officer, fearful that they would absolutely sma 
deck, begged them to desist. His entreaties were in vain, even if they were heard, t 
it is very likely that, in their furious excitement, the dancers were deaf to every 
except the war-song which they were yelling at the top of their voices ; and the 
proceeded to its end, and did not cease until the performers were quite exhausted 
furious exertions they had made. 

, The most ludicrous part of the dance was the conduct of the chief. He hai 
treated w^ith much attention, and presented with a full suit of naval uniform, of wl 
was mightily proud, and in which he stalked about the deck, to the great admira' 
his subjects. When he was a^ked whether the war-dance could be given, he a 
ordered his followers to accede to the request, and at first stood quietly by whil 
went through the performance. 

The influence of the dance was, however, too contagious to be resisted, and i 
extended itself to him. First he merely sw-ayed his body in rhythm with the stepB 
dancers, then he joined sotto voce in the soug, then he began to stamp in time with 
and at last threw off all restraint, sprang into line, and leaped, yelled, and stam 
enthusiastically as any of them, splitting his new garments to pieces, and prem 
very sorry sight when his excitement had died away. 

The illustration on page 103 represents a portion of a party of warriors m 
appear when performing their war-dauco. Only the first three ranks of them an 
but the reader must picture for himself tlio long lines of warriors stretching in 
distance, numbering often from one to two hundred. The leading chief is seen in 
with his green jade merai in his hand ; and another but inferior chief is stationed] 
him. In the background is shown a portion of the pah in which the dance IS 
place ; a chief's storehouse for food is seen on the right, and under the shelter 
houses are seated the women who are watching the dance. 

I have already said that war is always in the thoughts of a genuine Maori 1 
the vaporing Fiji warrior, who is always ready to boast, and seldom ready to i^ 
ferring to knock his enemy on the head when asleep, the Maori is a brave soldifli; 
tomed from his earliest childhood to deeds of war. A mimic war forms one 
favourite games of the Afaori children, though it is necessarily restricted to boys. « 
boys of our country build snow castles, and attack and defend them with snowb 
do the young New Zealandei-s build miniature forts, and enact on a small scale th< 
of actual war, using light sticks instead of the merai and patu. They make their f< 
erecting mounds of (jiirth, and building the fortresses of stakes, in exact imitation 
more substantial architecture of the veritable pah. 

These ingenious pahs well exemplify the whole system of Maori warfare. T 
opposing parties seldom meet each other in the open ground, as is the case with Eu 
warfare; neither do they employ an irregular skirmishing fight among trees or 
cover, as is the case with many savage tribes. The attacking party is sure to I 
superior in numbers to their foes, and the latter, knowing that this will be the case, 
to the system of fortification, and entrench themselves in forts, or pahs. 

These pahs are marvellous examples of uncivilized engineering, and are adn 
adapted to the purpose wOiich they are intended to fulfil. They are always pla 
some strong situation, sometimes on the sea-shore, sometimes on heights, and one 
of the strongest are built on the very edge of a perpendicular precipice, so tha 
cannot be attacked on three sides, while the fourth can only be approached by a i 
-and awkward path, along which only a few men can pass, and which can be defen 
a comparatively limited number of the besieged. 




fenced rouud with very strong posts, lashed together so firmly that Lhey are 
rt any ordinary attack. Since fiieaniia were introducetl, the Maories have 



166 NEW ZEALAND. 

tenable. They had, however, laid a trap, into which the assailants felL When the latte 
had scattered themselves over the interior, and were quite oflf their guard, picking iq 
arms, utensils, and other objects lying carelessly about, a terrific musketry fire was openo 
from under their very feet, the natives having constructed pits in which they hid then 
selves until the enemy were attracted within their range by the weapons and implemenl 
which they had laid on purpose to act as a bait. The men, who were entirely off thd 
guard, and many of whom besides were but raw recruits, were struck with a sudden pani 
and, with a few honourable exceptions, rushed out of the pah, followed and cut up by tl 
fire of the wily foe. 

Of course the repulse was but temporary ; but such a stratagem as this is sufficient 1 
show the military genius of the Maori, who, if he becomes an enemy, is one that caDn 
be despised with impunity. This system of taking the enemy by surprise is the uso) 
mode of fighting among the Maories, who display wonderful ingenuity in contrivii 
ambushes, and enticing the enemy into them. When we were first driven into wariril 
the natives of New Zealand, we were frequently entrapped in an ambuscade ; and i 
one case the hidden enemy were so close to our men, their dusky forms being hidden i 
the shadows of the bush, that many of the soldiers who escaped with life had thfl 
faces completely tattooed with grains of unburnt powder from the muskets of d 
enemy. 

If the assailants succeed in taking the pah, a terrible massacre always ensues. EvBi 
man is killed who is capable of wielding a weapon, while the women and children ■ 
carried off to become the slaves of the conquerors — a doom from which, as I have alied 
stated, there is no escape ; the unfortunate women, their children, and any future o£GspiU| 
being slaves without the possibility of release, not even their own tribe being M 
according to Maori law, to interfere with the right of the captors. 

The bodies of the warriors are of course reserved to be baked and eaten. Sometini 
even the prisoners fall victims to the thirst for blood which characterises these islandflfl 
and in this respect the women are as bad as the men, if not worse. For example> d 
principal wife of a very great chief, named K Hongi, was accustomed, even though Uia 
to murder some of the captives, when they were brought home by her fonnidiM 
husband. Her own end was, however, more tragic than that of any of her victin 
E' Hongi was in the habit of making long excursions to different parts of the coimt^ 
in which he took his wife with him. On one of these excursions she fell sick, and hi 
to be left behind. In consequence of her blindness, added to her debility, she was aniM 
to act in her own defence, and a number of dogs, discovering her weakness, tore harl 
pieces and devoured her. 

She seems, however, to have been a woman of unexceptionally strong feelingi) 
vengeance. "She had," w^rites Mr. Angas, "a little slave-girl to attend upon li 
towards whom she evinced a strong attachment. The little creature was interestinffii 
good-tempered, and her mistress was apparently so fond of her that she was spared fj 
experience of the miser}'^ of slavery ; she was only a favourite. ^ 

" Hongi returned from one of his successful expeditions of war, but had left a ai 
upon the field of battle, and the lamentation -was great. The petted slave-child ki 
her head upon the lap of her mistress, and poured out her share of the general sonfl 
But the spirit of vengeance or of insane retribution came over the heart of the berertl 
mother ; and she carried the child to the water, and cruelly suffocated her in satisfulK 
of her selfish sorrow." 

It was not long after this incident that she met wdth her death. When she was k 
behind, a small shed was erected on poles, according to native custom, and a suppfy 
food was placed near her. When the party returned the shed was lying pTOStrate^ fl 
among its ruins were the whitened bones of the inmate. It is supposed that the tA 
blew down the shed, and so enabled the dogs to reach her. 

This same E' Hongi was a really remarkable man, and earned a great namel 
wisdom and courage. Having made a voyage to England, he threw all his eneigies h 
strengthening his military power, and took back with him a quantity of muskets ■ 
ammunition. 



F HONGI. 167 

He came back to his own country exactly at the proper time. A long and somewhat 
anltoiy war had been going on between the Waikatos and other tribes, in which the 
ner had, after many vicissitudes, been victorious, and, after finally conquering their 
BBmieS) had returned to their country in triumph. 

Just then E' Hongi came back to his own tribe, the Nga Puis, distributed his fire- 
m among the best warriors, and when he had instructed them in the use of the 
m and terrible weapons, entered the Waikato country, and attacked their great pah 
died Matnketuka The Waikatos, having only their clubs, and not having sunk the 
lenckes which in these days are dug in every pah that is intended to resist an assault, 
nidiiot contend against firearms, and in a few minutes the fort was taken. It was in 
» engagement that Horomona and Te Whero-Whero were captured, 
b He daughter on this occasion was terrible, two thousand warriors being killed, and 
Br bodies eaten by the victorious tribe, who built vast numbers of ovens for the special 
Bpose of cooking the bodies of the slain. For many years afterwards the remains of 
t ovens, and the whitened bones of the two thousand waniors, might be seen as 
kens of the terrible scene, where feasts were kept up until all the bodies had been 
tettmed, and every evil passion of unrestrained human nature was allowed to have its 
Isway. 

One of the very muskets which were used on this occasion, and which was given by 
inge IV. to E' Hongi when he visited England, is now in the collection of Colonel Sir 
i Alexander. It is one of the regular "Brown Bess" weapons, once so dear to 
diere, and now irreverently termed a gaspipe. 

Prisoners without number were captured on this occasion ; and indeed the supply of 
m thus obtained so far exceeded the demand for them, that the Nga Puis killed many 
lem on their journey home, merely to rid themselves of them. E* Hongi, though 
tn to be a man of the most determined courage, not to say ferocity, when engaged in 
, and rather disposed to behave in an overbearing manner towards those whom 
wnsidered as his inferiors, was at the same time peculiarly mild and courteous 
is demeanour to his equals, and towards strangers was remarkable for his gentle 
teay. 

lere was another very celebrated chief of a somewhat similar name, Hongi-Hongi, 
has sometimes been confounded with his great predecessor. 

toe feat of this warrior is so characteristic that it deserves mention. He was leading 
tack on a pah near Mount Egmont, captured it, and, according to custom, killed the 
OTS, and took the rest of the inmates as his slaves. Sixty of these unfortunate 
s fell to the share of Hongi, who drove them like a flock of sheep, with his green 
nerai, aU the way to his home, a distance of one hundred and eighty miles, 
iiis chief was proof against the missionaries of all kinds. Mr. Angas once asked 
nrhether he was a mihanari, i.e. a Protestant convert, or a pikopo, ie, a Eoman 
►lie Hongi denied that he was either one or the other, and confessed with glee 
le was a revera, or devil, i,e. that he still remained a heathen. 

is very unfortunate that intolerance in religious matters has I'oen fostered by those 
ught to have made it their business to repress any such feeling. The consequence 
t the Protestant converts regard their Eoman Catholic brethren as reveras, or devils, 
the latter have allied themselves with their acknowledged heathen countrymen ; and 
mder the pretence of religion, the customary feuds are kept up with perhaps even 
)nal bitterness. 

have the pleasure of presenting to the reader a portrait of Hongi-Hongi, as he 
•ed in the year 1844, dressed in his full panoply of war-costume. This, of course, 
be defied before he went into actual fight. In his ear is one of the green jade 
Hits which have already been described, and in his right hand he bears his merai, 
ebrated weapon with wliich he drove the slaves before him. He is represented as 
ag just inside the wall of his pah, a position which he insisted on taking up, and 
jhis portrait drawn to send to the Queen of England. In fact, he was so decided 
i point, that he refused to let Mr. Angas leave the pah until the portrait was com- 
The portion of the pah which is shown in the illustration gives a good idea of 



168 



NEW ZEALAND. 



this kind of fortification, the enormous posts with their circular tops being sunli 
into the ground, and smaller posts placed between theui ; a horizontal pole ia laii 
them ; and the whole is firmly lashed tt^ether, either with the ordinary phonniu 
or with the stem of the wild vine. 

Warfare among the Maories, fierce and relentless as it may be in some partic 
not devoid of a sort of chivalry which somewhat relieves it from its more ferocious 

There is, for example, a wel] 
code of military etiquette \ 
sometimes exhibited ia a mi 
to us seems rather ludicrous. 
For example, the Waiks 
Taranaki tribes were at war ( 
and the Waikato were bes 
pall belonging to their enemii 
pah, however, was too sti 
them; and moreover the d 
had contrived to get hold ol 
guns belonging to a vessel 1 
been wrecked on the shore, 
induced some Europeans tt 
and work them which they > 
3uch success that the Waika 
lorced at last to abandon thi 
But m the very mids 
(onteat a \essel appeared 
( fhng and a truce was imn 
Loncluded in order to all 
paities to trade Accordin; 
the besiegers and besi^ec 
\micably to the vessel, and 
ompleted their bai^ins, ret 
lesume their hostilities, 
amusing scene then occurre 
Taranakis who were the 
party had much the besi 
trading, as they possessed 
quantityof dressed flax,orph 
iiud exchanged it for a qui 
tobacco. 

Kow tobacco is one of the 
luxuries that a New Zealai 
possess; and unfortunately 
besieging Waikatos, they 
tobacco. They had, hov 
plentiful supply of muskets, which they had taken in an attack upon anotl 
while the besieged were very short of arms. So they struck up a trade, the A 
being so inordinately desirous of obtaining tobacco, that they gave in return 
which were to be turned against themselves. 

" The scene," writes Mr. Angas, " as described by an eye-witness, must hi 
most ludicrous. The Waikato thrust his musket half-way through the palisade 
pah, retaining, however, a firm hold of his property until the intending purcha 
■within thrust out in a similar manner the quantity of tobacco he was willing 
neither party relinquishing his hold of the property about to change hands unti 
secured a firm grasp of that ofi'ered by his adversary." 

The chief who led the Waikatos on this occasion was the celebrated Wiremu 
William Taylor ; the former name being the nearest approach that the Maories ci 




IIOMil-UONGl. UnEF OF 



THE LAW OF RETALIATION. 169 

M> the proper pronunciation. His Maori name was Te Awaitaia, and he was widely cele- 
vated for his dauntless courage and his generalship in conducting or resisting an attack. 
teing closely allied with the famous chief Te Whero-Whero (or Potatau), he was engaged in 
learly all the combats between the Waikatos and the Taranakis. On one of his warlike 
xpeditions he took a pah containing nearly eighteen hundred inhabitants, and, of course, 
dUed nearly all of them, and carried the survivors as slaves into the Waikato district. 

lAtterly, he embraced Christianity, and became as zealous in the cause of peace as he 
lad been in that of war. When he became a Christian, Te Whero-Whero was so well 
.ware of his value as a warrior, that he exclaimed to those who brought him the news, 
I have lost my right arm ! " 

Although repulsed on this occasion by the three guns taken from the wrecked ship, 
he Waikatos were not discouraged, and made a second attack. The Taranakis, however, 
■d seen too much of Waikato courage to risk a second siege, and so quietly made off, 
Dme two thousand in number, accompanied by the Europeans who had served the guns 
■ them. The latter very rightly spiked the guns when they lefL the pah, so that when 
he Waikatos came again and took the pah, they found it deserted, and the guns useless to 
he captors. 

Tbd Taranakis lived in deadly fear of the powerful and warlike Waikatos, and, but for 
he love which they felt towards their native country, would have fled, and left the con- 
■BWirn to take quiet possession. They were even obliged to have their plantations in the 
fahy where none but the owner could find them ; for they feared, and with reason, that 
ptiieir dreaded enemies could discover the sources whence their provisions were obtained, 
jhqr would destroy the whole plantation, and leave their victims to starve. They were in 
In a state of nervous alarm about a suspected invasion by their powerful neighbours, 
iii on one occasion, when a fire was seen in the distance, every one took it for granted 
^ be a fire lighted by the Waikatos, and in consequence every one kept awake all night, 
to give the alarm at the first unwonted sight or sound. 
Among the New Zealanders is a custom of retaliation which is found with but little 
in many parts of the world. If blood has been shed, the friends of the dead 
issue from the pah, with the determination of killing the first person whom they may 
to meet Should he belong to an inimical tribe, so mnch the })etter ; should he 
to the same tribe, so much the worse ; for in either case he is killed. On such an 
non one of the avengers would be bound to kill his own brother, should he happen 
be the first man who came in the way of the party. 

Such an exercise of vengeance is rather an inconvenient one to those who are engaged 

it; for they are forbidden the use of their ordinary comforts, they may not eat any food 

that which is indi<;enous to New Zealand, and, above all, they are not allowed to 

When, therefore, they have been unable to find any human being whom they can 

the aid of the priest, or tohunga, is called in. lie pulls up a tuft of grass, and, 

jepeAting one of the many incantations which abound in New Zealand lore, and of 

neither the hearers nor the reciter understand one word in ten, he throws the grass 

the nearest stream, in token that the avengers are released from their vow. Blood, 

r, must still be shed ; but after this ceremony has been performed, the blood of 

Uriug thing, even though it be a bird, is held sufiicient to satisfy the traditional 

of the Afaori race. 

Baborate rites closely allied with this ceremony are employed both before and after 

i; but, as they belong rather to the subject of religion than of war, we will postpone 

for ibe present. 

As the New Zealanders know that it is a point of militar}' honour combined with 

gratification to eat the bodies of slain enemies, they are equally desirous of 

the bodies of their foes and of carrying off those who have fallen on their own 

(; and in many instances the anxiety to save those who have fallen hus caused 

to share the same fate while attempting to carry off their dead or wounded 



CHAPTER VII. 



CANOES. 



THK CAN OK, AND ITS USE IN PEACE AND WAIl — TUK COMMON TRADING CANOE — SKILL 0> TKB Bl 
MEN — TUE LARGE WAR-CANOES, AND MODE OF BUILDING THEM — DEOOHATION8 OP THl CAl 

SKILFUL CAR>aNGS THE THEORY OF THE VARIOUS PATTERNS ^NAMES OF CANOX8 MASI 

MENT OF THE SAIL — CANOE SONGS — A COMPLETE BOAT-LOAD — MODE OP LANDUfO SHAM 

THE PADDLES, AND MODE OF USING THEM CARVING TOOLS SUPPOSED COMPABSSt. 

War is carried on quite as much by water as by land, and a chief who knows the J| 




ciples of good generalship always uses the sea as well as the land to serve 
his attack. For this reason the Maories take care to build their pahs in spots wlieqil 
ai-e well defended from attack both on the seaward and the landward sida 
them are on the very verge of high-water mark, while others are perched on the 
clifis, the base of which is washed by the waves. 

One of the most picturesque of these is a pah situate near Mount Egmont^ sad 
by the name of the Waimate Pah. There is a cliff that rises perpendicularly 
or five hundred feet above the level of the water which laves its foot> and on 
summit of this cliiT is situated the pah in question. It is of considerable sue^ 
many houses, and is fortified with the usual wooden fence. In order to 
nearly as possible impregnable, the only approach is by a very narrow and 
path, that cannot be ascended except by people who have strong heads, the path 
narrow, so steep, and so dangerous that two men could defend it against fifty. 

In his warlike expeditions £' Hongi made great use of his canoes, taking them ifll 
as far as they would go, and then having them dragged over land to the next river. 

These canoes play so important a part in the life of a Kew Zealander, whether in ' 
or peace, that they require a detailed description. 

The canoes are of several kinds, according to the work which they have to perfc 
The simplest form of the New Zealander's canoe is little more than the trunk of a I 
hollowed into a sort of trough. Being incapable of withstanding rough weather, I 
canoe is only used upon rivers. Some of these canoes, which are called by the name 
haupapas, are from forty to fifty feet in length, and in the widest part not exceedim 
yard in " beam." A plentiful supply of fern leaves is laid at the bottom of the ca 
and upon these the passengers recline. Canoes of a similar character, called tiwa% 
used in the inland lakes, and sit so low in the water that they appear to have 
gunwale. 

Owing to their want of beam, these canoes are as easily upset as the slight skillb 
which races are rowed on English rivers. The agile Maori, accustomed from chi 
hood to balance himself in these crank vessels, traverses them with ease and secu 
but a European generally upsets four or five canoes before he learns bow to enter 
leave them properly. The natives manage these canoes with wonderful skill, and, sp 
rently reganlless of the risk of capsizing the canoe, dash their paddles into the m 




WAR-CAX0E3 



built in rather an elaborate maimer. First, the troiij^h-like vessel is fonned 
i-trnnk ; and if it were left in that state, it would be simply a very lai^e 
s, however, it is intended for sea voyages, and may have to endure rough 



172 KEW ZEALAND. 

After shaping out the general form of the article to be carved, he fixes on some pi 
which he thinks will be suitable for the purpose, and carves a human head upon 
When this is completed, he pitches upon a second spot at some distance &om the first, « 
(;arves another bead, procee<1ing in tliis way until )ie has carved as many heads as 
thinks the pattern will require. 

He next furnishes the heads with bodies and limbs, which are always repreaented ij 
very squat and ungainly manner, and fills in the vacant spaces with the beautiful curr 
lines which he loves so well to draw and car\'e. The minute elaboration of some 




these war-cnnoes is ao intricate that it baflles all power of description, and nothing bsl 
well-executed photograph could give a correct idea of the beauty of the workmandi 
It is a marvellous example of the development of art under difficulties. It is qli 
unique in its character, so that no one wlio is acquainted with the subject can M 
moment mistake a piece of New Zealand can'ing for that of any other country. 

Besides carving the canoes, the Maori paints them with vennilion in token of Ai 
warlike object, and decorates them profusely with bunches of feathers and dog's bi 
just like the tufts which are attached to the patu. When the canoes are not wanted, A 
are drawn up on shore, and are thatched in order to save tliem from the weather. 

Like more civilized nations, the New Zealanders give names to their canoes, and sal 
to delight in selecting the most sonorous titles that tliey can invent For example, 
canoe is callcKl Maratuhai, i.e. Devouring Fire; and othei-s have names that co^ 
almost exactly with our Iiivincibles, Tcrribles, Thunderers, and the like. 

These boats are furnished with a very remarkulilc sail made of tlie raupo rush. II 
small in proportion to the size of the vessel, is tiiangular in shape, and is so aimg 
that it can be raised or lowered almost in a moment. They are better sailors than woi 
be imagined from their appearance, pnd run wonderfully close to the wind. In the Stt 
tiBtion on page 171 the second canoe is seen with its sail raised, while in the otbtf t 
mast and sail have been lowered. 

Sometimes from fifty to sixty men paddle iu one of these war-canoes, singing snigl 
time to the stroke, and guided both in song and stroke by a conductor who stands m t 
middle of the canoe, prompting the words of the song, and beating time for the pdldl 



A JOURNEY BY WATER 173 

ith a stafiF which he holds in his hand. In the illustration the conductor is seen in 
ich canoe, brandishing his stafiF as he beats time to the rhythm of the paddle-song, 
wing to the power of the water in reflecting sound, the measured chant of the paddle- 
»Dg can be heard on a river long before the canoe comes in sight 

Mr. Angas gives an interesting account of a journey in a Maori canoe. After men- 
oning that the vessel was so deeply laden that its sides were not more than two inches 
bove the water, he proceeds as follows : " The paddles were plied with great spirit ; the 
lertions of the natives being stimulated by the animated shouting song kept up inces- 
mtly by one or other of the party. At length the splashing was so violent that we 
ecame nearly drenched, and on requesting the Maori before us to throw less water in 
or faces, he replied with a proverb common among them, that ' No one is dry who 
ravels with the Waikatos,' meaning that the people of this tribe excel all others in the 
peed and dexterity with which they manage their canoes. 

" Our natives were in excellent spirits. They had been on a long journey to Auck- 
md, where they had seen the paJceha (white man, or stranger) in his settlement, and had 
ritnessed many sights of civilization to which they were previously strangers. They 
nd also purchased articles of European manufacture, and were longing to return home to 
ke peaceftd banks of the Waipa, to present them to their friends as tokens of their 
Rgnd. Their wild, deafening songs, with their heads all undulating at every stroke, the 
{Mtortions of their eyes, and their bare, tawny shoulders, finely developing their muscles 
iiflN!f ill dashed their paddles simultaneously into the water, rendered the scene at once 
■ndL iad animating. 

"The danoe songs are generally improvised, and frequently have reference to passing 
ikjedflL Such ejaculations as the following were uttered by our companions at the 
Ujgliest pitch of their voices, ' Pull away ! Pull away ! Pull away ! ' * Dig into the 
later!' 'Break your backs,* &c. From the prow of one of the canoes a native flute 
Hmnded plaintively. This is a very rude and imperfect instrument, and they do not play 
it with any degree of skill, it having only two or three notes." The flute in question is 
9iit which is made of human bone, and has been described on a previous page. It is 
played by placing the orifice against one nostril, and stopping the other with the tinger. 

When the natives proceed on a journey in their canoes, they are so sure of their own 
ikiil and management that they overload them to a deji^'ee which would cause an imme- 
diate capsize in most countries. One chief, named Wirihona, who was travelling with 
Us family, afforded a curious example of overloading a boat with impunity. The canoe 
PK deUcate and frail, and in the bow sat a little boy with a small fire kept between two 
lifices of bark. In the fore part of the canoe, where it was narrow, sat the younger 
n, the adult members of the family being placed in the middle, where the boat 
widest. Towards the stern came another batch of young children, and on the 
which projects over the water, sat Wirihona himself, steering the vessel with his 
die. 

i The canoe in which were Mr. Angas and his companions was, as the reader may 
^Mdlect, 80 laden that her gunwale barely rose two inches above the surface. As long 
SI they were paddling along the narrower and more sheltered parts of the river, all went 
pBoothly enough, though the deeply-laden state of the crank boat gave cause for un- 
^M Jnega . At last, however, they came to some wide and open reaches exposed to the 
Wnd, and had, moreover, to cross the current diagonally. 
^ "The wind blew violently, and, meeting the cuiTent, caused an unpleasant sea in the 

■Ukile channel of the river. Our heavily-laden canoe was not fitted to encounter any- 
^ ttbg beyond stm water; and, as our natives related to each otherwhere this and that 
'^ttnoe were upset, they djished their paddles into the water with all their energy, and our 
\ Wik was soon in the rnidst of the terrible current. We weie every moment in imminent 
[ danger of being swamped ; the water rushed in on both sides ; and nothing but the 

tttreme swiftness with which we glided through the cun^ent prevented us from filling. 

* As the canoe dashed against the opposite shore, our natives gave a loud shout, and 
' wnmenced baling out the water, which we had shipped in great quantities, with a tatau 
I m icoopi We now looked anxiously towards the second canoe, and watched them 




174 



NEW ZEALAND. 



literally puUiiig for thRir lires, splashing and dashing with the utmost Tehemence 
frail bark appeared almost swallowed up by the angry stream, but she glided » 

through it, and the drenchM chief ; 

family repeated the sound of welc 

the opposite shore, as their cant 

dashed in safety against its banks." 

The paddles with which the I 

propel their caDoes are cmious-! 

implements, and are so formed th 

will answer almost equally welt as ] 

or weapons, Indeed, it is not u 

[I - '^ that their })eculiar shape was givenl 

for this very reason. In the illui 

are seen two examples of the New i 

])add]e, both being drawn from spt 

in my collection, and being useful a 

ing tlie typical form of the implen 

They are rather more than five 

length, and have very long blades, 

are leaf-ahaped and sharply pointec 

tips, so that a thrust from one oi 

paddles would be quite «a dangero 

it were made with the butt of th 

The blade, too, is sharp at the 

and, being made of rather heavj- v 

capable of splitting a man's skull a 

tually as if it had been tlie short m 

In one of these paddles the hi 

cur\'ed in a peculiar manner, whih 

other it is straight, and forms a co 

tion of the blade. The former o 

implements is quite plain, anil i 

the end of the handle there is no ( 

while the' latter is lil^erally adomc 

patterns both on the blade and 

and at their junction there is the iuf 

human figure with the protruding 

1 ; the goggle eyes, and the generally 

I : sive expression that characterises s 

1 1 figures. None of the New Zealand ] 

are adorned with the minute and el 

carving which is found upon the i 

of several of the Polynesian island 

carving of tlie New Zealanders is t 

different and much bolder characte 

I ll instead of covering his paddle wit 

patterns repeated some liundreds ol 

the Maori can'cs nothing but bold,sT 

I'urves and imitations of the humai 

As far as is known, the Itfaori 

makes no use of measuring tools 

all hia work by the eye alone. I 

NEW zEALAKn FADDi.Es not even use compasses in descriV 

circles ; and in consequence, when< 

carves, as is often the case, a number of concentric circles on a rafter or beam, the 

an quite undeserving of the name, anil always tend rather to an irregular oval for 



COMPASSES. 



175 



Hiere is in my collection a remarkable instrument, presented to me by C. Heaton, 
i$q. It bears a label with the following inscription, "A New Zealand Compass, by 
duch the natives torn the volute in their carving." In shape it resembles one half of a 

ttenihesis ^^^> and is armed at each point with a shark's tooth, which is inserted into a 
;iDOve» and then lashed firmly with a cord passing through holes bored in the tooth and 
hiDii^ the semicircular handle. It is made of the same wood as the paddle. Having, 
• I hBYe already stated, abundant reason to distrust the accuracy of labels, and thinking 
hrt the carves of New Zealand carving did not possess the regularity which would 
IDOompany them had they been sketched out by an instrument, I showed the tool to 
■nnl observant travellers who have spent much time in New Zealand, and asked them 
fihey recognised it None of them had seen the implement. Mr. Christie, who gave 
attention to the manufactures of New Zealand, knew nothing about it, and Mr. 
who visited the island for the express purpose of collecting information respecting 
and to whose pen I am indebted for nearly all the illustrations of the life and 
of the New Zealanders, had never seen or heard of such a tool. I possess many 
IS of New Zealand carving, and have seen many others, together with a great 
of photographs, and in no case have I noticed a single circle or portion of a circle 
was r«=^ular enough to have been drawn by the aid of compasses. 
I even doubt whether this article was made in New Zealand at all, and am inclined 
that it belongs to the Tonga or the Kingsmill islands. As to its use, I have no 

In propelling these canoes, the New Zealander holds his paddle in both hands, and 

keeps it on the same side of the vessel, being balanced by a companion on the 

side. He employs no rowlock, but uses one hand as a fulcrum near the blade, while 

other holds the handle nearer the tip. The boat is steered by means of a large paddle 

idle stem. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



RELIGION. 




HE GOOD AND KVIL INFLUENCES THE LIZABD ATUAS — ALARM OF THE CHIEF MAOBI PRAYlBf-! 

DIFFICULTY IN TRANSLATING THEM — THE SACRED LANGUAGE THE TOHUNOAS, OB PI 

BELIEF IN THE FUTURE STATE THE SACRED BRANCH THE MALEVOLENT SPIRITS HA 

MOUNTAINS — THE TIKIS, OR SUPPOSED IDOLS OF THE MAORIES SOME GIGANTIC W( 

TIKIS — BELIEF IN WITCHCRAFT FATE OF A WITCH COUNTRY OP THE WIZARDS ^INCANTA' 

0\'ER THE SICK MAORI ANATOMISTS. 

We now come to the religion of the Maories. This is a curious mixture of simplk 
and elaboration, having the usual superstitions common to all savage tribes, and 
complicated with the remarkable system of " tapu," or " taboo/' as the word is soini 
spelt. 

Of real religion they have no idea, and, as far as is known, even their supei 
lack that infusion of sublimity which distinguishes the religious system of many sai 
nations. They have a sort of indefinite belief in a good and evil influence ; the ft 
going by the generic name of Atua, and the latter of Wairua. Now, Atuais a word 
has a peculiar significance of its own. It may signify the Divine Essence, or it mMj\ 
applied to any object which is considered as a visible representative of that essence. 

Thus, if a Maori wishes to speak of God, he would use the word Atua. Bot 
would equally apply it to a lizard, a bird, a sun-ray, or a cloud. There is one s[ 
lizard, of a lovely green colour, called Iw the natives kakariki, which is held in 
greatest veneration as a living representative of divinity, and is in consequence all 
dreaded as an atua. 

The belief which the natives hold on this subject is well shown by an anecdote i 
by Mr. Angas. 

*' The following incident will show how deeply the belief in witchcraft and the 
posed infliuence of the atuas obtains among those who are still heathens. The missif 
was shown some small green lizards preserved in a phial of spirits, Muriwenua 
another man being in the room. We forgot at the moment that the little creaturei; 
the phial were atuas, or gods, according to the superstitious belief of Maori pel] 
and inadvertently showed them to the man at the table. 

" No sooner did he perceive the atuas than his Herculean frame shmnk back as 
mortal wound, and his face displayed signs of extreme horror. The old chieC on 
covering the cause, cried out, * I shall die ! I shall die ! * and crawled away on his 
and knees ; while the other man stood as a defence between the chief and the 
changing his position so as to form a kind of shield, till Muriwenua was out rf 
influence of their supposed power. It was a dangerous mistake to exhibit these atd 
for the chief is very old, and in the course of nature cannot live long, and, if hedj 
shortly, his death will certainly be ascribed to the baneful sight of the lizard-godfl, it 
I shall be accused of makiUu or witchcraft" In connexion with this supeistition «bd 



NATIVE WORSHIP. 177 

Jhe lizard, the same traveller mentions a curious notion which prevails regarding 
a spider. 

" On the beach of the west coast is found a small, black, and very venomous spider, 
cdled katipo by the nativea Its bite is exceedingly painful, and even dangerous, and the 
natives think that if the katipo bites a man and escapes, the man will die. But if he 
craitrives to catch the spider, and makes a circle of fire round it so that it perishes in the 
limes, then the man recovers as the spider dies." 

The extent to which the imagination of the natives is excited by their fear of 
vitchcraft is scarcely credible. There was one woman named Eko, who was the most 
pdebrated witch of the Waikato district She exercised extraordinary influence over the 
Kinds of the people, who looked upon her as a superior being. On one occasion, when 
Bijjry with a man, she told him that she had taken out his heart. The man entirely 
keUeved her, and died from sheer terror. 

Objects which they cannot understand are often considered by the Maories as atuas. 

m a compass is an atua, because it points in one direction, and directs the traveller by 

invisible power. A barometer is an atua, because it foretells the weather. A watch 

atua, on account of the perpetual ticking and moving of the hands. Firearms 

to be atuas until they came into common use, and lost the mystery which was at 

attached to them. 

the Maori never addresses his prayers to any of these visible objects, but always 
invisible Atua of whom these are but the representatives. 
Ihe prayers are almost entirely made by the priests or tohungas, and are a set form 
iVDids known only to the priests and those whom they instruct. The meaning of the 
is often uncertain, owing to the obsolete words which are profusely employed in 
and of which, indeed, the prayer almost entirely consists. Prayers, or incantations, 
may perhaps be called with more precision, are made on almost every occasion of 
bowever trivial, and whether the Maori desires safety in a battle, a favourable wind 
on the water, success in a campaign, or good luck in fishing, the tohunga is called 
to repeat the appropriate prayer. Many of these prayers or incantations have been 
by Dr. Diefi'enbach and others. One of these prayers, which can be more 
ly translated than many of them, is uttered at the offering of a pigeon. It is 
ted as " A prayer that the pigeon may be pure, that it may be very fat : when the 
, the prayer is said." 
When it is lighted, when it is lighted, the sacred fire, Tiki ! When it bums on 
lacred morning, give, O give, Tiki, the fat. It bums for thee the fat of the 
; for thee the fat of the owl ; for thee the fat of the parrot ; for thee the fat of the 
her; for thee the fat of the thrush. A water of eels; where is its spring? Its 
is in heaven ; sprinkle, give, be it poured out." 
Offerings of food are common rites of Maori native worship, and offerings are made 
vegetable and animal food. It is much to be regretted that very many of the 
religious rites of the New Zealanders have perished, and that they have been 
y forgotten by the present generation. Such a loss as this can never be replaced, 
tte fiEU^ that it has occurred ought to make us the more careful in rescuing from 
\ oblivion the expiring religious customs of other uncivilized nations. 
Piayere, such as have been mentioned, are handed down by the tohungas or priests 
t^er to son, and the youths imdergo a long course of instruction before they can 
wok among the priests. Dr. Dieflfenbach was once fortunate enough to witness a 
of this instruction. " I was present at one of the lessons. An old priest was 
under a tree, and at his feet was a boy, his relative, who listened attentively to 
i^etition of certain words, which seemed to have no meaning, but which it must 
leqnired a good memory to retain in their due order. At the old tohunga's side 
)ait of a man's skull filled with water. Into this from time to time he dipped a 
i Inncb, which he moved over the boy's head. At my approach the old man 
ri, as if to say, * See how clever I am,' and continued his airacadahra, 
I Ittve been assured by the missionaries that many of these prayers have no 
BDg; bat this I am greatly inclined to doubt. The words of the prayers are perhapi; 
^n. N 



I 



178- 



NEW ZEALAND. 



the Temains of a language now forgotten ; or, what is more probable, we find 
has existed among most of the' nations of antiquity, even the most civilized 
religious mysteriea were confined to a certain class of men, who kept them 
from the profanum vulgua, or communicated only such portions of then 
thought fit. 

" They often had a sacred symbolic language, the knowledge of which wa 
to the priesthood, as, for instance, the I^ptian hieroglyphicB and the SauBCrit 

look nearer home, we fi 
Ijgion of Thor, Odin, i 
enveloped in a poetici 
which has for its found 
and grand philosophic 
tions of morals and ett 
It is a rather curiou! 
contrary to the usual 
heathen priests, the tol 
not oppose the Christia 
aries, but were among 
receive the new religi* 
of them seem to baV' 
it too hastily and wit! 
cient knowledge of its 
as we see from the 
travesty of Christianity 
sprung up of late years 
Maories, end which i 
Zealand what the syst« 
ping is in China. 

The priests are, as ; 
most expert artists a 
carvers in the country ; : 
word " tohunga" is often 
the natives to a man wh 
in any art, no matt«r v 
be a priest or not. 

The accompanying i 
is a portrait of a very 
toliunfin, taken by Mr. 
1U44. His name was Te 
portrait was obtained 
great meeting of cliiefs i 
Te Oliu distinguishe 
gi-eatly on this occasio 
about after the faahioi 
orators, shaking his 
grizzled locks from si( 
the ground, and uttering his speech in a singularly 




NATIVR fHIKST. 



stamping furiously ( 
sonorous voice. 

In the background of the sketch may he seen two remarkable articles, 
which is the half of a canoe, stuck upright in the ground, marks the grave of 
chief; and the other is a pole, on which are hung a calabash of water and i 
food, with which the spirit of the dead can refresh himself when he returns I 
scene of his lifetime. Sometimes a dish of cooked pigeons is added ; and in 
model of a canoe, with its sail and paddles, was placed on the tomb, as a com 
the soul of the departed when he wished to crose the wat«rs which lead to t 
■bode* of the spirit. 



THE MALEVOLENT SPIRIT. 179. 

Coucerning the state of the spirit after the death of the body the Maories seem to 
e very vague ideas. The sum of their notions on this subject is as follows : — 
They believe that the spirit of man is immortal, and that when it leaves the body it 
( to the Beinga> or place of departed spirits. Shooting and falling stars are thought to 
he souls of men going to this place. The entrance to the Eeinga is down the face of a 
y cliflF at Cape Maria Van Diemen. Lest the spirit should hurt itself by falling down 
precipice, there is a very old tree which grows there, on which the spirits break their 

One particular branch was pointed out as being the portion of the tree on which the 
its alighted. 

One of the missionaries ciit off this branch, and in consequence the natives do not 
ird it with quite so much awe as they did in former days. Still, Dr. Dieffenbaoh 
arks that^ when he visited the islands, they held the spot in great veneration, and not 
1 the Christian natives would go near it. 

All spirits do not enter the Seinga in the same manner, those of chiefs ascending first 
upper heavens, where they leave the left eye, which becomes a new star. For this 
ion, if a chief is killed in war, his left eye is eaten by the chief of the victorious party, 
) thinks that he has thus incorporated into his own being the courage, skill, and 
dom of the dead man. 

Spirits are not considered as imprisoned in the Keinga, but are able to leave it when 
Y please, and to return to the scene of their former life. They can also hold converse 
Q their friends and relatives, but only through the tohungas. Sometimes, but very 
sly, the tohunga sees the spirit ; and even then it is only visible as a sunbeam or a 
dow. The voice of the spirit is a sort of low whistling sound, like a slight breeze, and 
ometimes heard by others beside the tohunga. He, however, is the only one who can 
leistand the mysterious voice and can interpret the wishes of the dead to the living. 
As to the life led by departed spirits, the Maories seem to have no idea ; neither do 
7 seem to cara They have a notion that in Beinga the kumeras, or sweet potatoes, 
)imd ; but beyond that tradition they appear to know nothing. 

As to the malevolent spirits, or wairuas, the same cloudy indefiuiteness of ideas seems 
prevail The word wairua signifies either the soul or a dream, and is mostly used to 
pify the spirit of some deceased person who desires to act malevolently towards the 
iog. Such spirits are supposed to haunt certain spots, which are in consequence 
oided by the New Zealander. Mountains are especial objects of his veneration, and 
086 which are lofty enough to have their tops covered with perpetual snow are specially 
ired. He fencies that they are inhabited by strange and monstrous animals, that fierce 
ids of huge size sit continually on their whitened tops, and that every breeze which 
m from them is the voice of the spirit which haunts it. 

In consequence of these superstitions, the natives can no more be induced to ascend 
ie of these mountains than to approach a burial-ground. They have a curious legend 
out the Tongariro and Mount Egmont, saying that they were originally brother and 
ter, and lived together, but that they afterwards quarrelled and separated. There is 
other strange legend of a spot near Mount Egmont Owing to the nature of the ground, 
tong chemical action is constantly taking place, which gives out great quantities of 
phuretted hydrogen gas. The natives say that in former days an Atua was drowned 
kr the spot, and that ever since that time his body has been decomposing. 
As to the idols of the New Zealanders, it is very doubtful whether they ever existed, 
316 are, it is true, many representations of the human form, which are popularly sup- 
ed to be idols. It was formerly supposed that the green jade ornaments, called " tikis," 
ich are worn suspended from the neck, were idols ; but it is now known that they are 
?ely ornaments, deriving their sole value from being handed down from one generation 
mother. 

Three examples of the so-called idols are here given. One of them is remarkable for 
gpigantic proportions and curious shapa It is about sixteen feet in height, and instead 
ionaistuig of a single human figure, as is usually the case, the enormous block of wood 
sanrad into the semblance of two figures, one above the other. This arrangement is 
Qnoommon in New Zealand, and is found also in Western Africa. I possess a walking 

n2 



180 



NEW ZEALAND. 



Bt&ff of both cotintries, which are composed of several humuQ figures, each np 
other's head. The New Zealand staff will be presently described and figured. 

This gigantic tiki stands, together with several others, near the tomb of the di 
of Te Whero-Whero, and, like the monument which it seems as it were to guard, 

of the finest examples of 
carving to be found in Ne 
land. The precise object 
tiki is uncertain ; bat tl 
truding tongue of the uppc 
seems to show that it is 
the numerousdefiaatstatue 
abound in the islands. The 
say that the lower figure re) 
Maui, the Atua who, accoj 
Maori tradition, fished 
islands &om the bottom 

As may be seen by rt 
to the illustration, nea] 
whole of both figures is 
with most elaborate curv 

terns, which descendover tl 
and adorn those parts 
statue which do duty f 
A portion of the paling of 
P^ is seen in the back 
and around the tiki groi 
plants of the phormium, 
Zealand flax. 

Near this wonderful a 
terious piece of carvinj 
several others, all of the i 
type. Two such tikis ar 
in the following illustratioi 
from sketches taken ai 
kapokoko. Although m 
so large as the double 
Earoera, tliey are of ve 
size, as may be seen by < 
ing them with the figur 
woman who is standing b 
them. 

The firmest belief in w 
prevails in New ZeaJanc 
not to such an extent as in many parts of Africa. In cases of illness for which no 
cause can be discovered, especially if the patient ha of high rank, " makuta," < 
craft, is always suspected. If a chief, for example, fancies tliat he has been bewi' 
thinks over the names of those who are likely to have a spite against him, aa4: 
upon some unfortunate individual, who is thereby doomed to death, One curious 
of such a murder is related by Mr. Angas. 

He met a party of natives, who told him that a woman, a relation of the chief 1 
bad been shot by another chief, who suspected that she had bewitched his 8< 

Cag man had been taken ill, and, though the woman in question did her besi 
, he died. His father took it into his head that she had killed him l^ b< 
tations, and, after loadii^ his musket with a stick, shot her through the body. . 
ever, she was the relation of Ngawaka, it was expected that the chi^ would 




K TIKI AT RAROERA PAB. 



BELIEF IN WITCHCBAFT. 



181 



tosatioD for her death, and that the murderer would have to pay a very heavy sum. 
ort of compensation is called " taua." 

lere are several modes of witchcraft ; but that which is most practised ia performed 
];ging a hole iu the ground and invoking the spirit of the person who ia to be 
:hed. After the incantations are said, the invoked spirit appears above the hole 
flickering light, and is then solemnly cursed by the witch. Sometimes, instead of 
g a hole, the witch goes by 
o the river-bank, and there 
s the spirit, who appears as 
£ of fire on the opposite 

, DieSenbach gives rather 
ous account of a district 

Urewera, which is sup- 
to be the apecial abode of 
3. It is situated in the 
m island, between Taupo 
iwkes' Bay, and consists of 
ind barren hills. The in- 
its of this district are few 
rttered, and have the repu- 
if being the greatest witches 
country. 

ey are much feared, and 
ittle connexion with the 
>uring tribes, who avoid 
if possible. If they come 

coast, the natives there 
7 venture to refuse them 
ig, for fearof incurring their 
sure. They are said to use 
v& of the people whom tliey 
to bewitch, and visitors 
y conceal it, to give them 
)rtunity of working them 
jke our witches and sorce- 
old, they appear to be a 
armless people, and but 
lixed up with the quarrels 
- neighbours. 

is a curious fact that many 
old settlers in the country 
■come complete converts to 
lief io these supernatural 
Witchcraft has been the 
jf many murders: a few 
jfore I arrived at Aotea, on the western coast, three had been committed, in con- 

:e of people declaring on their deathbeds that they had been bewitched 

. ia another curious fact, which has been noticed in Tahiti, Hawaii, and the islands 
ed by the great Polynesian race, that their first intercourse with Europeans pro- 
ivil ware and social degradation, but that a change of ideas is quickly introduced, 
tt the most ancient and deeply-rooted prejudices soon become a subject of ridicule 
Datives, and are abolished at once. ITie grey priest, or tohunga, deeply versed in 
myateries of witchcrait and native medical treatment, gives way in his attendance 
sick to every European who pretends to a knowledge of the science of surgery ot 
le, and derides the former credulity of his patient 




WHAKiPOKOKO. 



182 NEW ZEALAND. 

" If a chief or his wife fall sick, the most influential tohunga, or a woraan who has the 
odour of sanctity, attends, and continues day and night with the patient, sometimes 
repeating incantations over him, and sometimes sitting before the house and praying. The 
following is an incantation which is said by the priest as a cure for headache. He polls 
out two stalks of the Pteris esctUerUa, from which the fibres of the root must be removed, 
and, beating them together over the head of the patient, says this chant" — The chant in 
question is as unintelligible as those which have already been mentioned. Its title is 
" A prayer for the dead (i.e. the sick man), when his head aches : to Atua this prayer is { 
prayed, that he, the sick man, may become welL" j 

When a chief is ill, his relations assemble near the house and all weep bitterly, the ; 
patient taking his part in the general sorrowing; and when all the weeping and mourning 
has been got out of one \allage, the patient is often carried to another, where the whole 
business is gone over again. Should the sick person be of an inferior class, he goes oS 
to the bush, and remains there until he is well again, choosing the neighbourhood of a 
hot spring if he can find one, or, if no such spring is at hand, infusing certain herbs in 
boiling water and inhaling the steam. 

As may be imagined from the practice which they have in cutting up the dead for 
their cannibal feasts, the Maories are good practical anatomists, and know well tha- 
position of all the principal organs and vessels of the body. Consequently, they 
operate in cases of danger, using sharp-edged shells if they have no knives. They 
also set broken limbs well, bringing the broken surfaces together, binding the limb witk 
splints, laying it on a soft pillow, and surrounding it with a wicker work contrivance it 
order to guaid it against injury. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE TAPU. 



fMg TAPr, OR LAW OF PROHIBITION — TAPU A SUBSTITUTE FOR GOVERNMENT — PROTECTION TO 

PBOFXRTY AND MORAI^ — ABUSE OF THE TAPU THE CHIEF AND THE SAILOR — THE CHIEF AND 

En MAT A VALUABLE SPLINTER THE HEAD OF THE CHIEF AN UNLUCKY MISTAKE HOW 

TAOKUI GOT HIS ARMOUR HAIR- CUTTING — TROUBLES OF AN ARTIST — THE CARVED HEAD 

^ — TK WHSRO-WHERO AND HIS PORTRAIT — THE TAPU MOUNTAIN — BANEFITL EFFECTS OF THB 

TAPU ON NATIVE ART — DESTRUCTION OF THE PAHS AND HOUSES THE TERMINABLE TAPU THB 

BATTLB-TAPU TAKING OFF THE TAPU-DUTY OF THE TOHL^NGA — THE TAPU THB STRENGTH 

OF THB CHIEFS. 

TFe now come naturally to the custom of Tapu or Taboo, that extraordinary system 
vhich extends throughout the whole of Polynesia, modified slightly according to the 
localitv in which it exists. 

The general bearings of the law of tapu may be inferred from the sense of the word, 
itlich signifies prohibition. Tlie system of tapu is therefore a law of prohibition, and. 
Wen stripped of the extravagances into which it often deteriorates, it is seen to be a 
rey excellent system, and one that answers the purpose of a more elaborate code of 
Irs. In countries where an organized government is employed the tapu is needless, 
•Dd we find that even in those parts of the earth where it was once the only restrictive 
llw it has fallen into disuse since regular government has been introduced. 

Were it not for the law of tapu, an absolute anarchy would prevail in most parts of 
Polynesia, the tapu being the only guardian of property and morality. In order that it 
aay be enforced on the people, the terrors of superstition are called into play, and, in the 
ireence of secular law, the spiritual powers are evoked. 

Unprotected by the tapu, property could not exist : protected by it, the most valued 
md coveted articles are safer than they would be in England, despite the elaborate legal 
lyrtem that secures to every man that which is his own. In New Zealand, when a man 
Ins cultivated a field of kumeras, or sweet potatoes, he needs no fence and no watchman. 
He simply sends for the tohunga, who lays the tapu on the field ; and from that moment 
do one save the owner will venture within its boundaries. 

Sometimes a canoe is hauled up on the beach, and must be left there for some time 
mvatched- The owner need not trouble himself about securing his vessel. He has the 
tiq)a mark placed upon it, and the boat is accordingly held sacred to all except its possessdr. 
Similarly, if a native boat-builder fixes on a tree which he thinks can be made into a 
CMioe, he places the tapu on it, and knows that no one but himself will dare to cut it 
dowiL The mark of tapu in this case is almost invariably the removal of a strip of bark 
round the trunk of the tree. 

Then the system of tapu is the only guardian of morals. It has been already 
mentioned that an extreme laxity in this respect prevails among the unmarried girls. 
Bat as soon as a girl is married she becomes tapu to all but her husband, and any one 



184 NEW ZEALAND. 

who induces her to become unfaithful must pay the penalty of the tapu if the dehnquenti 
be discovered. Nor is the tapu restricted to married women. It is also extended to 
young girls when they are betrothed ; and any girl on whom the tapu has thus been laid 
is reckoned as a married woman. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the principle of the tapu is a good one, and tliaiifc 
serves as protection both to property and morals. There are, of course, many instanon 
where this system has run into extravagances, and where, instead of a protection, it hai 
developed into a tyranny. 

Take, for example, the very praiseworthy idea that the life of a chief is most important 
to his people, and that his person is therefore considered as tapu. This is a proper 
wholesome idea, and is conducive to the interests of law and justice. But the develop 
ment of the system becomes a tyranny. The chief himself being tapu, everything 
he touched, even with the skirt of his garment, became tapu, and thenceforth beloi 
to him. So ingrained is this idea that on one occasion, when a great chief was wearing 
a large and handsome mantle and found it too heavy for a hot day, he threw it dowu 
precipice. His companion remonstrated with him, saying that it would have been 
to have hung the mat on a bough, so that the next comer might make use of it 
chief was horrorstruck at such an idea. It was hardly possible that a superior 
himself should find the mat, and not likely that an equal should do so, and if an infi 
were to wear it, he would at once die. 

AiS tlio vers'^ contact of a chief's garment renders an object tapu, d fortiori dow 
blood, and one drop of the biood of a chief falling upon even such objects as are 
from the ordinary laws of tapu renders them his property. 

A curious example of the operation of this law occurred when a meeting of 
was called at the Taupo lake. As the principal man of the tribes, the celebrated 
Te Heu-heu was invited, and a new and beautifully-carved canoe sent to fetch him. 
he stepped into it, a splinter ran into his foot, inflicting a very slight wound. B 
man leaped out of the canoe, which was at once drawn up on the beach and consid 
as the property of Te Heu-heu. Another canoe was procured, and in it the 
proceeded on their journey. 

Another kind of tapu takes place with regard to any object which is connected 
the death of a native. If, for example, a Maori has fallen overboard from a canoe 
been drowned, the vessel can never be used again, but is tapu. Or if a man co 
suicide by shooting himself, as has already been mentioned, the musket is tapu. But 
these cases the articles are tapu to the atuas, and not to men. Sometimes they are 
to decay on the spot, no man daring to touch them, or they are broken to pieces, and 
fragments stuck upright in the earth to mark the spot where the event occurred. 

Sometimes this personal tapu becomes exceedingly inconvenient. The wife of an 
and venerable tohunga had been ill, and was made tapu for a certain length of 
during which everything that she touched became tapu. Even the very ground on whi 
she sat was subject to this law, and accordingly, whenever she rose from the ground, 
spot on which she had sat was surrounded with a fence of small boughs stuck arch 
into the earth, in order to prevent profane feet from polluting the sacred spot. 

The most sacred object that a New Zealander can imagine is the head of the chid 
It is so sacred that even to mention it is considered as an affront. Europeans have oftai 
given deadly offence through ignorance of this, superstition, or even through inadvertenoi 
Mr. Angas narrates a curious instance of such an adventure. A friend of his was talkim 
to a Maori chief over his fence, and the conversation turned upon the crops of the yen 
Quite inadvertently he said to the chief, " Oh, I have in my garden some apples as big 
as that little boy's head " — pointing at the same time to the chiefs son, who was standi^ 
near his father. 

He saw in a moment the insult that he had offered, and apologized, but the chief wi 
so deeply hurt that it was with the greatest difficulty that a reconciliation was bronj^ 
about. The simile was a peculiarly unfortunate one. To use the head of a chiefs sa 
as a comparison at all was bad enough, but to compare it to an article of food was aboi 
the most deadly insult that could be offered to a Maori All food and the vaziM 



IXC0XVENIENCE:S of the TAPU. 185 

pooesses of preparation are looked down upon with utter contempt by the free Maori, 
vko leaves all culinary operations to the slaves or " cookies." 

One of the very great chiefs of New Zealand was remarkable for his snowy white 
jkir and beard, which gave him a most venerable aspect. He was held in the highest 
mpect, and wa*^ so extremely sacred a man that his head might only be mention^ in 
anparison with the snow-clad top of the sacred mountain. 

The same traveller to whom we are indebted for the previous anecdote relates a 
ffrions story illustrative of this etiquette. 

There was a certain old chief named Taonui, who was in possession of the original 

of armour which was given by George IV. to E' Hongi when he visited England. 

Ihe subsequent history of this armour is somewhat curious. It passed from the Nga 

to Tetori, and from Tetori to Te Whero-Whero at the Waikato feast, and came into 

ui's hands under the following circumstances. 

*0n the death of a favourite daughter Te Whero-Whero made a song, the substance 

which was, that he would take off the scalps of all the chiefs except Ngawaka, and 
them into his daughter's grave to avenge her untimely death. The words of this 
highly insulted the various individuals against whom it was directed ; more 
y as it was a great curse for the hair of a chief, which is sacred, to be thus 
iMed with contempt. But the only chief who dared to resent this insult from so great 
imn as Te Whero-Whero was Taonui, who demanded a ' taua,' or gift, as recompense 
Irthe affront, and received the annour of E' Hongi in compensation. 
. *I made a drawing of the armour, which was old and rusty. It was of steel, inlaid 
itti brass, and, though never worn by the possessors in battle — for it would sadly impede 
hir movements — it is regarded with a sort of superstitious veneration by the natives, 
fko look upon it as something extraordinary." 

A chief's head is so exceedingly sacred that, if he should touch it with his own 
^na, he may not touch anything else without having applied the hand to his nostrils 
m smelt it, so as to restore to the head the virtue which was taken out of it by the 
lodL The hair of a chief is necessarily sacred, as growing upon his head. When it is 
It, the operation is generally confided to one of his wives, who receives every particle of 
ka cut hair in a cloth, and buries it in the ground. In consequence of touching the 
beTs head, she becomes tapu for a week, during which time her hands are so sacred 
Itt she is not allowed to use them. Above all things, she may not feed herself, because 
Itt would then be obliged to pollute her hands by touching food, and such a deed would 
i equivalent to putting food on the chief's head — a crime of such enormity that the 
lind of a Maori could scarcely comprehend its possibility. 

When engaged in his explorations in New Zealand, and employed in sketching every 
^ect of interest which came in his way, Mr. Angas found this notion about the chief's 
Nad to be a very troublesome one. He was not allowed to portray anything connected 
MUi food with the same pencil with which he sketched the head of a chief, and to put a 
bMng of a potato, a dish for food, or any such object, into the same portfolio which 
Mtained the portrait of a chief, was thought to be a most fearful sacrilege. 

The artist had a narrow escape of losing the whole of his sketches, which a chief 
Ko Tarui wanted to bum, as mixing sacred with profane things. They were only 
by the intervention of Te Heu-heu, a superstitious old savage, but capable of 
Wiig that the white man had meant no harm. Warned by this escape, Mr. Angas 
iiii)b made his drawings of tapu objects by stealth, and often had very great difficuity 
hdnding the suspicious natives. 

Even the carved image of a chiefs head is considered as sacred as the object which it 
MeiResents. Dr. Dieffenbach relates a curious instance of this superstition. 

" In one of the houses of Te Puai, the head chief of all the Waikato, I saw a bust, 
■ade by himself, with all the serpentine lines of the moko, or tattooing. I asked him to 
■p© it to me, but it was only after much pressing that he parted with it. I had to go to 
■B hooae to fetch it myself, as none of his tribe could legally touch it, and he licked it 
A over before he gave it to me ; whether to take the tapu off, or whether to make it 
itrictly aacred, I do not know. He particularly engaged me not to put it into the 



18(5 NEW ZEALAND. 

provision-bag, uor to let it see the natives at Botu-nua, whither I was going, or he ^ 
certainly die in consequence. 

" Payment for the bust he would not take ; but he had no objection to my m 
him a present of my own free will: which I accordingly did, presenting him and hii 
with a shirt each." 

Once the natives were very angry because Mr. Angas went under a cooking 
having with him the portfolio containing the head of Te Heu-heu. Even his hands 
tapu because they had painted the portrait of so great a chief, and he was subjecl 
many annoyances in consequenca Finding that the tapu was likely to become ei 
ingly inconvenient, he put a stop to further encroachments by saying that, if the \ 
made any more complaints, he would put Te Heu-heu's head into the fira This 
shocked them greatly, but had the desired effect. 

Sometimes this sanctity of the chief is exceedingly inconvenient to himself. 
occasion, when Mr. Angas was visiting the chief Te Whero-Whero, he found the 
man superintending the plantation of a kumera ground and the erection of a ho« 
himself. Eain was falling fast, but the old chief sat on the damp ground, wrapped 
his blanket, and appearing to be entirely unconcerned at the weather, a piece of sail 
over the blanket being his only defence. 

He did not rise, according to the custom of the old heathen chiefs, who will 
times sit for several days together, in a sort of semi-apathetic state. To the requea 
his portrait might be taken Te Whero-Whero graciously acceded, and talked 
on the all-important subject of land while the painter was at work. Finding th< 
exceedingly unpleasant, the artist suggested that they had better move into a '. 
The old chief, however, knowing that he could not enter a house without making 
property by reason of contact ^vith his sacred person, declined to move, but oid( 
shelter to be erected for the white man. This was done at once, by fastening a h. 
to some upright poles: and so the portrait was completed, the painter under cover ai 
sitter out in the rain. 

Localities can be rendered tapu, even those which have not been touched 1 
person who lays the tapu upon them. The chief Te Heu-beu, for example, was p 
to declare the volcano Tongariro under the tapu, by calling it his backbone, so that 
native would dare approach it, nor even look at it, if such an act could be avoided 
Angas was naturally dasirous of visiting this mountain, but found that such a & 
could not be carried out. He offered blankets and other articles which a New Zea 
prizes ; but all to no puipose, for the tapu could not be broken. The chief even ti 
prevent his white visitors from travelling in the direction of the mountain, and onl; 
his consent after ordering that the sacred Tongariro should not even be looked a 
deeply is this superstition engi*aven in the heart of the New Zealander, that ev( 
Christian natives are afraid of such a tapu, and will not dare to approach a spc 
has thus been made sacred by a tohunga. Reasoning is useless with them ; the; 
agree to all the propositions, admit the inference to be drawn from them, and then c 
to run so terrible a risk. 

One of the finest examples of native architecture was made tapu by this same 
who seems to have had a singular pleasure in exercising his powers. It was a pah 
Waitahanui, and was originally the stronghold of Te Heu-heu. It is on the hori 
the lake, and the side which fronts the water is a full half-mile in length. It is 
as usual, of iipright posts and stakes, and most of the larger posts are carved in 
human form, with visages hideously distorted, and tongues protruded seawards, ai 
defiance of expected enemies. 

Within this curious pah were the cannibal cook-houses which have already 
figured, together with several of the beautifully-carved patukas or receptacles f 
sacred food of the chief Specimens of these may be seen figured on page 149. 1 
pah Mr. Angas found the most elaborate specimen of the patuka that he ever sa 
was fortunate that he arrived when he did, as a very few years more would evidently 
plete the destruction of the place. Many of the most beautiful implements of nati 
vrere already so decayed that they were but a shapeless heap of ruins, and the 



\ been knocked to pieces by the ignorant tribes who now roam over the rains 

the Great. Even had the vast statues defied entire destmction, the inscrip- 
. long ago have been defaced, and we should have irreparably lost some of tine 
ble additions to our scanty knowledge of chronology. 

1 with the Elgin Marbles. Undoubtedly they were more in their place in 
a they are in England ; but, if they had not been brought to England^ the 

hand of the Mussulman would have utterly destroyed them, and the loss to 
ave been indeed terrible. 

it with regard to the specimens of savage art, no matter in what way it is 

Taking New Zealand as an example, there is not in England a single 

' a Maori house. It could be easily taken to pieces and put together again ; it 

y valuable to ethnologists on account of the extraordinary mixture which it 

ancient Egyptian architecture and ancient Mexican art ; and in a very few 
will not be a single specimen of aboriginal architecture in the whole of New 
?he Maories, who have abandoned the club for the rifle, the mat for the 
d even the blanket for the coat and trousers, have begun to modify their 
litecture, and to build houses after the European models, 
therefore, means be taken to rescue specimens of Maori architecture from 

it is much to be doubted whether in twenty years' time from the present 
e specimen wiU exist as a type of native art. 

is with the canoes. Graceful, picturesque, and adorned with the finest 
►f Maori art, the canoes were unique among vessels. At the present day the 

but more commonplace whaleboat has superseded the canoe, and in a few 
aborately decorated vessels of the Maories will have utterly passed away, 
r be sure that the tide of civilization is sweeping so rapidly over the world, 
few years will see the end of savage life in all lands to which the white man 
cess. The relics of the ancient mode of life are left by the natives to perish, 
they are rescued, and brought to a coimtry where they can be preserved, they 
irily vanish from the face of the earth. Having this idea in my own mind, I 
some years ago to collect articles of daily use from all parts of the world, 
rhich they throw upon anthropology is really astonishing, and, among some 
16 hundred sp^kiimeiis, there is not one that dges not tell its own story. 
r example, the stoiie merai that lies before me. What a tale does it not tell 



188 NEW ZEALAND. 

came to fight against the whit« men, their firearms were too terrible to be opponL 
and the merai was taken from the hand of the dead warrior as he lay on tbe id| 
of battle, its plaited cord still round his wrist. Nevermore will a stone merai be mii|| 
and before very long the best examples of Maori weapons will be found in Ezq^ 
museums. 4 

We will now return to the subject of the tapu. Useful as it may be as a guatdini 
property, it often exaggerates that duty, and produces very inconvenient results, 
example, some travellers were passing through the country, and were hungry 
wearied, and without food. Very opportunely there came in sight a fine pig ; but 
animal contrived to run across a piece of ground which was tapu, and in conseqi 
became tapu itself for a certain number of days, and could not be eaten. 

There are thousands of such tapu spots in the country. If, for example, a great 
has been travelling, every place where he sits to rest is tapu, and is marked by a sUj»ht: 
of sticks. In many cases, each of these sacred spots has its own name. The sameisl 
case when the body of a chief is carried to his own i)ali for burial, every resting-pl 
the bearere becoming tapu. Therefore nothing was more likely than to come across 
of these tapu spots, or more easy than for the pig to break through its slight fence. 

A curious modification of the tapu took place before and aft^r a battle, 
tohunga assembled the wairiors of his own party, and went with them to the lake or 
which had been made tapu for the puipose. The men then threw off all their cl< 
and went into the water, which they scooped up with their hands and threw over 
heads and bodies. The priest then recited the appropriate incantation. 

Thus the battle-tapu was laid upon the warriors, who were thereby prohibited 
undertaking any other business except that of fighting, and were supposed, moreoi 
be under the protection of the gods. This tapu was most strictly regarded, and] 
warriors had to learn quite a long list of occupations which were forbidden to them, 
as carrying a load, cutting their own hair, touching the head of a woman, and so fc 

After the fighting is over, it is necessary that the tapu should be taken off fitMBJ 
survivors, so that they should be enabled to return to their usual mode of life, 
ceremony is rather a complicated one, and varies slightly in difierent parts of the 
The chief features, however, are as follows : — 

Each man who had killed an enemy, or taken a slave, pulled oflT a lock of hail 
the victim, and retained it as a trophy. They then went in a body to the tohungi>i 
gave him a portion of the hair. This he tied on a couple of little twigs, raised them 
above his head, and recited the incantation; after which the whole body joined in || 
war song and dance. Tliis being over, the w^arriors clapped their hands together 
struck their legs, that act being supposed to take off the tapu which had been cont 
by imbruing them in the blood of the enemy. 

The war-party then goes home, and a similar ceremony is undergone in the presea 
of the principal tohunga of their pah, the hands being clapped and the war-dance pi 
formed. The remainder of the hair is given to the tohunga, who, after reciting his iool 
tation, flings the tuft of hair away, and ends by another incantation, which declares tk 
the tapu is taken away. 

As a general rule, the tapu (jan only be taken off by the person who imposed it ; bi 
if a man imposed a tapu on anything, another who was very much his su]ierior would ■ 
have much scru])le in breaking through it. By courtesy the tapu was mostly respect 
by great and small alike, and, l3y courtesy also, the very great men often put tbemsetv 
to great inconvenience by retraining from actions that would lay the tajm on the proper 
of inferiors. Thus we have seen how a chief refused to enter a house, lest he shoi 
render it his property, and preferred to sit in the jxiuring rain, rather than run the risk 
depriving an inferior of his pro])eily. 

Should an object become tapu by accident, the tohunga can take off the tapu fl 
restore the object to use. A curious instance of the exercise of this power is related Ijj 
traveller. A white man, who had borrowed an iron pot for cooking, wanted some ■ 
water, and so he placed the pot under the eaves of a house from which the rain n 
runninc:. Now, the house happened to be tapu, and in consequence the water numi 



.J 



INFLUENCE OF THE TAPU. 189 

it made the pot tapu. It so happened that a woman, who was ignorant of the cir- 
imtance, used the pot for cooking, and when she was told that the vessel was tapu she 
M greatly frightened^ declaring that she would die before night. In this difficulty a 
tmgBL came to her relief, repeated an incantation over the vessel, and made it " noa," or 
ODmon, again. 

. Sometimes the tapu only lasts for a period, and, after that time has elapsed, expires 
Koat the need of any ceremony. Thus, if a person who is tapu by sickness is touched 
^ another, the latter is tapu for a definite time, usually three days. If a sick person dies 
a house, that house is ipso facto tapu, and may never again be used. It is painted 
red ochre, as a sign of its sanctity, and is left to decay. In consequence of this 
tion, when the patient seems likely to die, he is removed from the house, and 
to a spot outside the pah, where a shed is built for his reception. 
B will be seen from the foregoing account how great is the power of the tapu, and 
much it adds to the power of the chiefs. Indeed, without the power of tapu, a chief 
be but a common man among his people — he would be liable to the tapu of others, 
could not impose his own. The tapu is one of the chief obstacles against the 
of Christianity. Knowing that the missionaries treat the tapu as a mere super- 
the great chiefs do not choose to embrace a religion which will cause them to lose 
P highest privilege, and would deprive them of the one great power by which they 
their authority. 
'. Williams, the well-known missionary, sums up the subject of the tapu in very 
and graphic language : — ** It is the secret of power, and the strength of despotic rule. 
\IBkcts things both great and small. Here it is seen tending a brood of chickens, and 
Ha it directs the energies of a kingdom. Its influence is variously diffused. Coasts, 
ids, rivers, and seas ; animals, fruit, fish, and vegetables ; houses, beds, pots, cups, and 
lea ; canoes, with all that belong to them, with their management ; dress, ornaments, and 
• ; things to eat and things to drink ; the members of the body ; the manners and 
Oms ; language, names, temper ; and even the gods also ; all come under the influence 
lie tapu. 

•It is put into operation by religious, political, or selfish motives ; and idleness lounges 
aionths beneath its sanction. Many are thus forbidden to raise their hands or extend 
t arms in any useful employment for a long time. In this district it is tapu to build 
M ; on that island it is tapu to erect good houses. The custom is much in favour 
Big chiefs, who adjust it so that it sits easily on themselves, while they use it to gain 
Knee over those who are nearly their equals ; by it they supply many of their wants, 
oommand at will all who are beneath them. In imposing a tapu, a chief need only be 
iked by a care that he is countenanced by ancient precedents." 



CHAPTER X. 
FtTNERAX CEREMONIES AND ARCHITECTURE. 

THR MOUBMING 0\-KR THK BEAD CHIRF THK TASQI, AND THR SCABS WHICH It I^AVBS PIBW BElt 

OP THK CHIKF— THB WAHI TAPI' SKCOND BURIAL, OB " HAHPKOA " BEUOTAL OP THI Tut 

AND INSTAl.LATIO>f or THE BrCCKSSOlt k' HOSOl'S DBATHBRD A DBCATIKQ PAH CAKOB lOB 

KONUUKNT TO e' TOKI TOMB OF TE WHEBO-WHSSO's DAUQHTRB BAVAOB BBXnim| 

MAORI AnCHTTECTVBK MATEBIAI., SHAPE, AND SIZE OF THB BOUSEB A CBOWDBB UXB 

PLACR THE BAT-UAS ROUSB BANQIHARATa'S BBVRNOB PnATIA"B TAB-HODSB AHD I« ■ 

TURKB INTERIOR TIRW OF A PAH— TOOLS rSKD IN HOUBB-BDILDtNS THB AXB AND TBI fl 

THB TOKO-TOKO, OB WALK ISO -STICK. 

We now come to the ceremonies that belong to funerals. 

When a chief, or indeed any Rangatira, dies, his frienda and relations deck tlie bo^ 
the finest clothes which the deceased had possessed in his lifetime, lay it out, and urn 
round it fur the customary mourning. The women are the chief mourners, and indl^ 
the moat demonstrative, not to say ostentations, ebullitions of grief. SometisM 
squat upon the ground, their bodies and faces wrapped in their mantles, as if utterlrB 
powered by grief. Sometimes they wave their anns in the air, shaking their luimJ 
expressive gestures of sorrow; and all the while they utter loud wailing cries, idrilfc 
tears stream down their cheeks. 

Much of this extravagant sorrow is necessarily feigned, according to the customof' 
Zealand life, which demands tears on so many occasions ; but there is no doubt that i 
is real and truly felt. The women cut themselves severely with shells, making indi 
in the skin several inches in length. These incisions are filled witli charcoal, as if t 
had been part of the regular moko or tattoo, and become indelible, being, in fact, peipd 
records of sorrow. Some of these women cut themselves with such severity, that iiill 
old age they are covei-ed with the thin blue lines of the " tai^i," their faces, limbs, 
bodies being traversed by them in rather a ludicrous manner. 

The tangi lines might be mistaken for regular tattooing, except for one point. 1 
have no pattern, and instead of being curved, as is always the case with the mc^i 
are straight, about two inches in length, and run parallel to each other. 

They address long speeches to the dead man, enumerating his many TiitnflU 
courage, his liberality, the strength of his tapu, and so forth, mixed with reproaches to 
for dying and going away from them when they stood in such need of him. Indeed, 
whole of the proceedings, with the exception of cutting the skin, are very like those ol 
Irish wake. _J 

In the illustration on the following page are shown these various ceremonies 
dead body of the chief is lying under the shed, wrapped in the best mantle^ in^ 
a coronal of feathers in the hair. In the &ont sits a chie^ whose rank is denoted 
haul, or sta£F of office, tiiat lies by him, and by the elabcnte nuotle in whid 
wrapped himselC Standiiig niiar the ooipw is one of the vumaen, with tarn 




t placed with the corpse. In some parts of the country this coffin is canoe- 
iuspeoded to the branches of a tree, certain places bein^r kept sacred for this 
lere e^cisted, for extiniple, several graves belonging to the N^ga-pui tribe, which 



192 NEW ZEALAND. 

The natives, however, say that they are used to it, and do not notice it. Indeed, ' 
who can eat the horrible messes of putrid maize of which they are so fond must 
obtuse of scent as to be indiflferent to any ill odour. 

Be this as it may, in time the process of decay is supposed to be complete,— se 
eight months being the usual time. A curious ceremony, called the "hahunga, 
takes place. The friends and relatives of the deceased chief are again assembled, a 
bones are solemnly taken from their receptacle and cleaned. The person who clean 
is necessarily tapu, but is rendered " noa," or common again, by the eldest son and ds 
of the deceased chief eating of the sacred food offered to the dead. Should the 
girl happen to be dead, the food is placed in a calabash, and laid in the now eniptj 
the spirit of the girl being called by name, and the food offered to her. The i 
supposed to partake of the food ; and the tapu is thus removed as effectually as if 3I 
alive, and had visibly eaten the provisions. Should the chief have had no daugi 
nearest female relative takes the office. The usual orations are made in honoui 
deceased, and the inerai, tiki, and other ornaments of the dead chief are then hand 
to his eldest son, who thus takes possession of the post which his father had vaca 
ceremony being analogous to a coronation among Europeans. 

When- the celebrated chief E' Hongi, the "Scourge of New Zealand," as he b 
called, died, his children were so afraid that they would be attacked by those wl 
terror of his name had kept quiet, that they wanted to omit the preliminary orati 
" tangi," and to lay his body in the " waki-tapu," or sacred place, on the day a 
death. This intention was, however, overruled, chiefly in consequence of the fore 
the dying chief. 

Feeling that his end was close at hand, he rallied his sons round him, sent fa 
warlike stores, the merais, patus, muskets, ammunition, and, above all, the armou 
he had received from George IV., and bequeathed them to his children. He wa 
what " utu," or satisfaction, should be exacted for his death, but replied that the c 
which his spirit would desire was, that his tribe should be valiant, and repel anj 
that was made upon them. But for this really noble sentiment, there would ha 
great slaughter at his death, in order to furnish attendants for hiuL 

That his tribe should for the future be valiant, and repel the attacks of their « 
was the ruling idea in E'Hongi's mind; and on March 6, 1828, he died, con 
repeating the words, " Kia toa ! kia toa ! " — i.e. " Be valiant ! be valiant ! ** 

After the ceremony of cleaning the bones is over, they are taken by the p 
tohunga, or priest, who generally disposes of them in some secret spot sacred 
remains of dead chiefs, and known only to himself. Sometimes, however, they 
in beautifully-carved boxes, which are supported on posts in the middle of the pa 

Sometimes the waki-tapu, or sacred place in which the body of a chief is place 
it undergoes decomposition, is marked in a very curious manner, and the entirc 
deserted for a time. 

For example, at the pah of Hurewenua, the chief had died about six week 
Mr. Angas arrived at the place, which he foimd deserted. " Not far from this isL 
stood the village of Huriwenua, the gaily-ornamented tomb of the late chief fo 
conspicuous object in the centre. Here, although everything was in a state of 
preservation, not a living soul was to be seen ; the village, with its neat houses i 
raupo, and its courtyards and provision-boxes, was entirely deserted. Prom the 1 
the chief was laid beneath the upright canoe, on which were inscribed his name ai 
the whole village became strictly tapu, or sacred, and not a native, on pain of det 
permitted to trespass near the spot. The houses were all fastened up, and on moe 
doors were inscriptions denoting that the property of such an one remained there. 

" An utter silence pervaded the place. After ascertaining that no natives wer 
vicinity of the forbidden spot, I landed, and trod the sacred ground ; and my fi 
were probably the first, since the desertion of the village, that had echoed al 
palisaded passages. 

" On arriving at the tomb, I was struck with the contrast between the monu 
the savage and that of the civilized European. In the erection of the latter, mar 



(mainder of the monument." 




TOMB OF K TOKI. 



kaea tnmha mnv hf sppn in the har.Virmlitnl of the illustration OH Uace 177, 



194 NEW ZEALAND. 

white, while that which decorated the roof and posts was red and black. In front of the 
projecting roof was hung the beautifully woven kaitaka mat of the deceased woman, 
and tufts of the white feathers of the albatross were arranged at regular interwk 
upon it 

Even when Mr. Angas saw this beautiful example of Maori art, it was beginning to 
decay, the climate being damp, and the natives never repairing a decajing tomU It wis, 
of course, strictly tapu. No native liked to go close to it, and for a slave, or even a free 
man of inferior rank, to go within a certain distance of it would have been a crime punish- 
able with instant death. 

I have much pleasure in presenting my readers with an illustration of this beantiM. 
monument of Maori ait, taken from a drawing made by Mr. Angas in 1844, while the 
perishal)le materials of which the tomb was made were yet in tolerable preservation. 
Under the carved and decorated roof mav be seen the semicircular coffin in which the 
body liad been placed, distinguished from the outer portion of the tomb by the red and 
white colours with which it was painted, in contrast to the red and black of the outer 
portions. The reader will notice that red is the prevalent colour in all tombs, becaoN 
red is the hue of mourning as well as of war among the Maories. Immediately m 
the eaves of the front may be seen the highly ornamented border of the kaitaka mat o; 
worn by the deceased, and now left to decay upon her tomb. 

Itound the tomb itself runs a slight and low fence. This palisade, small as it mi 
appear, afforded ample protection to the tomb, inasmuch as the whole space within it 
rendered sacred by a tapu laid upon it by llaupahara, so that not even the highest chi 
would venture to enter the forbidden enclosure. 

One of the finest specimens of carving in New Zealand — perhaps the finest in 
whole country — is, or rather was, a mausoleum erected by Te Wliero-Whei-o to 
favourite daughter. It was upon the death of this daughter that Te Whero-AVhero 
such dire offence to the other chiefs by threatening to throw their scalps into 
daughter's grave, for wliich offence he had to give up the celebrated armour of E' H 
by way of fine. 

The monument was erected in Earoera, fomierly one of the lai-gest and finest pahs i 
New Zealand, but rendered desolate by the act of the headstrong and determined chiet 
He had this wonderful tomb built for his daughter, and, as soon as her body was pi 
within it, he pronounced the whole pah to be tapu. It was at once deserted : old 
young quitted the jjlace, leaving everything behind them, the provisions to moulder 
the weapons to decay. Solid houses that had occupied many years in building 
carving were allowed to fall into mere shapeless heaps of ruins ; and even in 1844 
rank vegetation had so completely overrun the place that many of the best pieces 
native work were covered by the foliage. 

The tomb is about twelve feet high, and consists of the usual box for the reception 
the body covered by a projecting roof, which is supported by pillars. Were it as gracefid. 
in form as the monument to E' Toki, this would be by far the finest specimen of nativa 
art ; but, unfortunately, it does not possess the bold outline and contrast of the curve and 
the sti*aight line which are so characteristic of E' Toki's tomb. 

The elaboration of the cars'ing on this monument is so great that it almost baffles tlN 
skill of the draughtsman. Mr. Angas succeeded in copying it, and when the drawing wid 
shown to the artist who had executed the work he was astounded, and pronounced the 
whit« man to be a great tohunga. The roof is supported by pillars, each pillar consisting, 
of two human figures, the upi)er standing on the head of the lower. The upper figure li 
about seven feet in height, and has a gigantic head, with an enormous protruding tongofl 
that reaches to the breast. 

The whole of the tomb is covered with human heads. Exclusive of those upon th» 
posts, the front alone of the tomb contains fourteen faces, each differing from the other 
in expression and pattern of the moko, but all wearing the same defiant air. Their 
enormous eyes are made peculiarly conspicuous by being carved out of haliotis shelli 
carrying out on a large scale the plan adopted in the chiefs' hanis and other sculpturei 
The whole of the space between the figures is covered with the most elaborate arabesque^ 



er remarks on the necessity for removing to our own country every memorial of 
fe that we can secure. We inflict no real injury upon the savages, and we secure an 
le relic of vanishing customs. Tliese monuments, for example, were simply carved 
I left to decay. Had they been removed to this country, where they would have 
jded from the power of the elements and the encroachments of vegetation, we 
lave seen them in complete preservation at the present day, and likely to last 
IS the building which contained them. 

ourse the sentimental argument may be pleaded against this view of the case ; 
latters which are of vitai importance in the grand study of anthropology mere 
it ought to have no place. Neither has it such place as some often imagine. The 
indi^ that the white mail yields to him on this point, is only too glad to find 
age ground, and always presses on as fast as the other yields — just as has been 
[ndia with the question of caste. We cannot measure their mental sensibilities 
e than their physical by our own. A savage endures with stoicism tortures 
Ofold kill a European, simply because he does not feel them as much. And the 
nd physical sensibilities are very much on a par. 

Ubori is perhaps the finest savage race on the face of the earth, and yet we can- 
k that he is exactly an estimable being, whose ambition is murder, and whose 
is to eat the body of his victim, who never does a stroke of work that he can 
id who leads a life of dissipation as far as his capabilities go. Of all savage 
the New Zealander displays most sorrow for the loss of a friend or relation. 
w profusely from his eyes, and every tone of his voice and every gesture of his 
nrey the impression that he is borne down by unendurable woe. Yet we have 
b this effusion of sorrow is mostly premeditated, and merely a conventional mode 
5 required by the etiquette of the country. 

n two people can be bathed in tears, speak only in sobbing accents, utter heart- 
cries, and sink to the ground as overwhelmed by grief, we cannot but com- 
te their sorrow and admire their sensibility. But if, in the middle of all these 
; demonstrations of grief, we see them suddenly cease from their sobs and cries, 
to a little lively conversation, enjoy a hearty laugh, and then betake themselves 
) their tears and sobs, we may take the liberty of doubting their sincerity. 
rith those beautiful houses and monuments that are left to perish by neglect. 

Litfip t\%A in ftll TimKflhilifv fppl vptv ItpptiIv nf. fTip timp thmifrli t.lip fpplincr nf crripf 



196 NEW ZEALAND. 

respected us none the less if, when we had captured a pah, we exercised the right of con- 
quest, and took that which we could not buy. Or even supposing that the first idea had 
proved impracticable, and the second unadvisable, it would not have been very dif&cult tD 
have induced a native artist to execute a duplicate which he could sell for a price whick 
would enrich him for life. 

Such sentiments are, I know, unpopular with the mass of those who only see tiie 
savage at a distance, which certainly, in the case of savage life, lends the only enchant- 
ment to the view that it can possess. But I believe them to be just and true, and know 
that the closer is our acquaintance with savage life, the more reason we have to be 
thankful for civilization. The savage knows this himself, and bitteriy feels his infc* 
riority. He hates and fears the white man, but always ends by trying to imitate him. 

To return to these monuments. In former times they existed in great numbers, aal 
even in more recent days those which survive are so characteristic of a style of art that 
may have taken its rise from ancient Mexico, that I should have been glad to transfer to 
these pages several more of Mr. Angas' sketches. 

It will be seen from several of the previous illustrations that the New Zealanders nnol 
possess much skill in architecture. The observant reader must have remarked that Ai 
art of house-building is practically wanting in Australia ; and that such should be tt^ 
case is most extmordinary, seeing that architectural skill is singularly developed 
the great Polynesian families. The New Zealander, whose country has much in com 
with Australia, is remarkable for the skill and taste which he displays in architectani 
and a short space will therefore be devoted to this subject. 

As is the case throughout Polynesia in general, the material used in house-building 
wood, and the various pieces of which a house is composed are fastened together not 
nails, but by ropes and strings, which in many cases are applied in a most elaborate 
artistic manner, beauty being studied not only in the forms of the houses and in 
carved patterns with wliich they are adorned, but in the complicated lashings with wl 
they are bound together. As, however, this branch of ornamental architecture is canifl^ 
to a greater extent in Fiji than in New Zealand, I shall reserve the details for tU 
description of the Fiji Islands. I 

The size of some of these edifices is very great. For example, in 1843 the Maoq 
converts built for themselves a place of worship large enough to contain a thousand pefe 
sons, and measuring eighty-six feet in length by forty-two in width. The size of tUJ 
edifice was evidently determined by the length of the ridge-pole. This was cut from i 
single tree, and was dragged by the natives a distance of three miles. The cross-lashind 
of the building were all ornamental, giving to it a peculiar richness of finish. 

We are, however, chiefly concerned with the domestic architecture of the Maorili 
Within each pah or enclosed village are a number of houses, each representing a famil^ 
and separated from each other by fences, several houses generally standing near each otiM 
in one enclosure. A full-sized house is about forty feet long by twenty wide, and is bdl 
on precisely the same principle as the tombs which have been just described, the actal 
house taking the position of the coflin, and being sheltered from the weather by a gali 
roof, which extends far beyond the walls, so as to form a sort of verandah. The roof ^ 
supported on separate posts, and does not, as with ourselves, rest upon the walls of tN 
house. The roof always projects greatly at the principal end of the house, in which flit 
door is situated, so that it forms a sort of shed, under which the members of the fami^ 
can shelter themselves from the sun or rain without going into the house. A gennili 
New Zealander has a great love for fresh air, and, as we have seen, will composedly it 
for a whole day on the wet ground in a pouring rain, although a house may be withn 
easy reach. Yet at night, when he retires to rest, he is equally fond of shutting himsd 
up, and of excluding every breath of fresh air. 

Indeed, the native does not look upon a house as a place wherein to live, but mere^ 
as a convenient shelter from the elements by day and a comfortable sleeping-plaoe h 
night. As soon as evening is near, a fire is lighted in the middle of the house, wbid 
fills it with smoke, as there is no chimney. The New Zealander, however, seems to b 



of a cold day, the whole party being enveloped in steam as they come into the 

le principal end of the house, under the verandah, is the entranca This strangely 
ts the gate of an Egyptian temple, being made of three large beams, the two side 
ghtly inclining to each other, and the third laid upon them. The aperture is 
r a sliding door, and at the side of the door is generally a square window, which 
closed in the same manner. In some large houses there were two of these 
i, one on either side of the door. 

^e roof is made with a considerable slant, the walls are seldom more than two or 
^ high where the roof touches them, though in the middle the house is lofty 
The roof is supported on the inside by one or two posts, which are always 
laborately, and almost invariably have the human figure as one of the ornaments 
^m. The ridge-pole is flattened and boardlike, and in good houses is carved and 
in patterns, usually of the spiral character. This board, as well as those which 

in different parts of the building, is made by hacking the trunk of a tree on both 
itil it is reduced to the required thickness, the native Maories having no tool 
in answer the purpose of a saw. 

he end of the ridge-pole, over the door, is carved a distorted human figure, 
I to represent the owner of the house, and recognised as such by the lines of the 

tattoo on its face, and generally having the tongue thrust out to an inordinate 

illustration on page 198 represents the most celebrated of all Maori houses, 
the war-house of the ruthless chief Eangihaeta, an edifice which fully expresses 
dous character of the builder. These houses are designed by chiefs in honour of 
eat victory, and are surrounded with wooden figures, which either represent in 
the leading warriors of the enemy who have been killed, or the victorious chief 
own warriors in the act of defying and insulting the enemy by thrusting out 
igues at thenL This house bears the ominous name of Kai-tangata, or Eat-man. 
illustration is taken from a sketch made by Mr. Angas, who describes the 
' as follows : 

i-tangata, or Eat-man House, is a wooden edifice in the primitive Maori style, of 
nensions, with the door-posts and the boards forming the portico curiously and 
sly carved in grotesque shapes, representing human figures, frequently in the most 
; attitade& ^e eyes are inlaid with pawa shell, and the tattooing of the faces is 
r col The tongues of all these figures are monstrously large, and protrude out 



198 



XEW ZEALAND. 



" Abos'e the centie of the gable-roofed portico is fixed a lai^e wooden head, elaborate 
tattooed, with hair and a beard fastened on, composed of dogs' tails. Within the boot 
is a carved image of most hideous aspect, that supports the ridge-pole of the root Tiit 
is intended to represent the proprietor, and is said by the natives to be entirely the vok 
of Kangiliftsta'a own hand." 

This figure, together with the pole that issues from the bead, may be seen in H 
illostration on page 122, which represents the interior of the house. On account of l| 




circumstance recorded in the beginning of this description, the ai*tist has been unable I 
draw a vast number of carvings which deconili^d this house, so that much of tl 
extraordinary elaboration is necessarily oniittcil 

Kangihacta displayed liis merciless disitosition in one of the unfortunate skirmiah 
which often took iihice Tietween the Mnories and the English, and which have aft«rwiH 
been equally ruf;rt'tted by both parties, the white men having generally oflVred l 
unintentional insult to the natives, ami the latter having resented it in the heat ( 
passion. On this occasion, a number of the white men liad been cajituivd by the Maoril 
under the two chief's [{angihaeta aiul Kaupiihara. wlio were related to each other \ 
marriage, the former having married a daugliter of the latter. Some time previons^ 
this woman had been accidently kill<-d by a chance shot, which, as a matter of course, hi 
relations insisted on considering as intentional. 

While tlie i^isoners and their captnrers wero standing together, another cluef name 
Puatia tried to make i>eace, saying that tho slain on both sides were about equal. Hi 
proposition was accepted, the lately o]>i>osing parties Rliook hands, and all would hn 



tted by Puatia, the cliief of Otawhao Pah, in order to commemorate the capture 
^tu on the east coast. Since Puatia died, the whole of this splendid pah was 
I tapu, and, in consequence, the buildings within it were given up to decay. Mr. 
ras fortunate enough to secure a sketch of the war-house before, like the rest of 
iings in the pah, it had entirely decayed. 

house itself is perhaps scarcely so neatly made as the Kai-tangata, but it 
great interest from the number of figures with which the beams, rafters, and 
B decorated. On either side of the verandah stand two huge wooden figures, 
ore intended to represent two chiefs who fell in battle, but who, as belonging 
Lctoiioos side, are represented with their tongues defiantly menacing the beaten 

figure that supports the central pole represents a chief who was one of the 
L warriors at the capture of Maketu. At the height of six and ten feet respec- 
n the same pole, are carvings which represent two other warriors, their moko, or 
[oing doty for the whole of the person. Still higher are a couple of figures 
dnig warriors, the upper figure appearing to stand on the roof itself. Just within 
or part of the gable is the figure of Pokana, a warrior who was living at the time 
ft fionae was built, and who is represented with a pipe in his mouth. Around the 
B nainbers of similar figures, each representing some well-known individual, and 
. aigiiification wliich is perfectly well understood by the natives. 
IB in this ruined pah of Otawhao that the disused wooden war-bell was found. 
ler owner, Puatia, was converted to Christianity before his death, and, while he 
within his pah, he had a school established for the purpose of disseminating 
lity, and used to call his people round him for the morning and evening prayers. 
IS been mentioned that, owing to the contempt with wliich the Maories regard 
Qg that pertains to the preparation of food, cooking is never carried on in the 
•houses. If possible, it is conducted in the open air ; but when the weather is too 
K) windy, a shed is employed. These cooking-sheds are built expressly for the 
and no one with any claims to rank ever enters within them. Were no shelter 
K)king-shed to be found within miles, the Maori cliief would not enter it, no 
ow severe the weather might be. 

coking-sheds are built very simply, the sides or walls being purposely made with 
ible interstices, so that the wind may pass freely between them. They are roofed 
ms, over which is placed a thatch of the raupo rush. As, among other articles 
iie putrid maize is prepared in these sheds, the European traveller is often glad 



1 "1 •« 1 



200 



NEW ZEALAND. 



are one or two of the ingenious and beautifully carved storehouses, in which food a 

Srotected from the rata, and ou one side is a great wooden tiki projecting from the gioimt 
uflt behind the large storehouse is seen the curious monument that marks the waki-tqio, 
or sacred burial-place of a chief, a half-canoe being planted in the ground andpuntel 
with elaborate patterns in red, the colour for mourning and war among the Sef 
Zealand ers. 

Groups of the native-s may be seen scattered about, conspicuous among whom it &i 
council that is sitting in the foreground, under the presidency of the seated chief, 




hani, or staff of office, marks liis dignity. A slave woman is seen working at her ti 
beating the flax-leaves ; and wandering promiscuously about the pah, or lying o 
asleep, are the pigs, with which every village swarms. 

We now come to tbe tools with which the Maori peri"onns all this wonderful 
of carpentering and carving. 

Looking at the resulta, we might naturally fancy that the dusky architect possessi 
goodly array of tools ; but, in fact, his tools are as few and simple as his weapons, i 
may be practically considered as two, the adze and tbe chisel In the accompanj 
illustration an example of each is drawn, the artist having taken care to select tbe 1 
and most valuable specimens ; the blades being formed from tbe precious green jade, i 
the bandies carved elaborately, so as to be worthy of the valuable material from vH 
the blades are shaped. 



T00I5. 



201 



t may be imagined, these tools oannot hare very sharp edges given to them, as the 
•aem of the stone would cause it to chip into an edge hke that of a bad saw, and in 
{uence the worst iron axe is a far better tool than the best specimen of green atone- 
that a Maori ever made. 

1 the light hand of the illustratioD is seen one of the common "tokis," or stone axes, 
'ere formerly so much used in building canoes. The specimen &om vhich it is 
1 is in my collection, and I have selected it for illustration because it gives so 
ent an idea of the stnicture of the tool, and the mode of fastening the blade to the 
a This is achieved in a very ingenious manner, and although it scarcely seems 
lie to secure the requisite firmness by a mere lashing of string, the Maori workman 
mtiived to attach the blade as firmly as if it had been socketed. 





R JADE ADZE AND CHISEL, AND COMMON STONE ADZE. 



still more simple example of the axe is seen on page 202. 

lis mode of fastening the blade to the handle prevails over the greater part 
e Polynesian group, and, although the elaboration of the lashings varies con- 
bly, the principle is exactly the same throughout The same plan prevails even in 
o, and there is in my collection a boat-builder's adze, the iron blade of which is 
1 to the socket in precisely the same manner, the only difierence being that split 
1 is employed instead of string. 

ae reader will notice the peculiar shape of the adze-edge, which is exactly that of the 
ir tooth of any rodent animal. Whether the maker intentionally copied the tooth is 
iul, but that he has done so is evident. 

ools such as these are necessarily imperfect ; yet with them the Maories patiently 
.ted the elaborate and really artistic designs which they once lavwhed on their 
ings, their canoes, their weapons, and their tools. They could not even make a 
ng-stick but they must needs cover it with carvings. There is in my collection a 
rkably fine example of such a walking-stick (see page 202), called in the Maori tongue 
j-toko," which was presented to me by Stiverd Vores, Eaq. As the reader may see 
the illostiataon, it is omament«d with six complete human figures, and a human face 



202 



NEW ZEALAND. 



on the knob of tbe handle. The portioiis of the stick that come between the figoi 
completely covered with carving, and the only plain surface is that which is inten< 
be grasped by the hand. 

The six figures are in three pairs, set back to 
and those of each pair exactly resemble one anoth' 
distinct gradation is obser\'ed in them, the uppennos 
having their faces most elaborately tattooed, the midil 
being less ornamented, and the lowermost pair having 
paratively simple tattoo. In the position of the headi 
is also a distinction, which I believe to have some signif 
known to the car\-er. The upper pair have the left hai 
on the breast, and the right hand pressed to the li\i: 
middle pair have the left hand still on the breast, and th 
fingers touching the throat ; while the lower figures ha\ 
handti clasped on the breast. 

All the figures are separated, except at the backs 
heads, tlie hips, and the heels, where they touch each 
so that the labour expended on this stick has been very ; 

■\Ve now take farewell of this interesting race — 
which is last waning away, and will soon perish alto 
No New Zealandcr will ever sit on the broken arc 
London Bridge, and contemplate the ruins of St, Paul's. 
Maori is fast disappearing, and in a comparatively few 
it is certain that not a iiaori of pure blood will be fo' 
the islands ; and before a century has elapsed, even the c 
teristic tattoo will be a remembrance of the past, of 
the only memorials will be the dried heads that havi 
preserved in European museums. It is pitiful that i 
race should be passing away ; biit its decadence earn 
arrested, and in a short time the ilaories will be as com] 
extinct as the people of the stone age. leaving nothit 
their manufactures as memorials of their existence. 
memorials, therefore, oiight to bo sedidoualy preser^-ed. 
piece of genuine native can-ing that can be found ii 
Zealand ought to be secured and brought to England, 
it can be preserved for future ages, and, with the ii 
specimens that are scattered in private houses throi 
the country, ought to be gathered together in some i 
museum, where they can be accessible to all who ii 
themselves in the grand science of anthropology. 




AJX. (Fnm mf MMIm. 



NEW CALEDONIA. 



HID DI1UCN8I0NS OF NEW CALEDONIA APPEABANCE AND DRESS OF THE NATIVES THE 

MASK ^NATIVE ARCHITECTURE SMOKE AND MOSQUITOES WARFARE — CURIOUS WEAPONS 

SLING AND THE SPEAR — MODE OF THROWING THE SPEAR — THE OUNEP, OR '^AMENTUM" 

K ANCIENTS SHAPE OF THE CLUB OBJECTS OF WAR — CANNIBALISM — THE KNIFE AND 

-DIET Ain) COOKERY IN GENERAL THE NOUGUI SPIDER — MODE OF DRINKING CHARACTER 

1 NEW CALEDONIANS — AN INGENIOUS THEFT THE KATA THE ISLE OF PINES, AND ITS 

TANTS. 

Australia is a tolerably large island known by the name of New Caledonia. It is 
y great extent, but is inhabited by a people who deserve a short notice in these 

Tew Caledonians are nearly black in colour, and in general form and appearance 
3 resemblance to the aborigines of Tasmania. They are, however, better looking, 
altogether a less savage aspect, probably on account of the comparatively regular 
)f food which they can obtain. They are of ordinary stature, but one man was 

measured rather more than six feet in height. His form, however, was ill 
ned. They wear scarcely any dress, the men having generally a single leaf 
Tom their girdles, or at the most a strip of soft bark answering the purpose of 
while the adult women wear a narrow fringed girdle, which passes several times 
b waist. 

hair is woolly and short, but at a distance many of them would be taken for 
ed people, in consequence of a habit of making artificial tresses some two feet 
1, out of grass and the hair of a bat. Some of these appendages are so long 
f fall to the middle of the back. Eound the head is sometimes tied a small 

wide meshes, and the chiefs wear an odd sort of a hat. These hats are 
al, and decorated with a large circular ornament at each side, a plume of feathers 
)p, and a long drooping tuft of grass and hair that hangs down the neck. The 
s no protection to the head, having no crown to it, and is only used as a mark 

latives also make a sort of mask, very ingeniously cut out of wood, having the 
pen and the eyes closed. The wearer looks, not through the eyes, but throiigh 
^rtmes which are made in the upper part of the mask. It is supposed that these 
re employed in war, when the combatants desire to disguise themselves from their 
ts. This, however, is only a conjecture. I have little doubt that the wooden 
scribed and figured by D'Entrecasteaux is nothing more than an ornament used 



204 NEW CALEDONIA. 

in the Dative dances. It is, in taxit, the "momo/' which is described by more i 
travellers. When complete, the "momo" is decorated with plumes of feathers, 
tufts of hair, and a thick, coarse network, which does duty for a beard, and desoeoi 
far as the knees of the wearer. 

A mask made in a precisely similar manner is used by the natives of Yancoi 
Island, but is employed by them in their dances. One of these masks is in my collet 
and will be described in the course of the work. 

Ear-ornaments of various kinds are in favour among the New Caledonians, and i 
of the natives enlarge the hole in the lobe to such an extent that it forms a longi 
the end of which falls on the shoulders. Occasionally, they try the elasticity of the 
too much, and tear it completely through. Anything seems to be worn in the ears, 
when a New Caledonian cannot find a suitable ornament, he fills up the ear with a 
or a roll of bark. They do not tattoo themselves, but draw black lines across the bi 
with charcoal, the lines being broad, and traced diagonally across the breast KebU 
of various kinds are worn, and these ornaments bear a certain resemblance to tfafl 
New Guinea, consisting principally of a twisted string, to which is suspended a 
or piece of bone, carved in a manner which the natives are pleased to oonsid 
ornamental. 

Although by nature the men possess thick and stiff beards, these hirsute oma] 
are generally removed, the hair being pulled up by the roots by means of a pair of 
used in lieu of tweezers. 

Architecture among the New Caledonians is infinitely superior to that of Anj 
and in some respects almost equals that of New Zealand. The houses are coaa^ 
shape, and often reach from ten to eleven feet in height in the middle. ^ 

The principle on which the huts are built is peifectly simple. The natm MJ 
begins by digging a hole in the ground, and planting in it a stout pole, some fiftall 
in length, and nine or ten inches in circumference. A number of smaller poles orij 
are set in the ground around the standard or central pole, their bases b^ng pltflj 
the earth and their tips leaning against the standard. Smaller branches are intonl 
among the rafters, and the whole is rendered weather-tight by dried herbage luW 
the walls. These simple walls are often several inches in thickness ; and as the B0 
spread thick mats on the floor, they are well sheltered from the weather. 

The entrance is very small, never above three feet in height, and on occasion oil 
closed with a rude door made of palm-branches. Some of the latter kind of httti I 
regular door-posts, on which are carved rude imitations of the human iaoe, Ai 
almost always kept burning inside the hut, not so much for the sake of wand 
for culinary purposes, as to form a defence against mosquitoes. Smoke, thereta 
encouraged ; and, though it may be the lesser of two evils, it forms a great drawhH 
the comfort of Europeans, who can defy the mosquitoes by their clothes, and can pi 
themselves at night by means of curtains. 

The central post of the house is mostly decorated with shells, and carved at tl 
into the shape of a human being. 

Each house is usually surrounded with a fence some four or five feet in heigh 
within the hut there is a curious piece of furniture which gives to the rude habii 
quite a civilized look. This is a wooden shelf, suspended by cords exactly lik 
hanging bookshelves. It is hung about four feet from the ground, but as the core 
very slight, it can support only a trifling weight. The native name for tins 
is " paite." 

We will now proceed from domestic to military life, and devote a small spj 
warfare among the New Caledonians. 

It is very remarkable that among these naked and peculiarly savage canniba 
should find two of the weapons of war which were in gi-eatest favour among the civ 
Bomans of the classic times. These are the sling and the javelin, the latter being ci 
a peculiar arrangement of a thong, so that, in point of fact, the New Caledonian w 
does not only sling the stone, but the spear also. 



THE SLING. 



205: 



1 take theae weapons in order, the sling coming fiist, as being the simpler of 
sapoDS. 

ostmction of the sling or " wendat," as the natives call it, is very simple, the 
ing merely a doubled thong with a pouch in the middle, in which the stone ia 
his pouch is made of two small cords laid side by side, and aa the smooth 
t slip out of it, the alinger always wets the missile in his mouth before placing 
x>uch. The stones are cut out of a hard kind of steatite, which can take a ■ 
li. They are oval in shape, and ate carefully ground down by friction, the 
oming vety smooth in the process. 




K«W CALBDOMIANB DBFEKDING THElk COAST. 



or forty of these stones are kept in a small not, which is fastened to the left 
: slinger. In the illustration one of the warriors is seen with his sling in his 

the net filled with stones fastened to his side. "When the slinger wishes to 
e, he does not waste time and strength by whirling the sling round and round, 

gives it one half turn in the air, and discharges the missile with exceeding force 
rful accuracy of aim. In consequence of only giving one half turn to the sling, 
can be hurled nearly as fast as they can be thrown by hand, and the weapon 
B an exceedingly formidable one in the open field when firearms are not 

it 

» come to the spear, or rather javelin. 

3apon is of very great length, some specimens measuring fourteen or fifteen 

butt to point ; and unless the warrior were able to supplement the natural 



i 



206 NEW CALEDONIA. 

strength of his arm by artificial means, he would not be able to throw the spear nan 
than a few yards. He has therefore invented an instrument by which he can htui flui 
long and imwieldly weapon to a considerable distance. The principle on which Ail 
insti-ument is formed is identical with that of the Australian throw-stick, but there ia |) 
difference in the application. The Australian throw-stick is straight, rigid, and is appl 
to the butt of the spear, whereas the implement used by the New Caledonian is fli 
elastic, and applied to a spot a little behind the middle of the spear. 

This instrument is ingeniously simple. It is nothing more than a plaited coid 
thong made of a mixture of cocoa-nut fibre and fish-skin. It is a foot or more in li 
and is furnished at one end with a knob, while the other is worked into a loop. 
elastic cord is called by the natives " ounep." "When the warrior desires to throw a 
he slips the loop over the forefinger of his right hand, and allows it to hang in reai 
for the spear. As soon as the time conies for the spear to be thrown, the man 
the weapon for a mouient so as to find the middle, and then casts the end of the 
round it in a sailor s half-hitch, drawing it tight with his forefinger. 

As long as pressure is thus ke])t upon the thong, it retains its hold of the spear; 
as soon as it is released, " the half-liitch " gives way and allows the spear to free i 
The mode of throwing is therefore evident, llie wanior holds the loop of the thong 
his forefinger, the rest of the hand grasping the spear. As he throws the weapon, 
loosens the hold of his hand, and so hurls the spear by means of the thong. 

The classical reader will doubtless remember that this thong or " ounep " is p: 
the " amentum " of the ancients, but is actually superior in its construction and 
lation. The amentum was simply a loop of cord or leather fastened to the shaft of 
javelin just behind the balance. When the warrior wished to throw a spear, he 
the shaft in his hand, inserted his fingers in the loop, and by means of the ad 
leverage was able to throw a heavy weapon to a considerable distance. See, for e 
Ovid's Metamorphoses, xii. 321 : 



C( 



Iiiserit nmoiito digitos, nee plura locntus, 
lu juvenem torsit jaculum ; 




in English, " He inserted his fingers into the amentum, and, without saying more, w 
the dart at the youth." Commentators have been extremely perplexed about this 
In the first place they were rather uncertain as to the meaning of the word ** amen' 
and in the second place, they could not see the force of the word " torsit," t.c. w' 
The reader will, however, see how perfectly appropriate is the term, the spear being 
with a whirling movement as a stone from a sling. The same word is used by 
" Intendunt acres arcus, amentaque torquent." Another writer also alludes to 
instrument : 

" Amentum digitis t^nde prioribus, 
Et totis jaciUum dirige viribus ; " 

i.e. "Stretch the amentum with your first fingers, and aim the javelin with your fiJi 
strength." 

Ingenious as was the amentum of the ancients, the ounep is far superior to it "Wlj 
the ancients a separate amentum had to be fixed to each spear, while among the Mis( 
Caledonians only one ounep is required. 

Besides these weapons, the club is much used, and great ingenuity is shown in 2 
manufacture. Tlie shape and size of the clubs are extremely variable, and in some fl 
them the natives have exhibited a surprising amount of artistic skill, the curves beil| 
singularly bold and flowing. One of these clubs, which is indeed a typical form, ia i 
my collection, and is figured in the illustration on the following page. The form of til 
head is evidently taken from the beak of a bird, and, as the reader may see, the com 
are exceedingly bold and sweeping. It is rather more than three feet in length, and i 
weighs almost exactly two pounds and a half 

War is in New Caledonia, as in New Zealand, the chief occupation of the men. Tfc 
first lesson that a child I'eceives is fighting, and the idea is prevalent with him as long i 
he lives. As soon as he is bom, the boy is consecrated to the god of war, and a har 



CANNIBALISM. 



207 



laid on his breast, as a s}mibol that his heart must be as hard as a stone in 
the women take a share in the fighting, and, though they are not actual 
dey follow their relatives to the battle, in order to seize the bodies of slain 
drag them away to the cooking-oven. Strife is 
bed by the priests from interested motives, inasmuch 
of the slain are their perquisites, and among the 
in cannibalism the palms of the hands are the most 
)ns of the human body. 

the New Caledonians are cannibals because they 

the body of a dead enemy being always supposed to 

he victors. There is mostly a fight over the body 

rrior, the one party trying to drag it away to the 

and the other endeavouring to save it for burial 

, however, the body is carried off by the women, 
task of cooking it. The preparation of the body 

^remonial, each part of it belonging by right to 

[duals, and even the carving being regulated by 

A peculiar kind of knife is made of flat serpentine- 
form, and about seven inches in length. Two holes 

one side of it, by means of which it is fastened to 

die. This knife is called *' nbouet." 

nbouet the body is opened, and the whole of the 

torn out by means of a fork made expressly for 

This fork is composed of two human armbones 

•y side, about an inch apart, and fastened tightly 

ey are sharply pointed, and are very effectual in- 

the purpose. Sometimes the bodies are cut up for 

in many cases they are baked entire, the women 

selves in serving them up in a sitting posture, 
dressed in full war costume. 

I, we see that cannibalism is connected with war- 

ifortunately it is not restricted to war. When 

itrecasteaux went in search of La PerousCy one of 

^ seen eating a newly-roasted piece of meat. The 

the expedition immediately recognised it as being 

►dy of a child. The man who was eating it did not 

ay the fact, but even pointed out on the body of a 

part of the body which lie was eating, and gave his 

ierstand that the flesh of children was veiy good. 

Lbalism of New Caledonia explained some curious gestures which the natives 
making. They used to be very familiar with their white visitors, feeling 

iid legs, looking at each other with admiration, and then whistling and 

ir lips loudly. In point of fact, they were admiring the well-fed limbs of 

n, and anticipating to each other the delights of a feast upon the plump 

^er, flesh is but a luxury among the New Caledonians, and cannot be con- 
ordinary article of diet, the natives depend chiefly for their existence on 

L Koots of various kinds are eaten bv them, as well as cocoa-nut and other 
cooking, as well as the work in general, being performed by the women. 

also much eaten, and are procured by the women. The large clam-shell is 
shores of the island, and supplies abundance of food ; while the smaller 

mostly dug out of the sand by women, who frequently spend half a day up 

3 in water. 

strange articles of diet are in use among the New Caledonians. The first is 

der, which spins large and thick nets in the woods, often incommoding 




NEW CALEDONIAN CLUB. 
(From my Collection. ) 



208 NEW CALEDONIA. 

travellers by the number and strength of the silken cords. They are not eaten raw, lit 
cooked by being placed in a covered earthen jar, which is set on a brisk fire. The natmi 
call the spider by the name of " noiigui." It is grey above, the back being covered with a 
fine silvery down, and below it is black. 

The second article of diet is clay, of which the natives will consume a great ai 
The earth in question is a soft greenish steatite, which crumbles very easily, and has 
property of distending the stomach, and so allays the cravings of hunger, even though; 
does not nourish the body. A well-distended stomach is one of the great luxuries 
a savage, and, in accordance with this idea, a man was seen to eat a piece of steatite ti 
as large as his fist, even though he had just taken a full meal. Some of the natives 
been known to eat as much as two pounds of this substance. A similar propensity i 
found both in Africa and America. 

When they drink at a pool or river, they have an odd fashion of dipping the 
with their hands, and flinging it into their mouths, so that much more water is spl 
over their heads than enters their mouths. 

With regard to the bodies of those who fall in war, and are rescued from the 
many ceremonies are employed. According to Captain Head, in his '* Voyage rf 
Fawnl* they are *' brought home with loud lamentations, and buried with great 
and shrieking from the appointed mourners, who remain unclean often for several 
after burying a great chief, and are subject to many strict observances. For weeks 
continue nightly to waken the forest echoes with their cries. After ten days have el 
the grave is opened, and the head twisted off; and, again in this custom resembling 
Andaman islanders, the teeth are distributed as relics among the relatives, and the 
preserved as a memorial by the nearest of kin, who daily goes through the form of 
it food. 

" The only exceptions are in the case of the remains of old women, whose teeth 
sown in the yam patches as a charm to produce good crops ; their skulls set up 
poles being deemed equally potent in this respect." 

Tlie general character of the New Caledonians seems to be tolerably good, audi,! 
spite of their evident longing after the flesh of their visitors, they are not on the 
inhospitable. They are clever thieves, and are ingenious in robbery by means 
accomplice. On one occasion, when a native was offering for sale a basket full of 
stones, and was chaffering about the price, an accomplice came quietly behind the 
man and uttered a loud yell in his ears. Naturally startled, he looked behind him, 
in a moment the man with whom he was trading snatched away the basket and the 
offered in exchange, and ran away with tlieuL 

One of the officers was robbed of his cap and sword in an equally ingenious 
He had seated himself on the ground, and for better security had placed his sword 
him. Suddenly one of the natives snatched off his cap, and as he instinctively tom 
rescue it, another man picked up his sword and escaped with it. They even tried to 
a ship's boat, together with the property in it, and would not leave it until they 
attacked by a strong body of armed sailors. 

They make very good canoes — as, indeed, is generally the case with islanders, 
largest canoes are mostly double, two boats being placed alongside of each other, 
connected by a platform. They have a single mast, which is stepped towards one end] 
the compound vessel, and can sail with considerable swiftness, though they are noi 
manageable as those of New Guinea, some of which are marvels of boat-building, 
can accommodate a considerable number of passengers, and have generally a tire bi 
on the platform, which is protected from the heat by a thick layer of earth. 

A rather remarkable custom prevails among them, which derives its chief intertill 
from the fact that it is practised in Northern Asia. This is the Kata, or scarf of felicity 
It is a little scarf, of white or red material ; and when two peraons meet they exchioM 
their katas — a cei'emony which is analogous to shaking hands among ourselves. ; 

Whether these savages are the aborigines of the island is doubtfuL If they be ill 
they seem to have declined from the comparative civilization of their ancestors. TUKI 
indeed, is their own opinion ; and, in support of this theory, they point to the ruins wbickj 



THE ISLE OF PINES. 

ME thirty miles to the south-east of New Caledonia, and in fact forming part of 
ne group, there is a small island, called by Captain Cook the Isle of Pines, in con- 
ce of the number of araucarias with which its hills are covered. The strait between 
le of Pines and New Caledonia Proper is nearly all shoal water, caused by the 
3US coral reefs. 

many respects the inhabitants of this island resemble those of New Caledonia, 
re not, however, so dark, and their features are tolerably good. They are cannibals 
tioice, wrapping up the bodies of the dead in banana leaves, and then cooking them 
18. Some years ago, they contrived to indulge their taste for human flesh at the 
e of their neighbours. 

out 1840, it was found that sandal-wood grew on the island, and several vessels 
ded thither for the sake of procuring this valuable product At firat they did so 
reat risk, and lost many of their men from the onslaughts of the natives. After- 
however, a Sydney merchant set up an establishment for the collecting and storing 
:Ial-wood and beches-de-mer, and since that time the natives have become quite 
ila 

course of this transitional time between utter barbarism and commerce, they 
I by painful experience the power of fire-arms. As soon as they became accustomed 
e, the first thing that they did was to procure a large stock of fire-arms, and to go 
h them to New Caledonia, where they landed, shot as many of the natives as they 
and brought their bodies home for consumption. It is true that a constant feud 
)etween the two islands, but the sudden acquisition of fire-arms gave the people of 
5 of Pines a terrible advantage over their hereditary foes, and enabled them almost 
ipnlate the south-eastern part of the island. 

jy care no more for dress than the New Caledonians, but are very fond of ornament, 
31 appropriating all the best decorations, and leaving the women to take what they 
;. The men friz their hair out as much as possible, and wrap a thin scarf round it, 
etimes cut it short, leaving only a tuft on one side of the head. The women shave 
whole of the hair, thus depriving themselves of their natural oniament, and ren- 
themselves very unprepossessing to European eyes. The rough work is done by 
the men reservine to themselves the noble occupations of war, fishing, house- 



THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 



CHArTER r. 



THE ANDAMAN AND NlCODAIl ISLANDS. 



POSITION OF TIIK ANDAMAN ISLANDS — ORIGIN O^ TllK NATIVF.S THEIR ROVING IlABITS AND I 

CLOTHING THKIR HATRED OP STRANGERS THE NATIVES AND TltK STEAMER APPF 

OF THE WOMEN THE ENORMOUS BOW AND SKILL OK THE MINCOPIE ARCILKRS VAHIOl" 

OF FISHING — EXCELLENCE OF THEIR CANOES, AND MODE OF MAKING THEM THE LONG ] 

THE ship's crew beaten by THE MlNCOPlE CANOE-MEN — CANNIBALISM NOT PRACI 

THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS INGENIOUS FIREPLACES AND METHOD OF COOKING WANT OF 

TECTURAL skill — EDUCATION OF THE CHILDREN, AND THEtR GAMES — POWEftS OF 8WI3 

MATRtMONIAL ARRANGEMENTS DEATH AND BURIAL — THE NiCOBAR ISLANDS — APPRARAM 

COSTUME OF THE INHABITANTS THE CROSS-BOW AND iTS ARROW A PRIMITIVE HAM 

TOMBS IN THE KICOBAR ISLANDS. 



We will now pass to the westward, and travel gradually througli the wonderful g: 
islands which extends almost from Asia to America, and which is known by the 
title of Polynesia. One or two of them will have to be omitted for the present, sc 
to break the continuity of races, but will be described before we pass upwards t 
America, from Tierra del Fuego to the Esquimaux. 

In the Bay of Bengal, and not much to the eastward of India, is seen a gi 
islands, named the Andamans. They are of considerable length, but very narrow, 
exceeding twenty miles in breadth, and are arranged very much after the fashion 
New Zealand islands, though on a smaller scale. Tlieso islands exhibit a phenc 
almost unparalleled in the history of the human race. 

They lie close to India, a country in which a high state of civilization has been i 
many centuries ago. They are almost in the middle of the tmck which is travel 
multitudes of ships, and yet their inhabitants are sunk in the deepest depths of 
degradation. Even the regular visits made by the Cliinese Vessels to the Andaman 
for the purpose of procuring the trepang, have had not the least effect upon thei 
they aflTord perhaps the most perfect example of savage life which the surface of tli 
can show. 

The origin of the Andamaners is a problem to anthropologists. They are si 
stature, the men being on an average but little above five feet in height, and the 
being still smaller. They are very dark, but have scarcely anything except theii 
in common with the negro. Tliey have neither the huge projecting jaws and cai 
mouth of the true negro^ nor his curiously-elongated heel ; and though they are s 



I'd, is unknown to them ; and there seem to be few restrictions of consanguinity, a 
and her daughter being sometimes the wives of the same husband, 
thing is entirely unknown to them ; and when captives have been taken, they have 
found clothes to be an incumbrance to them, though they were pleased with gaudy 
irchiefs tied round their heads. The only covering which they care for is one which 
hare in common with many of the pachydermatous animals, and employ for 
le purpose. It is nothing more than a layer of mud, with which the natives plaster 
Ives in the morning and evening, in order to defend themselves from the attacks of 
squitoes, sandflies, and other insect plagues. 

til the last few years our knowledge of the Andamaners has been almost nil, in 
aence of their hatred of strangers, and the determined opposition which they oflFer 
foreigners landing on their shores. The very presence of a boat or a ship seems to 
them to frenzy. In Captain Mouatt's valuable account of these islands is an 
ed description of a scene which occurred off the coast. 

J steamer, on rounding a point, came suddenly upon two groups of savages, who 
b first paralysed by fear at the sudden apparition of the unknown object, with its 
A of white steam roaring from the escape-pipe, its smoke, and its plashing paddfes. 
w moments they recovered from their surprise, and raised a simultaneous shout of 
e. Two boats' crews were sent ashore, to the extreme anger of the Mincopies. 
peculiar natural phenomenon rendered the scene still more striking and impressive 
interval between the two parties, the savage and the civilized, was gradually 
shed by the onward motion of the boats. The spray as it rose in clouds from the 
rs dashing on the shore, reflecting the rays of the declining sun, magnified con- 
ly the slight figures of the natives, making massive and formidable giants of men 
3re in reality little more than sable dwarfs. As the cutters neared that part of the 
inhere they had stationed themselves, and they clearly perceived that we were 
r preparations to land, their excitement was such that they appeared as if they had 
ly become frantic. 

hey seemed to lose that restraint and control which it is the pride of the savage to 
- in time of danger, and jumped and yelled like so many demons let loose from the 
less pit, or as if there had been a Bedlam in that locality, and they the most 
ageable of its frantic inmates. Their manner was that of men determined and 
ible in the midst of all their excitement. They brandished their bows in our 
m ; they menaced us with their arrows, said by common report — so often a liar- — 
oisoned ; exhibiting by every possible contortion of savage pantomime their hostile 






212 



THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 



The second part; of natives, who turned out to be females, were as frightened as Urar 
male friends were angry. After several failui-es in laxincliing a canoe, they rushed ini 
Imdy to the jungle anil liid themselves from the strangers. They exhibited the usual 
characteristics of the people, a basket for fish doing duty for clothes, and a patch of ral 
ochre on their heads taking the place of hair. So repulsive were they in their appeannn, 
that the sailors declined to leave mirrors on the shore as presents for them, saymg to 
such hideous creatiiri's niiijlit iirrt to he nllnwoil to lonk at thfir own features. 




Tlie weapons with which the Mincopie men threatened the strangers are really 
midable, and before voiy long the exjdoiing party learned to hold them in great respec 
The bows are sometimes six feet long and enonnoualy powerful, — so powerful in (a 
that the strongesWsailors tried in vain to bend the weapons wliich the pigmy Miucopi) 
handled with such skilful ease. 

The shape of the bow is very pecidiar. Instead of being nearly cylindrical, large* 
in the middle and tapering regularly to each end, it is nearly flat except at thf liiiiiciil 
on either side of which it becomes very broad. In fact, a good idea of it may be tat 
from a flattened hour-glass, the channel in the middle being the handle. The shape 
these bows can be seen by reference to the illustration, in whicli a couple of men t 
prejiariug to shoot. 

The force and accuracy with which these tiny men can shoot are really wonJerfd 
They very seldom fail to hit their mark at any reasonable distance, and can inu 
tolerably sure of a man at sixty or seventy yaixls, so tljat the Mincopie bow is reallj 
far better weapon than the old " Brown Bess " musket ever was. 



VARIOUS MODES OF FISHING. 213 

One arrow that was shot at a boat's crew at a distance of sixty yards struck a hickory 
and knocked oflF a piece of wood as lai'ge as a man's hand. 

These arrows are very neatly made. They are about three feet in length, and are 
e of a reed by way of shaft, to the end of which is fastened a piece of hard wood in 
r to give weight. Upon this tip is fixed the head, which is usually the barbed tail- 
j of the sting-ray, and sometimes, though not always, poisoned. Should this terrible 
x»n enter the body, it cannot be removed without a severe operation, the sharp 
le barbs being apt to snap ofiF and remain in the woimd if any force be used in 
icting the arrow. 

?heir consummate skill in the use of the bow is obtained by constant practice from 
est infancy. As is the assagai to the KaflEir, tlie boomerang to the Australian, and the 
' to the Guacho, so is the bow to the Andamaner. The first plaything that a Mincopie 
sees is a miniature bow made for him by his father, and, as he advances in age, bows 
ogressive strength are placed in his hands. Consequently, he is so familiarized with 
weapon that, by the time he is of full age, the pigmy Andamaner draws with graceful 
a bow which seems made for a giant 

J'runbers of the toy bows and arrows may be seen scattered about an encampment if 
latives are forced to leave it in a hurry, and their various sizes show the ages of the 
Iren to whom they belonged. The education of the Mincopie archer is in fact almost 
iaely like that of the old English bowmen, who, from constant practice in the art, and 
5 trained fiom childhood in the use of the bow, obtained such a mastery of the 
Mm as made them the terror of Europe. 

loiiig such skilful archers, they trust almost entirely to the bow and arrow, caring 
> toot any other weapon. Even the harpoon, with which they catch the larger fish, is 

ftmn tiie powerful bow. It is, in fact, a very large arrow, with a moveable head. 
i Jbead fits loosely into a hole at the end of the arrow, and is secured to the shaft by 
OB^. It 18 a veiy remarkable fact that the bow and harpoon arrow of the Mincopies 
llBiO0t Qzactly like those which are used by the inhabitants of Vancouver's Island. 
f wn twice as large, but in shape almost identical, as will be seen when we come to 
north of America 

Wlien they use the harpoon, a long and elastic cord is attached to it, one end of 
eih is retained by the archer. The cord is made from a fibre which has the useful 
perty of hardening by being soaked in water. For killing the fish when held with 
i haipoon the Mincopies use smaller arrows, without barbs or moveable heads^ 
In the illustration the natives are seen engaged in their usual pursuits. In the fore- 
wmd a number of men are employed in fishing. They are very expert fishermen, 
id use nets which are made from the same fibre that has been mentioned. For small 
ih they make the nets of rather thin but very tough string, but for turtle and large 
A they make nets of cord as thick as a man's finger. One side of the net is held to 
ke bed of the sea by heavy stones laid on it, and the other is upheld by floats. The 
Kainthe foreground have just caught a large fish in this net, and are holding the 
hggling captive while a companion stuns it by a blow on the head. 

In the teckground are seen a number of women searching for molluscs, a business 
tell occupies a considerable amount of their time. They always cany neat baskets, in 
Aich to put the results of their industry, and each woman has generally a small net 
ted to a handle, like that which is used by butterfly collectors. 

■ The centre of the illustration is occupied by two canoes. In nothing do the 
Uamaners show their skill more than in canoe-making. Their bows and arrows are, 
•we have seen, good specimens of savage manufacture, but in the making and manage- 
laat of canoes they are simply unapproachable, even though their tools are of the rudest 
Nttible description. 

Furnished merely with a simple adze made of a stone fixed into a handle, the 
IBacopie boat-maker searches the forest for a suitable tree, and after a week or ten days 
■weeds in bringing it to the ground. The rest of the process is so well described by 
^Kftoin, Monatt, that it must be given in his own words. 

"The next operation is to round the trunk, a process which they perform with remark- 



214 THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 

able dexterity, it being almost impossible to conceive how, with the impeifect instruments 
at their command, they execute their work with so much skill and neatness. Practice, 
however, must render them, as well as others, perfect ; and hence it is that in a short time 
the rough and shapeless trunk begins to assume form and proportions ; and, when the 
process is finished, exhibits a finish and perfection that even a Chinese carpenter, by far 
the most handy and ingenious of human * chips/ would regard with a feeling of envy, 
as a work of dexterity which it would be vain for him to attempt to imitate. 

** As soon as the trunk has been rounded, they commence the operation of cutting and 
chipping at it externally, until eventually the outlines of the elegant canoe begin to appear 
from the shapeless mass of the knotted tnink, just as, by the skill of the statuary, the 
beautiful figure gradually assumes its fair proportions in the block of marble. The 8lia|je 
externally is generally finished with gi'eat care and elaboration before they proceed to 
hollow it internally, the next process to which they direct their attention. The interior is 
excavated in the same perfect and business-like manner, until the shell is no thicker than 
the side of a deal bonnet-box, altholigh it still preserves that strength wliich would emUe 
it to resist successfully the utmost tbrce and violence of the waves, should it even be 
assailed by a storm — a thing not at all probable, as, unless carried out to aea by aome 
accident, it is rare that the Andamaners venture far from the shore. 

*' The buoyancy of these boats, when they ai*e well constructed and carefully finidied, 
is remarkable. They float lightly on the top of the waves, and, unless they have xeoei?ed 
some injuiy, it is considered almost impossible to sink them. We sometimes made the 
attempt, but never succeeded. We fired at them repeatedly when at Port Mouatfe— wbidi 
may \)e regarded as a sort of Andaman Pembroke-yard, where a fleet of Minoopie men- ■ 
of- war were lying in every stage of prepamtion — but they still floated with as giett em 
and buoyancy as ever. They would make excellent life- boats, such, we believe, as have 
never yet been constructed by any of our most experienced boat-builders." 

Near shore the boatmen paddle about with peiiect ease in these fragile vesaeb, tlioagk 
a European can hardly proceed twenty yards without being upset. When they gofinther 
to sea they add a light outrigger to one side of the canoe, and then venture forty or fifty 
miles from land. They always, in such cases, take ^iv with them, which has the dooUe 
advantage of attracting the fish at night, and of cooking them when taken. Sometimes : 
a number of boats will remain all night at sea, and the e^'ect of their fires and toichfis ii 
very picturesque when seen from the land. 

The outrigger is certainly a new invention. The earlier travellers, who were always 1 
minute enough in their accounts, did not mention the outrigger, and, as far as caa be ] 
seen, the idea has been bori*owed from some Cingalese canoe wliich had got into a GimeDt i 
and been drifted towards the island 1 

The paddles are rather peculiar in their form, and, apparently, very ineffective, looking 1 
something like long spoons with flattened bowls, or, on a smaller scale, the " peels " with 
which bakers take bread out of their ovens. Tlie women are the paddle-makei-s, antl the 
implements vary from three to four feet long. They are cut from a very hanl wood, and 
the work of making them is necessarily laborious. 

Imperfect as the canoe and paddles seem to be, they are in fact absolute marvels of 
efficiency. The tiny Mincopies, furnished with these simple paddles, and seated in a canoe 
cut by themselves out of a tree trunk, can beat with ease our best oarsmen. Captaia 
Mouatt got up several races between the Mincopies and his own prize crew in their 
favourite boat. In point of fact there was never any race at all, the Andamaners having 
it all their own way, and winning as they liked. The powerful, sweeping stroke of the 
man-of-war's crew was beautiful to see, but the little il in copies shot tlu-ough, or rathff ; 
over, the water with such speed that the sailors were hopelessly beaten, although they j 
strained themselves so much that they felt the results of their exertions for some tinn 
afterwards. 

Slight, and almost as active as monkeys, the Mincopies ascend the tallest treei 
with the like agility, applying the soles of their feet and the palms of their handi 
to the trunk, and literally ninning up them. When they reach the branches, th^ 
tmvei'se them with as much ease and security as if they were on finu land. Indeed, their 



THE OVEN TKEE 



215 



■vers of tree-clioibiDg seem to be equal to those of the inliabit&nts of Doui^ga Strait, 
whom we shall presently read. 

We nOT come to a question which has often been agitated, namely, the asserted 
mibaliam of the And&uuiners. ' 

It is a questi(m that every observant reader would be sure to ask himself, as the 
idamaners are just such a savage race as might be expected to feed habitually on human 
Sea. Yet, though we iind the comparatively civilized New Zealauder sharing with the 
«ge New Caledonian the habit of eating human flesh, the Mincopie, who is infinitely 




ANDAMANEiiS COOKrNfi 



ow the New Zealantlor, and certainly not above the New Caledonian, is free from tliat 
oltiug practice. He undoubtedly has been known to eat human flesh, but only when 
Ed by extreme hunger to eat the flesh of man or to die; and in so doing he has but 
an example which has been followed by members of the most civilized countries. 
That they are fierce and cruel towards foreigners is true enough, and it is also true 
t the bodies of those whom they have killed have been found frightfully mutilated, tlie 
:h being almost pounded from the bones by the blows which have been showered upon 
i senseless clay in the blind fury of the savage. But no attempt has been made to 
tove any part of the body, and it was evident that the victors had not even entertained 
t idea of eating it. 

The food of Ibe Andamaners is tolerably varied, and is prepared in a veiy simple and 
■eniouB oven. A large tree is selected for this purpose, and fire is applied to it at the 
ttom, so that by degrees a large hole is burned in it, the charred wood being scraped 
ray BO 88 to form eventually a large hole. This is the Mincopie oven, and at the bottom 
heq> of ashes, about three feet in dejith, is nlwnys left. Tlie fire smoulders away 



216 THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 

gradually among the ashes, and never entirely goes out ; so that whenever a native wi 
to cook his pig, turtle, or fish, he has only to blow up the smouldering embers, m 
a few moments he has fire sufficient for his purposes. 

These oven-trees are very carefully preserved, the natives never cutting them 4 

and always managing to prevent them from being entirely burned through. In the i 

^tratiifa*^' the preceding page one of these trees is shown, with the fire burning in 

J^^lft^/and the natives sitting round it. The M incopies always contrive to have the o 

of the oven in such a direction that the rain cannot get into it and put out the & 

Pigs have heeh mentioned as forming part of the Andamaners' food These pigf 
small and black, with spare, hard bristles, that look like pieces of wire. Thej 
wonderfidly active, and, according to Captain Mouatt, " are the most curious and 
chievous little animals in creation. They have a leer that makes them look so i 
Mephistopheles, who have chosen to assume that peculiar form, in many respects a 
appropriate one, for, if they are not so many little devils, they are certainly posa 
by theuL 

" At the time of our visit to the Cinque Islands, we turned out a dozen of them, 
our unwonted appearance filling them with alarm, they ran off from us with the vel 
of an Indian express train, squeaking like mad. We set off and had a regular hunt 
them — a hunt that beats to chalks the most exciting scene of pig-sticking ever se 
Bengal. After discharging their rifles, some of the hunters would probably find the 
between their lega^ making them measure their length on the sand. The falls were 
with considerable violence, though they were not dangerous, for they only excitec 
risible faculties ; aAd as each one came down he was greeted with a loud and hearty 
of laughter, as a sort of congratulation to him in his misfortune." 

The architecture of the Andamaners is very primitive. Four posts are stuck i 
ground in the form of a square, and the builder is quite indifferent as to their straigh 
Two of them are much longer than the others, so that when they are connected by 
a sloping roof is formed. Palm-leaves are then placed upon them, one lying ovi 
other in tile fashion, so that they form a protection from perpendicularly falling rail 
number of these huts are generally erected in a circle, in some cleared space in the i 
which is sheltered by large trees, and within a convenient distance of water. One c 
of these simple houses may be seen in the illustration. 

Primitive as are these huts, some attempt is made at ornamenting them, the decor 
being characteristically the trophies of the chase. Skulls of pigs and turtles, bunc 
fish-bones, and similar articles are painted with stripes of red ochre, and hung to there 
the huts. Ochre-painting, indeed, seems to be the only idea that the Andamaners h: 
ornament, if perhaps we except a string which the dandies tie roimd the waist, 1 
a piece of bone or other glittering article hanging from it. 

This ochre is in great request among the Mincopies, the women being especially 
of it by way of a decoration of their heads. As has already been mentioned, they 
the head completely, using, instead of a razor, a piece of flint chipped very thin, and 1 
a sharp edge. They are wonderfully adroit at making these primitive knives, whi( 
exactly like those of the stone age. The hair having been scraped off, a tolerably 
plastering of red ochre is rubbed on the head, and the toilet of a Mincopie hj 
complete. 

Not only is the ochre used for external application, but it is administered intei 
What is good for the outside, the Mincopie logically thinks will be equally good i 
inside. So, when he feels ill, he makes a sort of bolus of red ochre and turtle-oil, sw 
it, and thinks that he has cured himself Wounds are dressed by binding certain 
upon them, and in many cases of internal pains, bruises, or swellings, scarificat 
freely used. Certain individuals enjoy a sort of reputation for success in the trea 
of disease, and are much honoured by the less skilful. 

It has already been mentioned that marriage is nothing more than taking a : 
slave. 

Wlicn a wife becomes a mother, the only treatment which she receives is, thai 
the birth of her child she is plentifully rubbed with the red ochre and turtle-oil, ) 



mily which could scarcely have been expected from such a race. 
)een already mentioned that the boys amuse themselves chiefly with small 
rrows, having these toys of a continually increasing size to suit their growth. 
3 fond of disporting themselves by the sea-shore, and buUding sand houses for 
) knock down, precisely as is done by the civilized children of Europe. Their 
ment is to build an enclosure with walls of sand, and to sit in it as if it were 
their own until the rising tide washes away the frail walls. Both sexes are 
aming, and as soon as they can walk the little black children are seen running 
; of the water, and, if they can pick some sheltered spot free from waves, they 
im like so many ducks. A Hindoo, named Pooteeah, who was taken prisoner 
copies, and his life spared for some reason or other, states that they are such 
immers that several of them will dive together among the rocks, search for 
revices, and bring their struggling captives to shore. This statement was dis- 
those to whom it was made, as were several other of his accounts. As, 
bsequent observations showed that he was right in many of the statements 
at first disbelieved, it is possible that he was right in this case also. 
ti, by the way, was furnished with two wives, mother and daughter, and, as he 
le ordinary size. Captain Mouatt expresses some curiosity as to the appearance 
suy. He made his escape from the island before the birth of a child that one 
was expecting, and, as the Mincopie mothers are remarkable for their affection 
.1 children, it is likely that the little half-caste was allowed to live, and that a 
t may thus be introduced into the race. 

ve more than once made use of their swimming powers in escaping from 
Several instances have been known where Andamaners have been kept pri- 
►ard ship, and have seemed tolerably reconciled to their lot. As soon, however, 
aeared land, they contrived to escape for a moment from the eye of the sentry, 
'board, and swam to land. They always dived as soon as they struck the 
I as far as they could without rising to the surface, and then, after taking a 
ration, dived again, and so swam the greater part of the distance under water. 
>f swimming was doubtless practised by them when trying to escape from the 
I unfriendly party. 

ain Syme's ** Embassy to Ava " there is a curious account of two young 
rls who had been decoved on board the ship. They were treated very kindly. 



'218 THE NICOBAE ISLANDS. 

" In the middle of the night, when all but the watchman were asleep, they j 
silence into the captain's cabin, jumped out of the stem windows into the sea, ai 
to an island half a mile distant, where it was in vain to pursue them, had there 1 
such intention ; but the object was to retain them by kindness, and not by compu 
attempt that has failed on every trial. Hunger may (and these instances are raw 
them to put themselves into the power of strangers ; but the moment that their 
satisfied, nothing short of coercion can prevent them from returning to a way of 1 
congenial to their savage nature." 

like many other savage races, the Mincopies make a kind of festivity on e 
moon ; and as soon as the thin crescent appears they salute it after their odd fasli 
get up a dance. Their dances are rather grotesque, each performer jumping up ai 
and kicking himself violently with the sole of his foot, so as to produce a smart 
sound. This is the dance which is mentioned in the preceding account of 
captives. 

When a Mincopie dies, he is buried in a very simple manner. No lamentat 
made at the time ; but the body is tied in a sitting position, with the head on th 
much after the fashion employed among the l^echuanas (see Vol. I.). It is thei 
and allowed to decay, when the remains arc dug up, and the bones distributed an 
relatives. The skull is the right of the wddow, who ties it to a cord and hangs 
her neck, where it remains for the rest of her life. This outward observance is, 1 
all that is required of her, and is the only way in which she troubles herself to be 
to the memory of her dead husband. 

It is rather strange that, though the Andamaners make no lamentations on t 
of a relative, they do not altogether dispense with these expressions of sorrow, 1 
pone them to the exhumation and distribution of the relics, when each one wl 
bone howls over it for some time in honour of the dead. 



THE NICOBAR ISLANDS. 



Immediately to the south of the Andaman Islands, and barely thirty miles 
lie the Nicobar Islands. The group consists of nine tolerably large islands, am 
of much smaller size. One of the large islands, called Great Nicobar, is twen 
long by eight wide, while Little Nicobar is barely half these dimension& 

The islands are singularly fertile, and abound in various kinds of vegetation, et 
in the cocoa-nut palm, not a specimen of which is to be found in the Andaman 
This curious fact is accounted for by the character of the Andamaners, who ] 
almost superstitious love for the cocoa-nut. If one of the nuts be washed ashc 
always broken up and eaten ; and if perchance one of the fruit happens to esc 
sharp eyes of the natives and to germinate, its green feathery shoots are sure U 
the attention of the first Mincopie who passes in that direction. A similar barrie 
production of the cocoa-nut is found on the coast of Australia. 

Although so close to the Andaman Islands, the inhabitants of Nicobar are vcr} 
the Mincopies, being a fine tall race, and of a co})per rather than a black hue. 
the Mincopies, the men are very fat, especially about the breast, so that at 
distance they might easily be mistaken for women. Moreover, they wear the hoi 
and parted in the middle, which, to the eyes of a modern European, gives them a j 
effeminate look. They wear neither beard nor moustache, their features are ug 
their large mouths are stained a dark red from the juice of the betel-nut, which t) 
continually chewing. 

There is one distinction, however, which is apparent at a considerable distam 



CAPTAIN CAMPBELL'S ACCOUNT. 



219 



rJothea, the men wear a strip of cloth, never more than two inches wide. This is 
nond the waist, nnder the legs in front, and tucked through itself behind, the end 
eft as long as possible. The men place great value on the length of this tail, and 
le best dressed man who wears it the longest. Some of the wealthy among them 
le tail dn^ging along the ground for several feet, like a European lady's train. If 
e, this tail is made of bine cloth, an article that is held in very high estimation by 
jves. — 




A SCEKE IN THE NICOBAR ISLANDS. 



Ik women are quite as ill-favoured as the men, and increase their natural ugliness 
■rinj; off all their hair. Tlipy do not wear tails like the men, hut have a plaited 
gndle, from which depends a soft fibrous fringe about a foot in depth. 
M character of the Nicobarians is far gentler than that of the Mincopies, the latter 
[ prorerbially fierce and cruel towards strangers, and the former soon learning to 
■e foreigners when they have made up their minds that no harm is intended them. 
w Campbell, to whom I am indebted for most of the information respectinf* these 
B,lb<ind them very agreeable and hospital>le, ready to barter, and always welcoming 
A tlwir houses. 



220 THE NICOBAE ISLANDS. 

After a short time, even the women and children, who had at first been scru 
concealed, after the manner of savages, came boldly forward, and were as hospi 
the men. On one occasion, while paying a visit to one of their huts, Captain C 
tried to make friends with one of the children, all of whom were terribly frigh 
the white face of their visitor. Finding that no response was made to his adv£ 
pulled the child from his hiding-place, and held him for a little time, in spit 
struggles. The mother made no opposition, but laughed heartily at the s 
evidently feeling that no harm was intended towards her little one. 

The native weapons of the Nicobarians are very curious. As the people are 
warlike character like the Mincopies, their weapons are used almost exclusively fo 
game. The most formidable is a tolerably large spear headed with iron, which 
for killing hogs, and is thrown like the assagai of Southern Africa. They hav 
smaller javelin for fish-killing, and a number of many-pointed hand-spears for t 
purpose. Tlie most remarkable of their weapons is a cross-bow, which is almost 
like that of the Fan tribe of Africa. It is not very powerful, and only propels 
arrow. Its chief use is in killing birds. 

Besides these weapons, every man carries a cutlass-blade from which the 
been removed, and a handle roughly made by wrapping some six inches of the b 
cocoa-nut fibre. " Ifc ii intended not so much as a weapon as a tool, and with it the 
cut down trees, carve their canoes, and perform similar operations. 

The architecture of the Nicobarians is infinitely superior to that of the M: 
an^ is precisely similar in character to that which is found among the inliabitanU 
Guinea, the home of the Papuan race. 

The native architect begins by fixing a number of posts in the ground, and 
on them a platform of split bamboo. Over this platform he builds a roof shaped 
like a beehive, and his house is then complete. The bamboo platform is the floe 
hut, and, being elastic as well as firm, serves also for a bed. To this hut th 
ascends by a primitive sort of ladder, and passes into the chamber through a hoi 
the floor. The sides of the hut are adorned with the skulls of hogs, intermix 
spears, knives, bows, and anx)ws. The huts are kept peculiarly neat and clean. 

A rather remarkable use is made of the hut. The open space between the f 
the ground is far too valuable not to be utilized, as it affords a cool and airy shell 
the sunbeams. Under this floor is suspended a primitive sort of hammock, wl 
board about six feet in length, slung by ropes. In, or rather on, this very uncon 
hammock the Nicobarian likes to lounge away his time, dozing throughout the h 
of the day, sipping palm wine at intervals, and smoking without cessation. In 
seem to have got again among the inhabitants of Western Africa, so similai 
chamcter of the Nicobarian to that of the negro. 

The canoes of the Nicobarians are not so beautifully formed as those of the Mi 
but are constructed on the same principle, being hollowed out of the trunks of ti 
supported by a slight outrigger. They have a very high and ornamental prow, 
propelled by short paddles. They are very light, and, when properly manned, sk 
the water at an astonishing pace. Some of them are nearly sixty feet in lengt 
others are barely six or seven feet long, and only intended for one person. 

The mode of burial is not in the least like that which is employed among t 
copies. When a man dies, the body is placed in a cofiin, which is generally ma 
a canoe. The canoe is cut in half, the body being laid in one moiety, and covei 
the other half. In order to supply the deceased with provisions for his joume 
spirit-land, a pig is killed and placed in the coffin, together with a supply of ya 
cocoa-nuts. In case he should be attacked on his journey, a quantity of weapons, 
bows, spears, and cutlasses, are placed in the coffin. 

The body is buried in the middle of the village, and the spot marked by a i 
which is attached a small streamer. After some time, when the body has been co 
by the earth, the coffin is dug up again. The deceased being now supposed to ha^ 
pleted his journey to his spirit-home, his bones are thrown into the bush, and the c 
and other weapons distributed among his relatives. 



NEW GUINEA. 



CHAPTER I. 



t HOMB OP THK PAPUAN RACK — DISTINGUISHING MARKS OP THR RACF. — DERIVATION OP THR 
XAVB — GKNKRAL CHARACTER OP THE PAPUANS — THK SIGN OP PKACR— AN UNFORTUNATE MI8- 

ITNDERSTANDING DRESS AND ORNAMENTS OF THK TRIBES OP DOURGA STRAIT THEIR AGILITY 

AUOyQ THE TREES — THE OUTANATA TRIBES — TATTOOING AND ORNAMENTS — ELABORATE ARCHI- 
TECTURE ^WEAPONS— THE DUST SIGNALS AND THEIR MEANING — THEIR UNSUSPICIOUS NATURE^ 

ABRAUW, THE CHIEF. 

j^now come to the very home and centre of the Papuan race. 

New Guinea is a very large island, fourteen hundred miles in length, and, as far as has 
ascertained, containing some two hundred thousand geographical square miles. It is 
from Australia only by Torres Strait, and, as we have seen, a certain amount of 
)urse has taken place between the Papuans of the south of New Guinea and the 
who inhabit the north of Australia. Fertile in the vegetable kingdom, it possesses 
[fir two animals which have the greatest interest for the naturalist, such as the tree- 
>, the crowned pigeon, and the bird of paradise. It is equally interesting to the 
rfogist as being the home of the Papuan race. 
Taken as a race, they are very fine examples of savage humanity, tall, well-shaped, and 

Li* 

they are remarkable for two physical peculiarities. The one is a roughness of the 
^ and the other is the growth of the hair. The reader may remember that some of the 
tea of Southern Africa have the hair of the head growing in regular tufts or patches, 
k about the size of a pea. 

It is a remarkable feet that, in the Papuan race, the hair grows in similar patches, 
» instead of being short like that of the South African, it grows to a considerable 
jjh, sometimes measuring eighteen inches from root to tip. The Papuans are very 
id of this natural ornament, and therefore will seldom cut it off ; but as, if left un- 
led, it would fall over the eyes, they have various modes of dressing it, but in most 
R manage to make it stand out at right angles from the head. Sometimes they take 
hair of each patch separately and screw it up into a ringlet. Sometimes they tease 
all the hairs with a wooden comb of four or five prongs, and, as the hair is very coarse 
stiff, it is soon induced to assume a mop-like shape, and to increase the apparent size 
he head to an enormous extent 

Indeed, the word Papua is derived from this peculiarity of the hair. In the Malay 
inage, the word which signifies " crisped " is piuz-pua, which is easily contracted into 
ma. Even the hair of the face grows in similar patches, and so does tljat on the 
at of the man, and in the latter case the tufts are much further apart than on the 
[ or face. 



222 NEW GUINEA. 

The colour of the Papuans is a very dark chocolate, sometimes inclining to black, b 
having nothing in common with the deep shining black of the negro. Their featuM | 
large and tolerably well made, though the nose is very broad at the wings, and the 
wide. The nose, however, is not flat like that of the negro, but is prominent, 
arched, and descends so low that when seen in front the tip nearly reaches the 
lip. The natives seem to be perfectly aware of this peculiarity, and perpetuate it in 
carvings. 

Although, taken as a whole, they are a fine race, there are many diversities amoogj 
different tribes, and they may be divided into the large and small tribes. The 
are powerfully built, but more remarkable for strength than symmetry-^broad- 
and deep-chested, but with legs not equal in strength to the upper parts of the bodj. 

Their character has been variously given, some travellers describing them as 
and hospitable, while others decry them as fierce and treacherous. Siispicious of 
they certainly are, and with good reason, having suffered much from the ships that 
their coasts. A misunderstanding may soon arise between savage and civilized 
especially when neither understands the language of the other. An example of 
misunderstanding is given by Mr. Earle in his valuable work on the native races 
Indicm Archipelago. Lieutenant Modera, an officer in the Dutch navy, embaiked* 
several other gentlemen in the ship's boat, for the purpose of landing on the 
Dourga Strait, a passage between the mainland and Frederick Henry Island. 

"When the boat had proceeded to within a musket-shot distance from 
natives, who were armed wnth bows, arrows, and lances, commenced making 
gestures with their anus and legs. The native interpreter called out to them in a 
partly composed of Ceramese, and partly of a dialect spoken by a Papuan tribe d^ 
a little further to the north ; but his words were evidently quite unintelligible to 
they only answered with loud and wild yells. We endeavoured, for a long time 
succe^, to induce them to lay aside their weapons, but at length one of them 
vailed upon to do so, and the others followed his example, on which we also laid 
our arms, keeping them, however, at hand. 

" We now slowly approached each other, and the interpreter, dipping his hand 
sea, sprinkled some of the w^ater over the crown of his head as a sign of peaceful int 
This custom seems to be general among all the Papuan tribes, and in most cases 
peaceful intentions may be depended upon after having entered into this silent com] 

" This they seemed to undei*stand, for two of them immediately did the same, on 
tlie interpreter jumped into the shallow water, and approached them with some 
glasses and strings of be^ds, which were received with loud laughter and yells. Theji 
began dancing in the water, making the intei'preter join, and the party was socEJ 
creased by other natives from the woods, who v^ere attracted by the presentSL 
Hagenholtz also jumped into the shallow water and joined in the dance, and they 
became so friendly as to come close round the boat ; indeed some of them were 
induced to get in." 

Meanwhile their confidence increased, and they began to barter with their 
exchanging their ornaments, and even their weapons, for beads, mirrors, and cloth, 
were very inquisitive about the strange objects which they saw in the boat, and, alt 
they handled everytliing freely, did not attempt to steal. One of them took up a 
pistol, but laid it down at once when the owner said it was tapu, or forbidden. Vi 
tunately, a misunderstanding then took place, which destroyed all the amicable 
which had been established. 

" While all this was going on, they kept drawing the boat — unperceived, i 
thought — towards the beach, which determined us to return, as our stock of presenttj 
exhausted, and there seemed no probability of our inducing any of them to go on ' 
with us. Shortly before this, Mr. Boers had ornamented a Papuan with a string of 1 
who, on receiving it, joined two of his countrj-men that w^re standing a little dii 
with the arms that had been laid aside, but which they had been gradually getting tq 
again — a proceeding we had obse'rved, but, trusting in the mutual confidence tlifci -! 
been established, we did not much heed it 



AGILITY AMONG TREES. 223 

I moment in which we were settin^j off the boat to return on board, this man 
■ow in his bow, and took aim at Air. Boers, who was sitting in the fore part of 
I which the latter turned aside to take up his gun, but before he could do so 
the arrow in his left thigh, which knocked him over, shouting, * Fire I fire ! 
Ls he felL The order was scarcely given before every one had hold of his arms 
3efoTe stated, were kept at hand), and a general discharge put the natives to 
ming and diving like ducks. 

they took to flight, however, they discharged several more arrows at our people, 
h struck Mr. Hagenholtz in the right knee, another hit a sailor in the leg, while 
ced a sailor's hat, and remained sticking in it ; and lastly, a Javanese had the 
Bf shot off his head, but without receiving any personal injury." 
r the natives were severely wounded, if not killed, in this unfortunate affair, 
entlv arose, as Mr. Earle points out, from misunderstanding, and not from 
reachery. Seeing the boats being pulled towards the ships while four of their 
I were on Jboard, they probably thought that they were being carried off as 
has 80 often been done along their coasts by the slavers. They cotdd not be 
) understand the difference between one white man and another, and evidently 
! Dutch sailors for slavers, who had come for the purpose of inveigling them into 
rhere they could not be rescued. 

fes of this part of the coast are not agreeable specimens of the Papuan race, 
ipely of the middle size, and lightly built. Their skin is decidedly black, and 
ent their bodies with red ochre, paying especial attention to their faces, which 
A scarlet as ochre can make them. The hair is deep black, and is worn in 
rtL Most of the men plait it in a number of tresses, which fall nearly on the 
ivhile others confine it all into two tails, and several were seen with a curious 
of rushes, the ends of which were firmly plaited among the hair. They are 
of people, and are subject to diseases of the skin, which give them a very 
ppearance. 

J not used by the men, who, however, wear plenty of ornaments. They mostly 
made of plaited leaves or rushes, about five inches wide, and so long that, when 
it behind, the ends hang down for a foot or so. Some of them adorn this belt 
;e white shell, placed exactly in the middle. Ear-rings of plaited rattan, neck- 
iracelets, were worn by nearly all. Some of them had a very ingenious armlet, 
les in width. It was made of plaited rattan, and fitted so tightly to the Hmb 
a native wished to take it off for sale, he was obliged to smear his arm with 
ave the ornament di-awn off by another person. 

»rinoipal weapons are bows, arrows, and spears, the latter being sometimes 
I the long and sharp claw of the tree-kangaroo. 

ility of these Papuans is really astonishing. Along the water's edge there 
^elts of mangroves, which extend for many miles in length with scarcely a 
em. The ground is a thick, deep, and soft mud, from which the mangrove- 
5 in such numbers that no one could pass through them even at low-water 
3 constant use of an axe, while at high-water all passage is utterly impossible, 
natives, who are essentially maritime in their mode of life, have to cross this 
1 times daily in passing from their canoes to their houses, and vice versd, they 
ig so by means of the upper branches, among which they nm and leap, by 
ractice from childhood, as easily as monkeys. There is really nothing very 
wy in this mode of progress, which can be learned by Europeans in a short 
>ugh they never can hope to attain the graceful ease with which the naked 
ss among the boughs. In some places the mangroves grow so closely together 
7erse them is a matter of perfect ease, and Mr. Earle remarks that he once saw 
arines, with shouldered arms, making their way thus over a mangrove swamp, 
niliarity of these people with the trees causes them to look upon a tree as a 
rtress, and as soon as explorers succeeded in reaching the villages, the natives 
made off, and climbed into the trees that surrounded the villages. 
nd savage as they are, the Papuans of Dourga Strait display some acquaintance 



224 



NEW GUINEA. 



with tie luxuries of civilized life, and are inordinately fond of tobacco, the < 
that is common to the highest and lowest races of mankind. 

Some travellers have stated that these I'apuans are cannibals, and it is ci 
their geatureB often favour such an opinion. 

The Papuans of Dourga Strait are admirable eauoe-men, end paddle wit 
skill and power. They always stand while paddling, a plan whereby they obt; 
increase of power, though perhaps at tlie expense, of muscular exertion. Tli 




THE MOXKEY 



DOI-RG.V [>TII.\1T. 



their chief reason for preferring the erect position, that It enables them fo d( 
better than if they were sitting, and to watch them as they dive under water i 
wounded. 

Skietikg the coast of New Guinea and proceeding northwards from Dou 
we come to the Outakata Kiver, at the embouchure of wliich is a tribe that dil 
from those natives which have already been described. They are a finer and t( 
men than those of Dourga Strait, and seem to have preseived many of tliei 
intact since the time when Captain Cook visited tliem. Their skin is a very df 
and is described as having a bluish tinge, and they are said to rub themselves 
aromatic substance which causes them to difl'use an agreeable odour. 

It is probable that the bluish gloss may be due to tlie same aromatic subst 
which the body is perfumed, Mr. Earle thinks that the odoriferous material ii 
is the bark of the tree called the "rosamala." The blue tinge is never $e 
Papuan slaves, and this circumstance adds force to Mr, Earle's conjecture. 



A EOIAKKABLE INSTKUMENT. 225 

The features are rather large, especially the mouth, and the lips are thick. The 
ustom of filing the teeth to a sharp point pi-evails among this tribe, hut is not univereaL 
lie eyes are small, and the septum of the noae is always pierced so as to carry a piece of 
Ute bone, a boar's tnsk, or some similar ornament. The hair is ihick, and, instead of 
ting trained into long tails like that of the Dourga Strait natives, it is plaited from the 
lehead to the crown. 

The men ■wear scarcely any real dress, many of them being entirely naked, and none 
' them wearing more than a small piece of bark or a strip of coarse cloth made either 
' cocoa-nut fibre or of split bamboo. They are, however, exceedingly fond of ornament, 
id have all the savage love of tattooing, or rather scariijing, the body, which is done in 
•ay tliat reniinilri the observer of the same process among the Australians. The 
■bScations project dbova the skin to the thickness of a finger, and the natives say that 
"* ' ( produc(.<i by first cutting deeply into the flesh, and then applying heat to 
Anklets, bracelets, and other articles of savage finery are common, and 
. wbo does not wear an inch of clothing will pride himself on his hoar's teeth 
Be, Ills bracelets of woven rattan, and his peaked nish cap. 

i women always wear some amount of clothing, however small, the very fact of 
* OS apparel of any kind being conventionally accepted as constituting raiment. 
lltfiiy garment consists of a small apron, about six inches square, made from the 

unt fibre. 

ji-is rather remarkable that these people have the same habit of placing their new- 
dren in hot .sand, as has already been described when treating of the now extinct 
1)9. M'hen the mother goes about her work, she carries the child by means of a 

ma made of lea\'es or the bark of a tree. 

kucnit«cture tf the Outanatas is far superior to that of their brethren of Douiga 

One of these houses, described by Lieutenant Modera, was at least a hundred 

jf.^ogth. though it was only five feet high and six wide, so that a mau could not 

Ewright in it. There were nineteen doors to tliis curious building, which was at 

iken for a row of separate huts. The floor is covered witli white sand, and the 

I generally seat themselves on mats. Each of these doors seeujed to be 

id to a single family, and near the doora were placed the ditferent fireplaces. 

1 roof a fishing-net had been spread to dry in the sbb, while a number- of 

» were hung under the roof. 

I house was built in a few days by the women and girls, and was placed near a 
pgRT building, which bad been raised on piles. 

BweapoQs of the Outanatas are spears, clubs, and the usual bow and arrows, which 
V staple of Polynesian arms. 

1 bows are about five feet in length, and are furnished with a string sometimes 
6 of bamboo and sometimes of rattan. The arrows are iibout four feet in length, 
kl made of cane or reed, to the end of which is attached a piece of hard wood, generally 
it of the betel-tree. The tijis are mostly simple, the wood being scraped to a sharp 
ntand hardened in the fire, but the more ambitious weapons are armed with barbs, 
I fumished with a point made of bone. The teeth of the sawfish are often employed 
■this purpose, and a few of the anows are tipped with the kangaroo claw, as already 
ptioned in the description of the Dourga Strait spear. 

I fieside these weapons, the natives carry a sort of axe made of stone lashed to a 
Sen handle, but this ought rather to be considered as a tool than a weapon, although 
tn be used in tha latter cajjacity. With this simple instrument the Outanatas cut 
a the trees, shape them into canoes, and perform the various pieces of carpentering 
it are ri?quire(l in architecture. 

The most remarkable part of an Outanata's equipment is an instniment which greatly 
•trplexed the earlier voyagers, and led them to believe that these natives were acquainted 
Wth fire-arms. Captain Cook, who visited New Guinea in 1770, mentions that aa soon 
k he reached the shore and had left his boat, three natives, or " Indians," as he calls 
iiem, rushed out of the wood, and that one of them threw out of his hand something 
»hich "flew on one side of liim and burnt exactly like powder, but made no leporL* 

VOL. IL Q 



226 



NEW GUINEA. 



The two others hurled theii epears at the travellers, who were in Belf-defence oliligtifij 
use their fire-arms. 

Not wishing to come to an engapement, they retired to the boat, and nacbedit^ 
in time, the natives appearing in considerable force. "As soon as we were ibMri,] 
rowed abreast of them, and their number then appeared to be between uity 
hundred. We took a view of them at our leisure. ITiey made much the same ippc 
as the New Hollanders, being nearly of the same stature, and having their lun 
cropped. Like them they also were all stark naked, but we thought the coloai ot 
skin was not quite so dai'k ; this, however, might be merely the effect of their l«i| 
quite so dirty. 

" All this time they were shouting defiance, and letting off their fires by fom 
at a time. ^Vhat those fires were, or for what purpose intended, we could not ii 




THE 0UTANATA8, AND THEIR WEAPON'S. 



Those who discharged them had in their Imnds a short piece of stick — ^possibly a bd 
cane — which they swung sideways from them, and we immediately saw fire and an^ 
exactly resembling those of a musket, and of no longer duration. This w(xidl 
phenomenon was observed from the ship, and the deception was so great that the pen 
on board thought they had fire-arms ; and in the boat, if we had not been so near ( 
we must have heard the report, we should have thought they had been firing volleys.' 

The reader will doubtless r emark here that the travellers were so accustomed 
associate fire with smoke that t hey believed themselves to have seen flashes of fin 
well as wreaths of smoke issue from tlie strange weapon. Many years afterwi 
Lieutenant Modera contrived to see and handle some of tliese implements, and fa 
that they were simply hollow bamboos, filled with a mixture of sand and wood-as 
which could be flung like smoke-wreaths from the tubes. 

Some persons have thought that the natives used these tubes in imitation of fire-«: 
but the interpreters gave it as their opinion that they were employed as signals, 
direction of the dust-cloud being indicative of the intention of the thrower. Othen 
that the tubes are really weapons, made for the purpose of blinding their advenarie 



Beem to be less suspicious than their countrymen of Dourga Strait, and have no 
in meeting Europeans and exchanging their own manufactures for cloth, knives, 
bottles^ the last mentioned objects being always favourite articles of barter with 
ti BKfBgBB, who employ them when entire for holding liquids, and, if they should 
tely be broken, use the fragments for knives, lancets, points of weapons, and 
uposes. Lieutenant Modera describes the appearance of one of their flotillas 
mtiBg a perfect fair, the boats being laid closely together, and their decks 
riA natiyes laden with articles for barter. 

) tbe Doniga Strait natives, those of the Outanata Eiver had no objection to 
Ottid tiie European ships, and visited the vessels in great numbers. Even their 
ddflf came on board frequently. On the first occasion he disguised his rank, 
^.^gme as an ordinary native, but he afterwards avowed himself, and came 
iOiBd in his own character. For convenience' sake he called lumself Abmuw, 
Hmg It "name by which he was well known for a considerable distance. He 
MJeetkm to going below and entering the captain's cabin, though his subjects 
wt .niBuy at his absence, and shouted his name so perseveringly that he was 
D0W and then to put his head out of the cabin-window. He had all the 
r .of ooncealing astonishment, and witnessed with utter imperturbability the 
of toH un m a, the ticking of watehes, and examples of similar marvels. He did, 
^SKgiaj a little interest in the musketry practice, which was directed at a suc- 
twittlee dung from the yard-arm, but whether he was stnick with the accuracy 
with the needless destruction of valuable bottles is doubtful 
smed to be worthy of his position as chief, and was desirous of establishing a 
settlement near the mouth of the Outanata. Unfortunately, the river, although 
ream, has a sandbar across the mouth which effectually prevents vessels of even 
g^t from passing except at high water. The people in general were wonderfully 
It displaying the thievish propensities which cause the visits of many savage 
e so troublesome. Tliey even brought on board articles which had been acci- 
5fk on shore. They probably owe much of their superiority to their connexion 
lalay Mohammedans, many of whom visit New Guinea as tmders. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE ALF0EU8 OR HARAFORAS VARIOUS REPORTS RKSPKCTIXO THEM — THEIR MODR OP GOT 

MKNT AN ALFOERIAN DIVORCE COURT — TRKPANG COLLECTING — DESTRUCTION OF PROJ 

FUNERAL RITES — TRIBES OF THE SOUTH-EASTERN COAST A QUAINT DRUMMER — 1 

ORNAMENT THE TATTOO THE FLXL-DRESS PETTICOAT HAIR DRESSING KXCELl 

THEIR CANOES AN INGENIOUS SAIL — HOW TO STOP A LEAK THE PIG-PKT AHCl 

DEFENCE AGAINST VERMIN HOUSES OF REDSCAR BAY DREAD OF STKFX — TRIBES <Wi 

NORTH-WEST COAST THEIR CANOES —MODES OF FISHING— AQUATIC HOUSES — MODE OF 0( 

MENT APPOINTMENT OF A NEW CHIEF NEW GUINEA WEDDINGS — THE KARWAB, OB HOUt 

GOD THE WAR-DANCE CEREMONIES AT FUNERALS, 

We must here give a shoi-t space to some tribes called by various names, suck] 
Haitiforas, Alfouras, and Alfoers, and supposed by many ethnologists to be a 
family living in New Guinea and the neighbouring islands, but as distinct fiom^ 
generality of the inhabitants as the Bosjesman of Southern Africa from the Kafi&r. 

This theory, however, has now been shown to be untenable, and it is now known 
the word Alfoers, or Alforians, is applied by the tribes of the coast to those who live ii 
interior. The word has a Portuguese origin, and, as Mr. Earle remarks, is applied 
mountaineers of the interior, just as the Spaniards called the aborigines of Ai 
'* Indians," and the Mohammedan inhabitants of Salee and Mindano " Moros," or " 

Most of the accounts that have been received of the Alfoers are not at all to be 
They have been described as peculiarly disgusting and repulsive, ferocious, glciomy, fil 
in the depths of the forest, and murdering all strangers who came in their way. In: 
they have even a worse character than the Andamaners. It has been ascertained, ho! 
that these evil reports have originated from the coast tribes, who have a yeiy 
objection to allow foreigners to penetrate inland. 

Their reason is obvious. The visits of the traders are exceedingly valuable, brii 
with them all kinds of tools, weapons, and ornaments, which constitut<5 the wealth 
savage. Having purchased these with articles which to themselves are comj 
valueless, they can sell their superabundance to the inland Alfoers, and make an enoi 
profit on their bargain. If the white men were allowed to go inland and trade 
with the natives, their profitable traffic would be broken up. 

As far as can be ascertained, the Alfoers are in much the same state as wei6,| 
Outanatas before they were visited by traders. Those who were seen were remarl 
a certain stupidity of aspect, a tacitumness of disposition, and a slowness of moi 
which are not found among the Outanatas. As, however, they were slaves, it is more 
likely that these characteristics were the result of servitude* 

Subsequently some discoveries were made among the Alfoers, which entirely 
dieted the reports of the coast tribes. They are certainly rough in their mannei^ 
they take a dislike to a foreigner, or if he should perchance ofiend any of their pi 
they eject him from the district with more speed than ceremony ; taking care, 
not to inflict pci-sonal damage, and refraining from confiscating his property. 




•* ^ ■*■ K^ 

food, asked a neighbour to provide it for her. This he did, and as, day after day, 

was heard of the husband, the woman transferred her affections and herself to tha 

or who had assisted her, and the pair went off to another island. 

r two months had elapsed the husband came back, and, not finding his wife, 

id her from her brothers, who were then bound to produce her. They set off in 

)f the guilty couple, discovered them, and brought them back, when the injured 

demanded an enormous sum by way of fine. The man said that he could not 

pay such a sum if he were to work for the rest of his lifetime. The affair was 

ly brought before the elders, who decided that the husband had done wrong in 

bis wife so ill provided for, and that if he had supplied her with a sufficiency of 

IS the acquaintance between herself and her paramour would probably have been 

So they decreed that the man should pay a small fine, and advised the husband 

plenty of provisions at home when he next went out fishing. 

principal object for which the natives make these expeditions is the trepang, or 

{Holothnria), which is in great demand in China, and is purchased by traders 

natives for the Chinese market. It is chiefly by means of the trepang that a man 

a wife. As is the case among many savage tribes, a wife can only be obtained 

lase, so that daughters are quite as valuable to their parents as sons. With the 

the marriage present must always consist of foreign valuables, such as elephants* 

»ngs, china dishes, cloth, and similar objects. These are obtained by exchanging 

Brith the traders. 

Q, therefore, a young man wants a wife, and has settled the amount of the 
-portion with the father, he goes off for a year on a hunting expedition. He 
!anoe, and sails from island to island, catching as much trepang as possible, and 
from all those whom he visits. At the end of the year he returns home, knowing 
neans of the protective law his house and property will be perfectly safe, and 
himself to the father of the girl with the goods which he has obtained. It is 
hat he is able to make up the entire amount at once, but he is allowed to pay by 

QtS. 

erty cannot be inherited, owing to a peculiar custom. 

oon as any one dies, his relations assemble, gather together all his valuables, 

em to pieces, and throw the fragments away. Even the precious brass gongs are 

Iron f"ho QiiTinvnTQ thinWincr f.hflt. nn nr^(^. mnv nsp flnvthiTKr Viplnnainor tc\ t.ViP HpaH 



230 NEW GUINEA, 

of the dead person, and pouring a little liquid between the senseless lips. Meanwhile the 
women utter loud lamentations, gongs are beaten, and a stunning uproar ia kept np nod 
the time of the funeral. 

When the relatives have all assembled, a bier is provided, covered with cbth, te- 
quantity and quality of which accord with the wealth of the deceased ; and the body i 
then brought out in front of the house, and supported in a sitting position against a 
The villagers then assemble, and a general feast takes place, a share of which is offered 
tlie deceased as before. Finding that he will neither eat nor drink, in spite of the so 
tions of his friends and companions, the body is carried into the woods, where it is p] 
on a platform erected on four feet 

This being done, the concluding ceremony is left to the women. They remove 
their clothing, and then plant by the side of the platform a young sapling ; this ce 
])eing called the " casting away of the body," and considered as a symbol that the di 
has done with his body, and thrown it from him. 

Tassino more to the eastward of New Guinea, we come to some interesting nat 
inhabitinc: Brumer's Island, and the neighbourhood. These islands are situate 
lat. 10° 45' S. and long. 150° 'iW E. 

Living as they do on a number of small islands, the largest being rather less than 
miles in width, the natives are necessarily maritime, passing from one island to 
in their admirably contrived vessels. They are accustomed to the visits of ships, 
boldly put off to meet them, taking no weapons, except for sale, and displaying 
greatest confidence in their visitors. 

One of these natives caused gi'eat amusement by his imitation of the ship's drui 
Some one gave him a large tin can, which he, being a musical genius, immediately com 
into a drum. At fii^st he merely pounded it with his hands, but when the ship's 
was sent into the chains, and began to play upon his instrument, the man watched him: 
a little time, and then began to imitate him in the most ludicrous manner, his antics 
grimaces being especially provocative of laughter. The effect of his buffoonery 
heightened by the manner in which he had adorned his face. He had blackened 
naturally dark features with charcoal, and had drawn a streak of white paint over 
eyebrow, and another under the chin to the cheek-bones. 

The mode of salutation is rather ludicrous to a stranger, as it consists of pine 
When they desire to salute any one, they pinch the tip of the nose with the finger 
thumb of the right hand, while with the left they pinch the middle of their stoi 
accompanying this odd and complex gesture with the word " Magasftka." These 
seem to be a hospitable people, for, after several of them had been received on board 
treated kindly, they returned on the following day, and brought with them a great qi 
of cooked yams, for which they refused payment. 

The men wear nothing but a small strip of pandanus leaf, but the women have a 
which in principle is exactly similar to the thong-aprons of Southern Africa. It 
of a number of very narrow strips of pandanus leaf, reaching nearly to the knee. 
girls wear only a single row of these strips, but the women wear several layers of ihd 
one coming a little below the other, like flomices. In wet weather the uppermost pettioil 
is taken from the waist and tied round the neck^ so as to protect the shoulders from 4 
rain, which shoots off the leaf-strips as off a thatched roof. 

On gala days a much handsomer petticoat is worn. This consists of much finer In 
strips than those which constitute the ordinary dress, and it is dyed of various cdool 
Some of them which were seen by Mr. M'Gillivray were red and green, with bands of pi 
yellow and pure white. The tufts of which they were composed were extremely \i^ 
and soft, and looked like very fine-twisted grass blades. Several of the women, by wit « 
finishing their toilet, had blackened their faces. This process, if it did not add to tu 
beauty, certainly did not detract from it, as their faces were originally so plain that fl 
black covering could not make them more ugly. The young men and lads fbnnei 
curious contrast to the women in this respect, many of them being remarkable for dM 
good looks. 



air of the men is dressed here after a rather singular fashion. It is shaved from 
»ul for some three inches, and the remainder is combed backwards to its full 
A. string is then tied round it, so as to confine it as closely as possible to the 
iriug rather more than half its length to be frizzed into a mop-like bundle pro- 
^m the crown. 

who are especially careful of their personal appearance add an ornament which 
like the pigtail of the last century. A tolerably large bunch of hair is gathered 
md tied into a long and straight tail, the end of which is decorated with some 
In one case, a man had attached to his pigtail a bimch of dogs' teeth. The 
latorally wide, are disfigured with the universal custom of chewing the betel- 
d with lime, which stains the lips of a dull brick-red, and makes the whole 
>k as if it had been bleeding. 

air is usually black, but some diversities of colour are often seen. Sometimes 
k except the tips of each tress, where the hue becomes yellow or reddish, and 
1 the whole of the hair is red. In aU probability, this change of tint is produced 
al means, such as lime-water, the use of which is known in various parts of 
uea. Those who have the entire hair red have probably dyed it lately, while 
> have only the tips red have passed several months without dyeing it. There 
ie beard or moustache. 

as can be judged fix)m appearances, the women are treated better than is usually 
imong savages, and seem to be considered as equal with the men. They are 
te parents, as was proved by the fact that children were often brought by their 
look at the ships. 

Lverage stature of these natives was rather small, few exceeding five feet four 
height. They were very active, but not powerful, as was proved by testing their 
Lgainst that of the ship's crew. 

ion has already been made to their skill in boating. These natives possess various 
ime 80 small as only to hold, and by no means to accommodate, one person, while 
itain with ease fifty or sixty at once. 

ommonest canoe is that which is popularly called a catamaran, and which is 
k raft than a boat It is formed of three planks lashed together with rattan. 
iritB or TAthpT kneels, a little behind the centre, and is able to nronel this simnle 



232 



XF.W (JUINKA. 



twenty-five feet in length. It consists of two imrts, the rauoe proper anil the m 
The canoe proper is very curiously formed. It is cut from tlie trunk of a trw 
fipite of its length, is not more than eighteen or nineteen inches in extreme widl 
most curious part of its construction is, that the sides, after bulging out bclcf 
together above, so that the space between the gimwale is barely eight inches, fin tl 
ia only just room for a man's legs to pass info the interior of the boat. A sectlo 
canoe would present an outline vei-y much like that of the Greek <lmpfpi 




tliua — O. In order to preserve the gunwales from injurj', a slight pole is Whe^ 
throughout their entire length. 

As is the case with the catamaran, both ends of the canoe are alike. They 
rally raised well above the water, and are carved into the sembhince of a snake's 
head, and decorated with paint, tufts of feathers, shells, ami siutilar omanient^. 

The outrigger is as long as the canoe, to which it is attached by a series I'f 1 
to the gunwale of the canoe itself. Tiie metliotl by which tin' mitev ends of tli.' 
fastened to the outrigger is very curious, and can bo better luidt'rstooil by ivforci 
illnstration than by a desurljition. Like the ends of the canoe, those of the onlrij 
are fa.'ihioned into a suake-iike fonn. 

The natives can run along tliese polos to the outrigger with perfi-ct sjil'i 
sitting upon it when the wind is high, so as to present; the balance of the vi 
many canoes, however, a slight platform is laid upon tlie^e polos, so as greatly t< 
the burthen-carrying space of tlie vessel ; and a cowesponding but smaller 
projects from the opposite side of the canoe. On this platform several piu 



nauve nnas xne wina w oe lavouraoie, ne nxes tue lower euus qi inese spars iii 
and supports the upper ends by stays or ropes that were fore and aft. The 
1 notice the pointed end of the cylindrical outrigger. On the opposite side to 
ger is a slight platform made of planks. The platform itself is out of sight, but 
' may see the heads and shoulders of the two men who are sitting on it. 
anoe is made near Redscar Point, and, except in the arrangement of the sail, is 
similar to the vessels which are built at Brumer Island. The paddles are 
Lx and seven feet in length, and are rather clumsily formed, without any attempt 
at. 

noe to the right of the illustration is the most curious of these vessels. The 
le canoe is nuule out of the trunk of a tree, which is first shaped to a conical 
ich eud, and then hollowed. Over the ends is firmly fixed a piece of wood, 
it in lei^h, so as to make the two ends into hollow cones into which the water 
X5e its way. The gunwale is raised about two feet by planks which box in 
ig of the canoe, and act as wash-boards, the seams being pitched and rendered 
t 

particulars are mentioned because in general the natives of New Guinea are 
indifferent as to the amount of water which is taken in by their canoes, pro- 
ttey are not sunk. There is, for example, one kind of New Guinea canoe found 
[aven, in which the gunwales are not connected at the stern, which is left open. 
would of course rush in, were it not that one of the crew sits in the opening, 
3 body into it so as to render it temporarily water-tight. Even with this pre- 
is impossible to prevent some water from making its way between the body 
n and the sides of the canoe, as it heels over by the force of the wind, and 
' weather another of the crew is obliged to keep perpatually baling with a 

o.st curioiLS part of the canoe which we are now examining is the sail, which, 
it looks, is a very great improveiiiftut ou those which have been previously 
inasmuch as it can be shifted and trimmed to suit the wind, 
list, instead of being merely stuck upright when wanted, is permanently fixed, 
hort that it causes no inconvenience when the sail is struck and tlie paddles 
employed. It is fixed, or " stepped," into a hole in a board at the bottom of the 
. is lashed to a tmnsverse spar that extends across the canoe from one j^unwale 



234 NEW GUINEA. 

The canoe is steered with one special paddle some nine feet in length, of 
oblong, rounded blade occupies half. , 

The inhabitants of the New Guinea coasts are rpmarkable for their skill in 
and diving. ^Vhen H.M S Rattlesnake was off New Guinea the anchor of < 

boats caught in the 
could not be dislodged 
man who was standu 
beach saw that somel 
wrong and swam off tt 
He soon undetstood the 
aft«r diving several t 
ceeded in cleanng the 
feat for which he was 
by an axe. He always 
foremost without an t 
remained under water 
half a minute 

It 18 rather cunou. 
love of piga which 
among the New t 
should be quite as stroi 
loped among the native 
Guinea. The girls ai 
make great pets of then 
not at all an uncommoi 
see a young girl trippin 
all the graceful iwsAo 
savage, holding a young 
arms, and caressing and 
it as a European girl ta 
doll, or to her pet lapdi 
pigs are long - legge 
skinned, stiff-haired an 
at all agreeing with our 
pig's proper form. 

The illustration exl 
pig-loving custom, and ( 
the style of dress use 
women, the slender 
forming a really gracefu 
Some of the huts are sc 
distance. 

Many of the women 
kind of tattooing, thouf 
not carry it to such an 
to disfitliin: themselves. The patterns, though elaborate, are very small and de 
extend over a considerable portion of the body. The arms and front of the bo> 
ft regular pattern, which is usually carried over the shoulder for a little way, ' 
the back untouched. The most delicate pattern is reserved for the arm and wi 
it looks like a delicate blue lace fitting tightly to the skin. The women are ver 
this ornament, and are always gratified when a stranger expresses admiration o 
men occasionally use the tattoo, but in a comparatively scanty manner, con 
patterns to a star or two on the breast Now and then a man will have a doubl 
stars and dots extending &om the centre of the chest to the shoulders, but on i 
a native of this part of the country is not so much tattooed aa an ordinary Eng 




THE VIQ PET. 



I laid crosswise a great number ot slighter spars, thus torming a tramework, on 
fixed the floor itself which consists of a number of thin planks taken firom the 
t tree. The supporting posts are about ten feet in total length, and are connected 
tops by horizontal poles, on which a second or upper floor is fixed, precisely 
) the principal floor, though much smaller. On this upper floor are kept the 
implements, provisions, and similar articles, for which accommodation cannot 
on the princii^d floor. A supply of water, for example, is generally kept in the 
imber of empty cocoa-nut shells being used in lieu of bottles, and closed at the 
a plug of grass. In fact, they are identical in principle with the ostrich-egg 

the South African savage, which have been already described in Vol. I. 
ice is gained to the house by a square hole in the flooring, and the primitive 
by which the inhabitants ascend into their houses is equally simple and 

It is necessary that the stairs — if we may use the term — should be so con- 
;hat while human beings can easily obtain access to the house, the rats and 
lin shall be kept out. If an ordinary ladder or even a notched pole were fixed 
se, the rats and snakes would be sure to climb up it and take possession of the 

The native architect, therefore, proceeds after a different fashion. 
liately under the opening in the floor he fixes two stout posts in the ground, 
em to project rather more than three feet. The posts have forked heads, and 
I is laid a transverse pole, which is firmly lashed to them. From this transverse 
ler pole is laid to the ground, so as to form an inclined plane up which the 
a of the house can walk. It will now be seen, that if a man walks up the 
K>le to the transverse one, he can pass along the latter in a stooping attitude 
2ome3 to the opening in the floor. He can then pass his body through the 
nd lift himself to the level of the floor, while the space which intervenes 
le horizontal post and the floor affords an effectual barrier against the mts and 
din. 

ader will better understand this description by comparing it with the illustration 
lowing page, which represents three of these huts. That on the right is seen 
md, and is represented as half finished, in order to show the structure of the 

des and roof of the hut are formed of slight spars which are lashed together by 
)rk, so as to form a support for the thatching. This is made of coarse grass 
by the roots in large tufts, and covered with an outer layer of cocoa-nut leaves. 
lae be a lari^ one, there is an entrance at each end, and another in the middle. 



•1 



236 NEW (iUINEA. 

In some places, however, such for example as Eedscar Bay, the form of the hot 
is difTerent, 

Instead of having the slender poles wliich foi'm the framework of tliG walls I 
over in a curved form, tliey are airangpd so ns to muke a lofty and sharply-pointed gt 
roof. A house of this description, which measures thirty feet in length, will reach, od 
average, twenty-five feet in height. There is no distinction hetween the roof andw 
of the huts, except that the lower portion of the roof is covered with sheets of a bark-1 




substance, which is supposed to be the \nsi i f tlic cocoi nut leaf Hatteued by presM 
The entrance or door of these lints is it one nd and is (O'leied with a mat ns hasalM 
been mentioned. Access is ohtiuntd bj a slopin^, pole resting on a short post SeM 
of these huts may he seen in tlie lUustnti m on patje '18 In some of these hntl 
number of spears were seen in the mtenor 1 ished nloiif tlu sides, together with seM 
hnman skulls ; but whether the latter were inttndtd as ornaments, or wliether they*! 
preserved in memorial of the dead ownoi"* i^ not cert iin 

The people who inhabit Eed'tcir 1 ly ami its \ icinitj exhibited a curious mixtai» 
shyness and confidence. They came In elv to the lau Is as the j anchored in the bay,* 
were very anxious to be adniitti-d on boinl peepiii^ into the ports in the most inqiUBll 
manner, and holding up their A\eapon3 and implements for sale. They liaveinM 
rather remarkable arrow, with a head in the form of a jminted ^ouge or scoop. 

One of tht'se arrows is in my coUectiou Tin shift is made in the usual mu" 
from a reed, and is weighted at one end ^Mth a piece of hird and heavy wood, fi 
this wooden tip is cut a deepgroo\e into which slips the butt of the head. This is ih 



MODES OF FISIIIXG. 237 

acbes in length, and is made of bamboo, the reed being nearly cut away so as to 
. piece rather more than half an inch in width in the middle, and tapering gently 
end so as to form a point, and abruptly to the other end in order to form a butt 
can be slipped into the wooden tip of the arrow. 

mboo scoops of a similar description, but of a larger size, are used as knives, and 
arfiened by the simple process of biting oft' a piece of the edge. When Mr. 
ivray visited New Guinea, he asked a native the use of the bamboo scoop ; and 
16 found that it was used as a knife, he produced his own knife, and, taking up a 
>f wood, he showed the superiority of steel over bamboo by cutting a stick 
isly with it. 

angely enough, instead of being gratified with the performance of the knife, the 
as so frightened that he pushed off his cauoe, called Ms friends ai*ound him, and 
led to them the terrible deed that had been done. The knife was offered to him, 

looked upon the proffered gift as an ai^gravation of the original offence, and 
d all overtures towards reconciliation. This aversion to steel was found to be 
fat among the inhabitants of this part of New Guinea. 

5 bow by which these arrows are propelled is a very effective though clumsily-made 
L My own specimen is about six feet in length, and is made from some hard and 
wood, apparently that of the cocoa-nut tree. It is very stiff, and requires a strong 
> dxttW It The string is a strip of rattan, like that which has already been 
Mi when treating of North Australia. 

Ippig^ to the north-west of the island, we find that their appearance and manners 
4iBftnnilaT from those which belong to their brethren of the southern coast. 
Doiy people as our type, we find that they often display good examples of 
ijttid narrow forehead of the Papuan family, and many of them have narrow and 
together with lips nearly as thin as those of a European. Indeed, some of 
possess a cast of countenance which is so like that of a European that 
tmUeiB have thought that there must have been some admixture of foreign 
^fiach» however, is not the case, these peculiarities belonging to the individual, 
limplyiiig any foreign mixture. 
I eanoeB of this part of the country are rather different from those of the southern 

Hie mast is made of three distinct spars, united at their tops. 
pisi them are fastened to the side by pins passing through them, on which they 
nekwaids and forwards, as if on hinges. The third is not fastened to the vessel, 
; butt fits into a cavity from which it can be removed at pleasure. If, therefore, 
tives wish to use their paddles, aU they have to do is to lift the foot of this spar 
its socket, when the whole of the triple mast can be lowered on deck. When the 
)ecomes favourable, and the sail is to be employed, the masts are raised again, the 
f the third spar is stepped into its socket, and the triple mast is thus kept firmly 
it. A similar contrivance is now proposed for our ships of war, as these triple 

made of three slight iron bars cannot be so easily shot away as the single and 
mast 

le natives are very expert canoe-men, and are accustomed to the use of their vessels 
:hildhood. Even the small boys have their little canoes, which are so light that 
an be carried to and from the water without difiBculty. 

ley excel as fishermen, being as expert in the water as on it. The trepang fishery is 
Jtically conducted by them, as it is by the sale of trepang to the merchants that they 
I the greater part of the foreign luxuries on which they set so high a value. The 
abill turtle is captured principally for the sake of the shell, which is also pur- 
i by the traders, and, together with mother-of-pearl shell, is mostly sent to the 
!se markets. 

le mode of fishing with a net is much the same as on all these coasts. The net is 
or four feet in depth, and a hundred feet or more in length. The meshes are about 
Ji in width. One edge is furnished with a row of flat pieces of light wood, which 

floats/and along the other edge are fastened a number of perforated shells by way 
%hts. 



238 



NEW GUINEA. 



When tlie natives wish to use this net, tlioy place it in a canoe, and look out fii 
a shoal of iisb. As soou as a favourable opportunity is found, the canoe is taken ti 
seaward of the shoal, and let carefully into th« water. Each end is taken in cLaig)i\i] 
one or two men, who bring the net round the ahoal in semicircular form, bo as to encla 
the fish. These men gradually approach each other, while another man beats the wate 
with a pole, or flings atones into it, so as to frighten the Ush into the enclosure. Aa BOCI 
as the two ends of the net have been brought together, the canoe comes up, and the nil 
with the fish hanging in its meshes, is hauled on board. They also use fish-trapa, lib 




those which have been alrcaily descrilwd in the accouut of Australia, ainlcing tIi^B>l 
means of a stone, and raising them by a cord, to the end of which a bamboo boO" 
fastened. 

They are tolerable smiths, and have a kind of bellows identical in priuci{de^ 
those of savage Africa, but worked in a different manner. In.'itead of having a o 
inflated skins, they have a pair of wide bamboo tubcn, about four feet in length, the It 
ends of which are buried in the earth, and connected by means of channels with theS 
in which the fire is made. The pistons are formed of bunches of feathers tied to bambij 
and the blower works them alternately up and down so as to produce a tolerably o 
blast. It is remarkable that the bellows of the Chinese itinerant jeweller are fitted • 
feather pistons. It is most probable tJiat these ln:llows have been borrowed from I 
more eastern islands. 

As to the acliial working of the metal, it bears a curious similitude to that wliid 



Ideas ot comtort. in tiie nrst place, tne floors are made ot rougn spars, piacea 
t each other, but stUl far enough apart to cause some uneasiuess, not to say 
an unpractised walker. 

1 specimen of a Dory house is about seventy feet long, twenty-five wide, and 
h. Along the centre runs a tolerably wide passage, and at either side are a 
' rooms, separated from each other and from the passage by mats. At the end 
sea there are no walls, but only a roof, so that a sort of verandah is formed, 
.ch the inhabitants spend much of their time when they are not actively 
Such a house as this is usually occupied by some forty or fifty individuals, 
of about twenty men, together with the wives and families of those who are 
All cooking is carried on by the different families in their own chambers, eacli 
i famished with its own fireplace. 

"ess of the Doiy natives varies but little from that of other Papuans of New 
Fhe men, however, often ornament their bodies with raised scars like those of 
liana, and they are fond of tattooing their breasts and arms with figures of their 
They are fond of ornaments, such as shells, twisted wire, and armlets of plaited 
hey ii^geniously utilize the latter ornament by plaiting a very thick and strong 
nd wearing it on the left wrist and fore-arm, so as to protect the wearer from 
xf the bowstring. 

1 not a warlike people, they always go armed, carrying the invariable parang, or 
rhiehy as its very name imparts, is procured from the Malay tribes. Tliese 
e ebieSy made in Borneo, as we shall see when we come to treat of the Dyaks. 
Flapaans do not seem to fight, as do some savage tribes, for the mere love of 
be chief object of warfare being the capture of slaves, each of whom is valued 
Uings. 

due is, however, a conventional term ; and when a bargain is made with the 
le for so many slaves, in most cases the conventional money value is intended, 
e actual slaves. In fact, the word " slaves " is used much as we use the word 
Ji reckoning the power of a steam-engine, or " tons " in describing the capacity 
Perhaps the words " pony " and " monkey," of modern sporting slang, are better 

IS. 

lavery is rife among the Dory people, who sometimes make a raid into a district^ 

village, and carry off the inhabitants into servitude. They do not, however, 

' captives badly, but feed them well, and seem to consider them partly in the 

•mestic servants, and partly as available capital, or as a means of exchange when 



240 NEW GUINEA. 

employed in collectiDg the Sultan's taxes. Sboiild he fail to comply with the5< 
ditions, his village would be attacked by the Sultan's fleet, and the whole district ranst 
so that the position of chief has its anxieties as well as its privileges. 

His authority is more nominal than real, for he decides nothing but unimp 
matters, leaving more weighty subjects to a council of elders, who, as a rule, adm 
justice with impartiality. Their laws are really good and sensible, and, though leniei 
based on the principle of the old Jewish law, the eye for the eye and tlie tooth f( 
tooth. 

Marriages are managed in a very simple manner, the bride and bridegroom • 
opposite each other, in front of an idol, and the former giving the latter some bet 
and tobacco. His acceptance of the present, and taking the hand of the giver, con! 
the whole of the ceremony. 

The idol which has been mentioned is called the Karwar, and is found in every 
except those which belong to Mohammedan natives. The Karwar is a wooden 
about eighteen inches in height, large-headed, wdde-mouthed, and long-nosed— this 
liarity of the Papuan face being exaggerated. It is represented as holding a ahiel 
wearing a calico wrapper on the body, and a handkerchief on the head. 

The Karwar plays an important part in the life of a Dory native. It is pros 
his birth, takes part in his funeral, and, as we have seen, is witness to his manJagi 
all cases of perplexity the Karwar is consulted, the devotee stating bis intentira 
abandoning them if he should feel nervous, such a sensation being supposed to] 
Karwar's answer. There are plenty of fetishes, but these are only supplementaxy 
Karwar. 

AVithout going into the details of the various tribes which inhabit this paiC'j 
earth, we will glance at a few of the most interesting customs. 

These Papuans have a strong love for flowers, especially those which possess a M 
scent. They twine such flowers in their hair, w^eave them into garlands for their^ 
and carry them in their bracelets and armlets. 

They are fond of singing and music, and, as far as has been ascertained, are i 
habit of composing extempore songs, as well as singing those ditties which thejr hi 
heart. As for their musical instruments, they consist chiefly of the cylindrical di 
trumpet made of a triton shell, and a sort of Pandean pipe, composed of six or 
reeds of different lengths lashed fiiinly together. There is dso a wind instromenl^ 
is nothing but a bamboo tube some two feet in length. 

Accompanied by these instmments, they perfoim their curious dances, one of' 
has been well described by Mr. M*Gillivray. " They advanced and retreated tags(| 
sudden jerks, beating to quick or short time as required, and chanting an aooonij^ 
song, the cadence rising and falling according to the action. The attitude was a si 
one — the back straight, chin protruded, knees bent in a crouching position, and tbi 
advanced. 

" On another occasion one of the same men exhibited himself before us in i 
dance. In one hand he held a large wooden shield, nearly three feet in length, and 
more than one in width, and in the other a formidable-looking weapon, two feet in '. 
— a portion of the snout of the sword-fish, with long, shai-p teeth projecting on eacl 
Placing himself in a crouching attitude, w4th one hand covered by the shield, and h 
his weapon in a position to strike, he advanced rapidly in a succession of short b 
striking the inner side of his shield with his left knee at each jerk, causing the 
cowries himg round his waist and ankles to rattle violently. At the same time, with 
gestures, he loudly chanted a song of defiance. The remainder of the pantomim 
expressive of attack and defence, and exultation after victory. 

" But a still more curious dance was one performed a few nights ago by a pj 
natives who had left the ship after sunset, and landed abreast of the anchorage 
seeing a number of lights along the beach, we at first thought they proceeded i 
fishing-party, but on looking through a night-glass the group was seen to consist of 
a dozen people, each canying a blazing torch, and going through the movements > 
dance. At one time they extended rapidly into line, at another closed, dividiB] 



FUNERAL CEREMONIES. 241 

iea, advancing and retreating, crossing and recrossing, and mixing up vith each 

i continued for half an hour, and, it having apparently been got up for ovx amtuie- 
ocket was sent up for theira, and & blue light burned, but the dancing had ceased, 
ights disappeared." 

ccompanying illustration repreaenta tMs wild and curious scene. In the for^ronnd 
lancers, each with his torch in his hand, and indulging in the grotesque move- 
the dance. To the left are seen the musicians, one playing on the bamboo pipe, 
rther beating the drum which has before been mentioned. One of these drams 
a the foreground. It is a hollow cylinder of palm-wood, ahout two feet in length 




K BV TonaiLioii 



inches in diameter. One end is covered with lizard-skin, and along the side there 
ttndinal slits. The native name for this drum is " baiatii." 
faneral ceremonies appear to differ according to the locality. Among the Dory 
rhen a man dies, the body is rolled in white calico, and laid on its side in a grave, 
resting on an earthenware dish. The weapons and ornaments of the dead man 
in the grave, which is then filled up, and a thatched roof erected over it. 
Id the deceased be a head of a family, the Karwar ia brought to perform its last 
When the man is buried, the Karwar is placed near the grave, and violently 
1 by all the moumeia for allowing its charge to die. The thatched roof being 
the idol is laid upon it, and idol and roof are left to decay together. As is usual 
"age bribes, fimerd feasts are held at the time of burial and for some days after- 
atm vhich celebrate the deaths of chiefs being kept up for a whole month. . 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



THE AJITAS, OE AHITAS. 



POSITION AND DIMENSIONS OF THK PHILIPPIN8 ISLANDS THK MALAYS AND THB NX 

AJITAS REftEMBLANCB TO THE B0SJR8MAN THE BOW AND POISONED ABB0W8- 

ABCHEBT THB SAVAGE INSTINCT MEETINS A PABTY OF AJITAS TBEIB APPBAB 

CHIBFING SOUND OF THBIB LANGUAGE — CONCILIATING THE ABOBIGINBB — GOTBBNllBl 

AJITAS THSm AOnVITY IN HUNTING — NOMADIC PROPENSITIES OF THK AJITAS — I 

FOB THB DEAD — A QUABBEL, AND ITS CAUSB. 

To the nosrth-west of New Guinea lie several islaiids, which are grouped tc^tl 
the genecal name of Philippines. They consist of a considerable number ^ i 
which the northern island^ called Luza, and the southern island, called Magini 
by far the largest. 

The inhabitants of the Philippines are of two kinds ; nconely, the Malays 
N^ritos. The former are evidently not the aboriginal inhabitants, but have V( 
the islands in their canoes and formed a number of settlements. As in the 
the work we shall see much of the Malay race, we will pass them by for the pre 
only notice the Negritos, or little negroes, so called by the Spanish on account 
dark skins and small size. 

This strange little race is mostly known by a name which is given in differe 
By some writers it is spelt Ajitas, by some Ahitas, and by others Itas. Of these 
forms I select the first, which, by the way, is pronounced as if it were sjpelt Ahe 

The Ajitas are quite as small as the Bosjesmans of Southern Afinca, theii 
height being four feet six inches. They are well shaped, and their skins, though 
dark hue, are not so black as those of the negro tribes. The features are tolera 
except that the nose is broad and rather flat, and that thero is a marked defi 
chin. The hair is woolly, like that of other Papuans, and, as they do not kno^ 
dress it, they wear it in a sort of mop round the head. The eyes aro remarks 
decided yellow tinge. 

In common with other savages who lead an uncertain kind of life, fasting some 
two days together, and then gorging themselves like wolves, they are apt to h 
limbs and projecting stomachs with a recurved back such as is the case ^ 
Bosjesman, the back being bent like the letter S. Their shape is in no way cone 
their dress, which is nothing more than a wide belt of plaited bark fastened r 
waist 

In many respects there is a great similarity between the Bosjesman and tl 
The latter live by the chase and by plunder, having no idea of agriculture. The 
go apied, their weapons being bamboo lances and bows and arrows, the latt 



CHARACTER AND DISPOSITION. 243 

ed. The effect of the poison with which they are tipped is to produce an nnex- 
ihable thirst in the animal, which seeks the nearest water, drinks, and dies. As 
3 it is dead, the hunter cuts away the flesh from around the wound, as the poison 
otherwise communicate so bitter a taste to the whole carcase that the flesh could 
eaten. 

eir bows are but slight, as are their arrows, the poison doing the work of death, 
e depth of the wound being of no consequence. They are skilful archers, having 
w and arrow in their hands firom infancy, and practising at any object that may 
leir attention. Both sexes use the bow, and the little boys and girls are fond of 
\ along the banks of streams and shooting the fish. 

:e the Bosjesman, the Ajita is always at feud with the other races that inhabit the 
jountry, and, small as he is, makes himself dreaded by reason of his poisoned 
IS. Sometimes Ajitas are taken prisoners, and are generally enslaved. As they 
fht, active, and not bad-looking, they are often employed as servants by the 
Ties of Mamlla. 

3 of these people was in the household of an Archbishop of Manilla, and was 
id by him with great care. To all appearance he was thoroughly civilized, and at 
8 ordained priest. But the instincts of his savage nature were too strong for him, 
3 man escaped fix)m his position and civUized society, threw oS* his garments, and 
1 his savage relatives. Such instances are continually occurring, and it is almost 
ible to retain an Ajita in civilized society, no matter how well he may be treated, 
young he may be when captured. 

i habits of the Ajitas are essentially of a savage character, and, as a rule, travellers 
Philippines are obliged to be very careful lest they should suddenly be set upon by 
iangerous little creatures. Sometimes, however, they can be gentle, and even 
He, and an instance of such conduct is related by M. de la Gironi^re, part of whose 
re has been translated and quoted by Mr. Earle : " We directed our course towards 
th, among mountains always covered with thick forests, and which, like those we 
st quitted, presented no traced route, excepting a few narrow pathways beaten by 
ttsts. We advanced with caution, for we were now in the parts inhabited by the 
At night we concealed our fires, and one of us always acted as sentinel, for what 
led most was a surprise. 

He morning, while pursuing our way in silence, we heard before us a chorus of 
ing tones, which had more resemblance to the cries of birds than to the human 
We kept on our ground, concealing our approach as much as possible with the 
Uie trees and brambles. AU at once we perceived at a little distance about forty 
I, of aU sexes and ages, who had absolutely the air of animals. They were on the 
of a rivulet, surrounding a great fire. We made several steps in advance, and 
ed the butt-end of our guns towards them. As soon as they perceived us, they 
Bhnll cries and prepared to take to flight ; but I made signs to them, by showing 
ome packets of cigars, that we wished to ofier them for their acceptance. 
had fortunately received at Binangonan all the instructions necessary for knowing 
> open a communication with them. As soon as they comprehended us, they 
themselves into a line, like men preparing for a review ; this was the signal that 
^ approach. We went up to them with our cigars in our hands, and I commenced 
ating them firom one extremity of the line. It was very important that we should 
nends with them, and give each an equal share, according to their custom. The 
ntion being over, an aUiance was cemented, and peace concluded, when they 
sDoed smolong. 

. deer was hanging to a tree, from which the chief cut three large slices with a knife 
Qboo, and threw them on to the fire, and, drawing them out an instant afterwards, 
ted a piece to each of us. The exterior was slightly burned and sprinkled with 
bat the interior was perfectly raw and bloody. It would not do, however, to show 
pognsDce I felt at making a repast scarcely better than that of a cannibal, for my 
vimld have been scandidized, and I wished to live in good correspondence with 
far tenne days. I therefore ate my piece of venison, which, after all, was not ill- 

b2 



244 



THE AJITAS. 



flavoured, and my Indian having followed my example, our good repute vas establiBbe^ 
and treason on their part no longer possible." 

M. de la Gironi^re sliowed his wisdom in accommodating himself to cucomataiioe^ 
and in sacrificing his own predilections in favour of expediency ; and if all tnveUna lad 
acted in a similar manner, we should have known much more of savage manneia ui 
customs than we do at the present time. After propitiating his little black hosts by tad 
and kindness, he remained among them for some time, and by means of an interpreUf 
whom he was fortunate enough to obtain, continued to procure a conaidemble amoualtf 
information concerning a people of whom scarcely anything had been previously k 
siace their existence. 

The Ajitas live in small tribes, consisting of some fifty or sixty individuals. 
have no fixed residence, but wander about the countrj- according to the amount of g 
which they fmd. They have not the least notion of house-building, and in this res 
are even below the aborigines of Australia, and at night they crowd round the fire si 




(.ooKiNO A wn.n boar 



This fire is the central point of the tribe, the old peoi 
and cliildren assembling round it during the day while the adults are hunting forgia 
and if the hunters should be able to bring in enough food to last for some days, Hi 
remain round the fire until it is all consumed. 

The illustmtion represents a party of Ajitas on their return from the chase. 11( 
have shot a wild boar, and two of them are employed in cutting it up with their btnh 
knives, while others are waiting for the expected feast A woman is standing near thfl 
carrying her child in her arms, and in the foreground are some of the bows and and 
that have been used in tlie chase. 

There seems to be no particular form of government among the Ajitas, who *ha{ 
choose one of the oldest men to be the chief of each little tribe, and do not acknovle^j 
any principal chief or king. Age is respected among them, and in this point the i^ 
show their superiority over many savage tribes. 

The language of the Ajitas is said to resemble the chirping of birds rather Ihil i 
voice of mankind, but it must be remembered that the same was said of the BoqeaM 



REVERENCE FOR THE DEAD. 245 

■aguage vhen European travellers first came among them. Any language which is 
eud for the first time affects the ear unpleasantly, and even those of Europe are 
{Bierally stigmatized by foreigners as gabbling or grunting, according to the pitch of the 
oice. Of the structoTQ of the Ajitas' language nothing is yet known. 

In one point they are superior to many savage people. A man has but one wife, and 
otb are fiiithiiil in the married state. When a young man wishes to many, he asks the 
ODSmt of her parents, who, on a fixed day, aend her into the woods alone before sunrise, 
id after an hour the young man goes after her, If he can find her, and bring her back 
line snnaet, the marriage is acknowledged ; but if be cannot succeed in his search, he 
BBt yield all claims to her. It will be seen that the real choice lies with the girl, who 
B always conceal herself if she dislikes the intending bridegroom, or, even if he did 
■d her, could refuse to come back with him until the stipulated time has passed. 
\ The religion of the Ajitas seems to be, as far as can be ascertained un a subject from 
lUeb a savage always shrinks, a mere fetishism ; any object, such as an oddly-shaped 
■e-tmnk or atone, beiog wonJiipped for a day, and then forsaken in favour of some 
Bier idoL 

Any TPTiA TCTfTFncB in the nature of the Ajitas seems to be given to the dead, whom 
hey h(>lJ in venemtion. Tear after year they will resort to the burial-places of their 
tieods for the purpose of laying betel-nut and tobacco upon the grave. Over each spot 
ftere a warrior is biuied his bow and arrows are hung, the Ajitas having an idea that 
knight the man leaves his grave, and hunts until the morning. Owing to this reverence 
■ tbe dead, M. de la Gironi^re's expedition nearly came to a fatal termination. They 
■d succeeded in pnxniing a skeleton from the burial-place, when the theft was dis- 
prered by the Ajitas, who at once set upon them, and fairly chased them out of their 
Bnf37< the poisoned arrows proving to be weapons too formidable to be resisted, 
BUfeUy when used by foes as active as monkeys, who could pour their arrows on their 
^DAile they scarcely exposed an inch of their little dark bodies to the enemy. 
Byu owing to anouier form of this veneration for the dead that travellers have so 
wa come in collision with the Ajitas. When a warrior dies, his companions are bound 
P take their weapons and roam through the country, for the purpose of killing the first 

titiw tlnng that they meet, whether man or beast. As they pass along, they break the 
pagOB in a peculiar manner as warnings to others, for even one of their own tribe would 
ncaificed if he fell in tbeir way. Travellers from other countries would eitlier fail to 
, or, if they saw, to nnderstand, the meaning of tiiese little broken twigs, and in con- 
Iquence have been attacked by the Ajitas, not &om any unfriendly feelings, but in 
l&lment of a national cofitom. 



FIJI. 



CHAPTER I. 



APPEARANCE AND DRESS OF THE FIJIANS. 



POSITION OF THE FIJI ISLANDS — GENERAL APPEARANCE OP THE NATIVES THEIR PECULIAB 

AND VARIOUS MODES OF DRESSING IT HAIR-DYES — THE FHIAN lOBROR — Wia-MASIKe — 1 

AMBASSADOR AND HIS MESSAGE — THE FUIAN TL^RBAN — WATERPROOF HBAD-I>RE88KB — 1 

OF THE FUIANS THE " MASI," AND METHOD OF WEARING IT — EAR-ORNAMXim 1 

AND FLOWERS — TATTOOING AND PAINT PATTERNS USED FOR THE FACE ^DRB88 OF THE 

THE ROUGHNESS OF THE SKIN AND USE OF PAINT — HAIR-DRESSING MAKIKa MAS 

MODE OF PRODUCING PATTERNS — INGENIOUS MODE OF STENCILLING ^THS WOMAN's AFBOI^ 

** LIKU," AND MODE OF WEARING IT. 

To describe the inhabitants of all the multitudinous islands of Polynesia would be 
agreeable, but an impossible task, our space confining us within limits which may nolj 
transgressed. We will therefore pass at once to the large and important group of u 
which is popularly known by the name of Fiji. 

This group of islands lies due south of New Zealand, and to the eastward of 
Guinea, so that they are just below the Equator. The collective names of the i 
has been variously given, such as Fiji, Beetee, Feegee, Fidge, Fidschi, Vihi, and Viti 
all these names, the first and the last are correct, the northern portion of the islands 
known as Fiji, and the southern as Viti. Tlie reader must remember that these 
are pronounced as if written Feejee and Veetee. 

The inhabitants of Fiji are a fine race of savages, tolerably well formed, and 
dark, though not black skin. Like other Papuans, they are remarkable for their 
bushy hair, which they dress in a singular variety of patterns. As the appearance 
costume of savage races are the first points which strike a stranger, we will at 
proceed to describe them. , 

The most conspicuous part of a Fijian's general appearance is his head-dress, in fl 
arrangement of which he gives the reins to his fancy, and invents the most extraoidiii| 
variations of form and colour. Examples of the Fijian head-dress will be seen in mon 
the illustrations. But as it would be tedious to describe them as they occm; I m 
mention a few of the most prominent varieties. ., 

The hair of the Papuan race is always stiff) wiry, and plentiful, and grows toad 
siderable len^h ; so that it necessarily assumes a bushy form if suffered to grow aooad| 
to its own wilL The Fijian, however, thinks that nature is to be improved by ai^ H 



HAIR-DRESSING. 347 

Accordingly lavishes all the resources of a somewhat artistic character on his hair. To 
tndn the hair into any of the graceful and flowing methods which distinguish those soft- 
haired races would be utterly impossible for a Fijian. He goes on quite the opposite 
principle, and, true to real artistic feeling, tries to develop to the utmost those charac- 
teristics which rightly belong to him, instead of endeavouring to produce effects which 
woald not be consonant with their surroimdings. 

The principle on which a Fijian coiffwrt is arranged is, that every hair is presumed 
bo grow naturally at right angles to the skin, and to stand out stiffly and boldly. 
Sspposing, then, that each hair could be induced to follow its own course, without 
^ug entangled by others, it is evident that the whole head of hair would form a 
Huge globular mass, surrounding the face. It is, therefore, the business of the Fijian 
hnr-dresser to accept this as the normal form of the hair, and to change or modify it as he 
jUnks be8t% 

It is impossible to describe the various modes of Fijian hair-dressing better than has 
been done by Mr. Williams, who resided in Fiji for thirteen years. " Most of the chiefs 
^vre a hair-dresser, to whose care his master^s hair is entrusted, often demanding daily 

ition, and at certain stages of progress requiring several hours' labour each day. 
ail this time, the operator's hands are ia'pu, from touching his food, but not from 
ig in his garden. 

* The liair is strong, and often quite wiry, and so dressed that it will retain the position 
which it is placed, even when projecting from the head a distance of six or eight 

One stranger, on seeing their performance in this department, exclaims, 'What 
dshing wigs ! ' another thinks, * Surely the heau iddat of hair-dressing must exist in 
; ' a third, * Their heads surpass imagination.' " No wonder, then, that they defy 
iption. 

Whatever may be said about the appearance being unnatural, the best coiffures have 

and almost geometrical accuracy of outline, combined with a round softness of 

and uniformity of dye which display extraordinary care, and merit some praise. 

•eem to be carved out of some solid substance, and are variously coloured. Jet 

Uue-black, ashy white, and several shades of red prevail Among young people, 

red and flaxen are in favour. Sometimes two or more colours meet on the same 

Sonie heads are finished, both as to shape and colour, nearly like an English 

jUor^s wig. 

* In some, the hair is a spherical mass of jet black hair, with a white roll in front, as 
the hand ; or, in lieu of this, a white, oblong braid occupies the length of the 
the black passing down on either sida In each case the black projects further 

the white hair. Some heads have all the ornamentation behind, consisting of a cord 

[twilled coils, eliding in tassels. In others, the cords give place to a large red roll or a 

projection falling on the neck. On one head, all the hair is of one uniform length, 

one-third in front is ashy or sandy, and the rest black, a sharply defined separation 

the two colours. 

"Not a few are so ingeniously grotesque as to appear as if done purposely to excite 

iter. One has a large knot of fiery hair on his crown, all the rest of the head 

bold Another has the most of his hair cut away, leaving three or fotlr rows of 

clusters, as if his head were planted with small paint-brushes. A third has his 

bare, except where a black patch projects over ejich temple. One, two, or three 

of twisted hair often fall from the right temple, a foot or eighteen inches long. 

men wear a number of these braids so as to form a curtain at the back of the neck, 

Ig from one ear to the other. 

* A mode that requires great care has the hair wrought into distinct locks, radiating 
the head. Each lock is a perfect cone, about seven inches in length, having the 

9 outwards, so that the surface of the hair is marked out into a great number of small 
Itt, tiie ends being turned in, in each lock, towards the centre of the cone. In 
4ker kindred style, the locks are pyramidal, the sides and angles of each being as 
ibr as fihongh formed of wood. All round the head they look like square black 
fa» ihe upper tier projecting horizontally from the crown, and a flat space being 






248 



FIJI. 



left at the top of the head. When the hair, however, is not more than fom inch 
long, this flat does not exist, but the surface consists of a regular saccessioa of sqnai 
or circles. 

" The violent motions of the dance do not disturb these elaborate piepaiations, 1 
great care is taken to preserve them from the effects of the dew or rain." 

Whenever the Fijian desires to know whether his head-dress is in proper order, he I 
recourse to his mirror. This is not a portable, but a fixed article of mgnufacture, and 
Decessarily situated in the open air. When the native sees a large tree with a slop 
trunk, he cuts in the upper part of the trunk several deep hollows, and arraogea ' 
leaves of the tree so that the water from the foliage drips into tliem, and keeps ibasn t 
These are his mirrors, and by their aid he examines his hair, sees if the ontlnie be qi 




THE .VU11AS»ADU1I'» UEttS. 



con-ect, and, if he be dissatisfied, arranges it with his long-handled coinb, and I 
replaces the comb in hia mop of a head, carefully sticking it over one ear as a sol 
does his forage cap. 

Not content with having the hair plaited and frizzed out as has already I 
described, many of the Fijians wear great wigs over tlieir own hair, thus increasing 
size of their heads to the most inordinate dimensions. The natives are excellent i 
makers, and, as their object is not to imitate nature, but to produce as fantastic an el 
as possible, it is evident that the result of their labour is often very ludicrous. As is 
case with their own hair, they dye these wigs of various colours, red and white being 
fsvourit« hues. 



A "MEMORIA TECHNICA." 249 

Three examples of these curious head-dresses are shown in the illustration on the 
lerioospage, vhich represents an ambassador delivering a message from his chief to some 
iin of consequence. Savages such as these have no idea of writing, but, lest they should 
aget the various terms of their message, they have recourse to a simple memoria 
dUtiea, consisting of a bundle of sticks, no two being of the same length. 

Each of these sticks answers to one of the terms of the message, which is repeated 
Boe or twice to the ambassador, who reckons them over on his sticks. When he delivers 
is message, he unties the bundle, selects the sticks in their order, and, laying them down 
^tocoession, delivers the message without a mistake. 

_ In the illustration, the principal figiuce represents the ambassador, the others being 
h attendants. He has laid down several of the sticks, and is delivering the message 
pkiDging to one of them, while he is holding the rest in his left hand. His head-dress is 
t that remarkable kind which consists of a number of conical locks of hair— a fashion 
hkh denotes a man of rank, as no other could afford to have such a coiffure kept in 
ider. The man seated next to the ambassador has his hair in two colours, the greater 
|it being dark and frizzed out from the head, while a couple of rolls of a lighter hue 
over the forehead. The central figure exhibits a favourite mode of hair-dressing, in 
the hair is clipped very short, except in certain spots, in wliich it is allowed to 
; so as to form a series of brush-like tufts. 

Men of consequence mostly protect their enormous mops of hair by a sort of thin 

, which is wrapped round them. The turban is made of a piece of very delicate 

oth, or masi, nearly as thin as gauze, and perfectly white. It is sometimes six feet 

, but varies according to the quantity of hair. It is twisted round the head in 

it fashions, but is mostly fasten^ by a bow on tlie forehead, or on the top of the 

Several examples of the turban will be seen in the course of the following pages. 

of rank often wear the masi of such length that the ends fall down behind Uke 

[In Older to preserve their hair from being displaced by rain, they use a waterproof 

own invention. This is a young banana leaf, which is heated over a 
becomes as thin, transparent, and impervious to water as oiled silk. The 
offers no protection whatever, being soaked as easily as tissue paper, which 
resembles. 

similar to that which is woni on tlie head is used for the dress. Tlie masi 

L^yed for this purpose is mostly from twenty to thirty feet in length, though 

nan will sometimes wear a masi of nearly three hundred feet long. In this 

it is made of very delicate material It is put on in a very simple manner, part 

wmmd ronnd the loins, and the rest passed under the legs and tucked into the belt, 

ta hang as low as the knees in front, and to fall as low as possible behind. A 

will often have his masi trailing far behind him like a train. 

[Hbs is all the dress which a Fiji man needs. Clothing as a protection from the 

is needless, owing to the geniality of the climate, and the masi is worn simply 

^ matter of fiEishion. Ornaments are worn in great profusion, and are of the kinds 

' aeem dear to all savage races. 

Ear-ornaments of portentous size are worn by the inhabitants of Fiji, some of them 

the lobe to such an extent that a man's two fists could be placed in the 

The Fijians also wear breast-ornaments, very similar in shape and appearance 

large dibbi-dibbi which is worn by the Northern Australians, and has evidently 

|liborrowed from the Papuan race. Any glittering objects can be made into necklaces, 

often combine the most incongruous objects, such as European beads, bits of 

"lell, dogs* teeth, bats' jaws, and the like. 

[j^lkvers are plentifully worn by the Fijian, who keeps up a constant supply of these 

ed ornaments, weaving them into strings and chaplets, and passing them, like belts, 

one shoulder and under the other. In the illustration on page 265, which represents 

qriD^t of taxes, several girls are seen adorned with these garlands. 

wooing is almost entirely confined to the women, and even in them is but little 

I the greater part of the patterns being covered by the liku or fringe-apron. When 



250 FIJI. 

young, the women usually tattoo their fingers with lines and stars in order to make tb 
look ornamental as they present food to the chief, and, after they become motiierB, fl 
add a blue patch at each comer of the mouth. The operation is a painful one» fho^ 
not so torturing as that which is employed in New Zealand, the pattern beiiig made i 
the punctures of a sharp-toothed instrument, and not by the edge of a duael dnv 
completely through the skin. 

Paint is used very largely, the three principal colours being black, white, and n 
With these three tints they contrive to produce a variety of effect on their &oe8, thit 
only to be rivalled by the fancy displayed in their hair-dressing. Sometimes the fiM9i<| 
all scarlet with the exception of the nose, which is black, and sometimes the 
divided like a quartered heraldic shield, and painted red and black, or white, red, and 
in the different quarterings. Some men wUl have one side of the face black ani 
other white, while others paint their countenances black as far as the nose, and 
them off with white. 

Eeversing the first-mentioned pattern, the Fijian dandy wUl occasionally paint 
face black and his nose red, or will have a black face, a white nose, a scarlet ring 
each eye, and a white crescent on the forehead. Sometimes he will wear a white 
covered with round scarlet spots like those on a toy horse; or will substitute ftf 
round spots a large pateh on each cheek and another round the mouth, just like the: 
of a theatrical clown. 

Some very curious effects are produced by lines. A white face with a single 
black stripe from the forehead to the chin has a very remarkable appearance, and 
a face of which one side is painted longitudinally with black stripes on a white 
and the other half with transverse stripes of the same colours. A similar 
sometimes produced with black upon red. Perhaps the oddest of all the 
formed by painting the face white, and upon the white drawing a number of un< 
lines from the forehead downwards, the lines crossing each other so as to form a 
rippling network over the face. 

So much for the dress of the men. That of the women is different in eveiT^ 
Though possessing the same kind of stiff", wiry, profuse hair as the men, they »j 
trouble themselves to weave it into such fantastic designs, but mostly content th( 
with combing it out so as to project as far as possible on every side. Sometimes 
twist it into a series of locks, which are allowed to fall on the head merely at 
like the thmms of a mop. 

Paint is employed by them as by the men, though not with such profusion, 
seems to be their favourite colour in paint, and to this predilection Mr. Pick< 
indebted for opportunities of ascertaining by touch the peculiar roughness of the 
skin. The Fijians, an essentially ceremonious and punctilious people, will not 
themselves to be handled, and Mr. Pickering was rather perplexed as to the 
ascertaining whether this roughness belonged to the race, or whether it were 
peculiarity belonging to individuals. The love of scarlet paint here came to his 
The vermilion prepared by European art was so much superior to the pigments of] 
that the natives were only too glad to have so brilliant a colour put on their hemj 
bodies. Accordingly men €ind women, old and young, pressed forward to have a 
vermilion rubbed on them, and the mothers, after having their own faces 
out their infants to participate in the same benefit. 

The native cloth, or masi, which has already been mentioned, is made from the 
bark of the malo tree, and is manufactured in a simple and ingenious manner. 

As at the present day English fabrics are largely imported into Fiji, and aie 
supplanting the delicate and becoming native maniifactures, the art of 
will soon become extinct in Fiji, as has been the case in other islands where 
have gained a footing. I shall therefore devote a few lines to the descriptioa 
manufacture. 

The natives cut off* the bark in long strips, and soak them in water for sod 
until the inner bark can be separated from the outer, an operation which is pet 
with the edge of a shell. After it has been removed from the coarse outer baik» it < 



THE MANUFACTURE OF MASI. 251 

so as to preserve it in the necessary state of moisture ; and when a sufficient 

is collected, the operation of beating it begins. 

is beaten upon a log of wood flattened on the upper surface, and so arranged as 
I a little wiUi the blows of the mallet. This tool does not resemble our mallet 
andle and a head, but is simply a piece of wood about fourteen inches in length 
I in thickness, rounded at one end so as to form a handle, and squared for the 
er of its length. Three sides of this mallet, or iki, as it is called, are covered 
igitudinal grooves, while the fourth side is left plain. Those specimens that I 
n have the sides not quite flat, but very slightly convex, perhaps by use, perhaps 

intentionally., A masi maker has several of these mallets, sometimes as many 
' seven, each having some diflerence in the fluting, and with them she contrives to 
a fiEtbric that has all the eflect of woven linens among ourselves, the pattern 
corporated with the material 

e are in my collection several specimens of masi, one of which is singularly 
L It is thin, snowy white, and soft as silk, and, even at a distance, must have 
r&ry graceful when wrapped round the dark body of a Fijian warrior. But it is 
a closer examination that the real beauty of the fabric is displayed. Instead of 
)eating the masi after the usual fashion, so as to impress upon it the longitudinal 
of the mallet, the native manufacturer has contrived to change the position of 
et at every blow, so as to produce a zigzag pattern on the fabric, very much like 
[-known Greek pattern of European decorators. It is beautifully regular, and, 
s &bric is hdd up to the light, looks like the water^mark in paper. 
plasticity of the malo-bark is really wonderful. A strip of two inches in length 
eaten to the width of eighteen inches, its length being slightly reduced as the 
icreases. As the matenal is very thin and flimsy, a single piece being, when 
mi, no thicker than tissue paper, two or more pieces are usually laid on each 
d beaten so as to form a single thickness, the natural gluten which this material 

being sufficient to unite them as if they had been one pieca 
3 specimens of their larger mantles, now in my collection, are as thick as stout 
taper, and very much tougher, appearing both to the eye and the touch as if made 
sr. 

n a large masi has to be made, many lengths of the bark are united to each other, 
. being soaked in arrowroot starch, laid carefully over each other, and then sub- 
) the mallet, which forces the two pieces of bark to unite as if they were one 
», and does not exhibit the least trace of the junction. As I have already men- 
some of these masis are of very great length. Mr. Williams measured one 
¥98 for the use of the king on festival days, and found its length to be five 
[ and forty feet 

ly of the large, and at the same time thin masis, are Used as mosquito curtains, 
that case are decorated with patterns of dusky red and black. The patterns 
y commence at the centre, and are gradually extended towards the edges. The 
: making these patterns is well described by Mr. Williams : — 
?on a convex board, several feet long, are arranged parallel, at about a finger's 
ipart, thin straight strips of bamboo, a quarter of an inch wide ; and by the side 
B, carved pieces, formed of the mid-rib of cocoa-nut leaflets, are arranged. Over 
rd thus prepared the cloth is laid, and rubbed over with a dye obtained from the 
iUurUes triloba). The cloth, of course, takes the dye upon those parts which 
pressure, being supported by the strips beneath, and thus shows the same pattern 
mknir employed. A stronger preparation of the same dye, laid on with a sort of 
a used to divide the squares into oblong compartments, with large round or radiated 
the centre. The kesa, or dye, when good, dries bright. 

lank borders, two or three feet wide, are still left on each side of the square, and to 
te the ornamentation of these so as to excite applause is the pride of every Fijian 
There is now an entire change of apparatus. The operator works on a plain 

the red dye gives place to a jet black ; her pattern is now formed by a strip of 
•lesf placed on the upper surface of the cloth. Out of the leaf is cut the pattern. 



252 



FIJI. 



Dot more than an inch long, which she wishes to print upon the border, and holds t 
first and middle finger, pressing it down with the thumb. Then, takinc; in her right 
a soft pad of cloth steeped in dye, she rubs it firmly over the stencU, and a fur, 
figure 18 made. 

" The practised fingers of the women move quickly, but it is after all a tedious pi 
In the work above described, the Lakemba women exceL On the island of Mi 
very pretty curtains are made, but the pattern is lai^e, and covers the entire square^ 
the spaces between the black lines are filled in with red and yellow." 

We now pass to the liku, or fringed girdle of the women. This is made of vi 
materials, and much trouble is usually expended in its manufacture. The ordinaiy 
are little more than a number of alight thon^ fixed to a belt, and allowed to bang 
for several inches. When worn, it is passed round the waist and tied, not behind, t 
one side, and on festivals the bark cord by which it is fastened is allowed to hang ( 
that it often trails on the ground as the wearer walks along. 




The thongs are made of the baik of a species of hibiscus, called by the natives 
and used for many purposes, of long flexible roots like that of the caacus grass, ai 
difierent grasses. One kind of liku, which is rather fashionable, is made of a ve^ 
parasite, called by the natives -waloa. The thongs of this liku are not thicker 
packthread, and when fresh are as flexible as silk. In process of time, ho» 
they become brittle, and ai-e apt to break. The colour of this material is deep g 
black. 

There are in my collection two specimens of the liku, one of them being mad 
the fashionable waloa. The other is the common liku, shown in the above iUn 
tion. It is made of split grass, the blades of which are more than three feet in ta 
In order to make them into the garment they have been doubled, and the loops V 
into a narrow plaited belt of the same material. 

The better kind of likus are, however, made with far greater care than is bestoirw 
this article. There is but little difference in the thongs, the chief labour being beatc 
on the belt In some cases the belt of the liku is four inches in width, and is pkited 
elegant patterns, plaiting being an art in which the natives excel, * 



THE LIKU AND ITS FASHIONS. 



53 



In general shape the liku never varies, being worn by girls and women alike. As 
as a girl is nnmarried, she wears a liku the Mnge of which is not more than three 
in depth, and the whole article is so scanty that when tied round the waist the 
do not meet at the hips by several inchea As soon as the girl is married, she 
her liku in token of her new rank, and wears a garment with a fringe that 
half-way to her knees, and which entirely surrounds the body. After she has 
a mother, she wears an apron which quite reaches to the knees, and sometimes 
bdow them. 



CHAPTER II 



MANUFACTURES. 



MAT-MAKING SAILS FOB THE CANOES FLOOR-MATS AND BEDDINQ BOPK AND STRING BE 

ITS VARIOUS USES THE NETTINO-NBEBLE AND MESH — FANS AND SUNSHADES THE 

FLAPPEB — BASKET- WOBK — PUIAN POTTEBY, AND NATIVE ART POTTEBY BESTBICTEI 

WOMEN THEIB SIMPLE TOOLS AND IMPEBFECT MATEBIALS — MODE OF *' FIRING " THl 

GLAZING THE WATEB-VES8ELS — FIJIAN FISHEBMAN — VABIOUS KINDS OF NETS, AN 

OF USING THEM — THE TUBTLE FISHEBY — A BOLD BIVEB CONTBACTOBS FOB TUBTLl 

OF CATCHING THE BEPTILE A ** HEAD " OF TUBTLE AND ITS VALUE DANGEB8 

FISHEBY ^FUIAN CANOES, AND MODE OF MANAGING THEM — BUILDING CANOES — I 

METHOD OF JOINING THE PLANKS TONGA CABPENTEB8 ^THE FUIANS INFERIOB BA 

THE TONQANS FUIAN TBADEB8. 



Mats of various kinds are made by the women, and they display as much ingenuitj 
making as in the manufacture of masi. Mats are employed for many purpos* 
sails of the Fijian canoes are always made of matting, which is woven in leng 
then sewn together afterwards, just as is the case with our own canvas sails. Tl 
of the strips varies from two to four feet, and their length from three to a hundrc 
On an average, however, the usual length of these strips is twenty feet, that bi 
ordinary length of a sail. SaU-mats are necessarily rather coarse, and are made i 
leaf of the cocoa-nut palnL 

Then there are floor-mats, which are used as carpets in the houses. These 
size according to the dimensions of the house, but twenty feet by sixteen is 
ordinary measurement. They are generally adorned with a border or pattern ro 
edges, this border being about six inches wide, and often decorated with featl 
scraps of any coloured material that can be procured. Mats of a similar charac 
much finer texture, are used as bedding ; the best kind, which is called ono, bei 
very fine texture. 

The native love of ornament is in no way better displayed than in their r 
string-making. 

The best rope is formed from several strands of sinnet. This is a sort of plai 
from the fibre of the cocoa-nut. The fibre is carefully removed from the nut, bal 
combed out like wool. Cordage is made by twisting sinnet together, and some 
Fijian cords are nearly as thick as a cable, and possessed of extraordinary elastic 
strength. The sinnet is used in a great variety of offices, houses being built i 
planks of the canoes tied together with this most useful material 

When made, the sinnet is made into great rolls, some of them being of { 
dimensions. Mr. Williams saw one which was twelve feet long, and nearly seven 
diameter. These rolls are differently shaped, and each shape is known by its owi 
such as the double cone, the plain hai^, the oval ball, the honeycomb ball» i 
variegated roll. These rolls are given as presents, and offered to the chieb as 



THE SUNSHADE. 



265 



y. 



gether with other property. In the large iUustration on page 265, wliich represents 
tax-paying scene, one or two of these rolls are Hbown. 

Krnret is ti\e fftTOnrite mftterial for net-making, but aa it is coBtly, nets are often con- 
flicted of the hibiscus bark. Another material is a sort of creeper named yaka, which 
■teeped in water to dissolve the green matter, then scraped to cleau the fibres, and, 
TTisted into string. It is remarkable that the netting needle and mesh are exactly 
IT to those which are employed by ourselves, and the same may be said of the mesh 
L needle of the Esquimaux. 

~ie same ingenuity in plaiting wliich is expended in the making and rolling of sinnet 

B itself in various other manufactures, such as basket and fan making. In the latter 

jB Fijian eicels, and, as the fan is almost aa important to the Fij ian aa to the Japanese, 

h play of fancy is exhibited in fan-making. Dissimilar as are these fans in shape, 

always a sort of character about them which denotes their origin to a 

1 eye. 

e accompanying illustration represents a specimen in my collection, which is a very 

i^pe of the Fijian fan. It is two feet in length, and rather more than a foot broad 

e widest part. The handle is made of cocoa-nut wood, and extends nearly to the 

t the &n, 80 as to form a support through its entire length. It is fastened to the 

r double bands of the finest and most beautifully plaited sinnet. The material of 




tiie fan is composed is cocoa-nut leaf, divided into doubled strips about the third 
meh in width near the base of the fan, and gradually decreasing towards its tip. 
lag band of the same material runs round the edges of the fan, and the two ends of 
nd aie secured to the handle by the same sinnet as has been ji^t mentioned. 
db a hn as this is employed rather as a sunshade or parasol than a fan, and is held 
he head when the owner happens to be seated in the sunshine. It is very light, 
imlly a mnch more efficient implement than its appearance intimates. 
Bfomi of the fan is exceedingly variable Sometimes they are triangular, with the 
iptDJecting from one of the angles, and sometimes they are square, but with the 
I f^ng diagonally across them. Various modifications of the battledore are in 
iknnjr, and there is one form which almost exactly resembles that of the Japanese 

liintber remarkable that the aborigines uf truiiical Am(?ric!t, such as the Caribs, 
wnis, and the like, make tims of precisely similar material and structure, except 
le handle is not separately made of wood, but is formed from the ends of the leaf- 
rf vUeh the implement is made. 

B Uhnring illastration represents another curious article of manufacture which 
f^ flliiaii, bat estendB throng sereial of the Polynesian group. It is the 



256 



FIJI. 



.MORS FLAPPER 



orator's flapper, which the native holds in hig hand while he speaks in conn 
handle is carved into various patterns, and mostly, though not invariably', is ti 
by a rude representation of a couple of human figures seated back to back. S 
the entire hwdle is covered with sinnet, plaited in the most delicate patterns, 

hut a Fijian can | 
tuft at the end 
of cocoa-nnt fib 
has first been i 
water, next roUei 
small twig, and t 
When it is unwi 
the stick, it hai 
wrinkled appean 
like that of the Fij 
and is probably 
to imitate it "i 
is drawn from ( 
specimens in my 
some of which hi 
covered handles, 
carved handles, v 
have the tuft h 
others sandy red, 
the case with tt 
the natives. 
In their basket-making, the Fijians are equally lavish of th( 
powers, weaving them in patterns of suclt elaborate intricacy as 
■ " , makers to shame, and then, as if not satisfied 

amount of work bestowed upon them, covering all the edges wi 
braided into really artistic patterns. 

Indeed, tlie Fijians are born artista. Their work, although i 
grotesque, is always artistic, because always appropriate. They 
feeling of art into the material whose plasticity allows the greatest freedom o: 
lation ; namely, earthenware. Some of the vessels which are intended for cooking 
plain, while others which are made for other purposes are of elegant shape, an 
with ornaments. Mr. Williams suggests, with much probability, that the co< 
are made in imitation of the cells of a species of black hee which inhabits the 
of islands. 

Several specimens of Fijian pottery are in the British Museum, and the 
strongly advised to examine them, in order to see examples of intuitive art wh; 
supenor in outline and ornament to the generality of decorated earthenwai 
country. A conventional imitation of nature is the principle which is employ 
Fijian potters, who find their chief patterns in flowers, leaves, and fruits, thus 
the most graceful curves, joined to great certainty and precision of outline. 

Rude as is the manipulation of the potter, and coarse as is the material, the 
the vessel is sure to be bold and vigorous, putting to shame the feeble pretti 
which we are too familiar in this country. Going to nature for their models, t 
potters display a wonderful power, fertility, and originality of design. In anj 
an artist who really studies nature is sure to produce works that are fresh and 
and in a country like Fiji, which is within the tropics, and in wliich the mi 
V(^tation of the tropics springs up in luxuriant profusion, it is likely that 
however rude he may be, who studies in such a school, will produce works ol 
merit. 

He art of pottery is confined to the women, and is practically restricted to 
and daughters of fishermen. The material employed by them is a red or bine d 
with 8ud, and their implements are merely on annular onshion, a flat stonc^ oi 




FISHING FOR TURTLE. 257 

in scnqpers, a round stone to hold against the inside of the vessel, and a sharp stick. 
have no wheel : and yet, in spite of such disadvantages, they contrive to produce 
! 80 true in outline, that few persons, unless they were practically acquainted with 
r, could beUeve that they were merely rounded by the eye. 

e shapes of nearly all the vessels are very elegant, as is likely to be the case from 
dels employed by the maker. They are often wonderfully elaborate specimens of 
anship. Permanently covered vessels, with a hole in the Ud, are very common, 
T. Williams saw one jar as large as a hogshead, fhat was furnished with 
enings for the purpose of filling and emptying it rapidly. The most remarkable 
68 are the compound vessels, several being united together at the point where 
ach, and further connected by arched handles. In some cases, even the handles 
ow, and have an opening at the top, so that the vessels can be filled or emptied 
I them. This compound form has lately been copied by Europeans, 
sideling the amount of labour and artistic skill which is given to pottery, it is a 
it the natives are not better off for material and firing. The material is very 
md the very imperfect mode of baking fails to give to the vessels the hard and 
mperishable quality which distinguishes properly prepared earthenware, 
r the vessels have been shaped, and the decorative patterns traced on them with 
stick, they are placed on the ground close together, but not touching each other, 
ered with a quantity of dried leaves, grass, reeds, and similar materisds. The 
bhen lighted, and when it has burned itself out the baking is supposed to be 
Those pots that are to be glazed are rubbed, while still hot, with kawri, the 
dn which has already been mentioned in the account of New Zealand. 

nay be expected in an island population, the Fijians are expert fishermen, and 
irarious means of securing their prey. Nets, weighted at one edge with shells and 
t the other with pieces of light wood, are much used ; and so are the hook, the 
d the weir. In some places a very remarkable net, or rather an imitation of a 
3d the rau, is used. To the long, flexible stems of creepers are fastened a quantity 
cocoa-nut leaves, so as to make a fringe of considerable depth and very great 
»ne of these raus sometimes measuring nearly ten thousand feet from one end to 
r. 

n completed, the rau is taken out to sea and thrown into the water, the ends 
!ached to canoes, which stretch it to a straight line. They then make for a small 
N98 which the rau can be drawn, and then capture all the fish by smaller nets 
L Sometimes they do not trouble themselves to return to the shore, but bring 
!Ound in a circle, the fish being so afraid of the leafy fringe that they avoid it, 
) themselves in the middle of the toils. 

principal use of the net is, however, in turtle-fishing, a sport which may be 
xQled an art. The turtle-fishers supply themselves with sinnet-nets, some ten 
idth, and one or two hundred yards in length. While the turtle are feeding upon 
le, the fishermen carry out the net and shoot it to seawards, so that when the 
turns to the sea after feeding, it is sure to be intercepted by the net, which has 
ahes, in order to entangle the flippers of the reptile. 

31 the fishermen feel that the turtle is fairly caught, they proceed to get it on 
task of very great difficulty and some danger, inasmuch as the turtle is in its 
onent, and the men are obliged to dive and conduct their operations imder water. 
Bt active diver tries to seize the end of one of the fore-flippers, and pulls it 
|r downwards, knowing that the instinctive desire to rid itself of the inconvenience 
86 the reptile to rise. Of course the diver can only retain his hold for a limited 
tt as soon as he rises to the surface for breath another takes his place. Should 
le he a vicious one, as is often the case, one of the divers grasps it across the 
png his finger and thumb in the sockets of the eyes, so as to prevent the creature 
tng mischief . 

wg itself thus hampered, the turtle rises to the surface, when it is seized by the 
ihamen who iSie in the canoe, hauled on board, and laid on its back, in which 
I s 



258 FIJI. 

position it is utterly helpless. The successful fishermen then blow loud blasts of triumph 
on their conch-shell trumpets, and bring their prize to land. 

In consequence of the number of men who are employed in this pursuit, the meo 
almost invariably fish in parties, who are engaged by some individual. Sometimes thej 
are the servants of a chief, and fish on his account, all the captured turtles belonging t< 
him, but the fishermen always receiving a present of some kind when they have beo 
successful Should the fishers be free men, they hire themselves, their nets, and canoe ti 
some one who will pay the regular price, for which they are bound to make ten expe 
ditions. Should they be entirely unsuccessful, they get nothing, but each time that tk] 
bring a turtle ashore they receive a present from the hirer, who is obliged, after th 
completion of the fisliing, to give the men a handsome present. Sometimes several turtk 
are taken in a single day; but the business is a very precarious one, even the beil 
fishermen returning day after day without catching a single turtle. 

Some of the modes of catching the turtle are very ingenious. When the men iw 
no net, they chase the reptile as they best can, keeping the shadow of the sail just behU 
it so as to frighten it, and keep it continually on the move. They will pursue it intUi 
way for a long time, until the creature is so exhausted that it can be captured by a fc# 
divers without the aid of a net. When brought home, the turtles are kept in pens aai 
killed as wanted. 

Although the flesh of the turtle is highly esteemed, and the green fat is appredital 
nearly as much as in England, the chief value of the turtle lies in its shell, the thiiM 
plates of which are called a "head," and sold to the traders by weight A"lMldj 
weighing three pounds is a fair one, a head that weighs four pounds is exceptionally goo^ 
while one that exceeds five pounds is hardly ever seen. 

The dangers that beset the turtle-fishery are many. Chief among them is the 
which is very plentiful on these coasts, and which is equally fond of men and tnztl^i 
that when it sees a turtle entangled in the net it makes an attack, and is as likely to ' ' 
off the limb of one of the divera as to seize the reptile. Another fertile source of 
lies in the structure of the coral reefs, which form the principal shores of these k 
They are full of hollows and crannies, and it sometimes happens that a diver 
entangled in them, and is not able to extricate himself in time to save his life. 

As the canoes return home after turtle-fishing, the women come down to the 
and meet them. Should the expedition be successful, the men return with songa 
shouts of triumph, as if they were bringing home the bodies of slain foes, on 
occasion, as we shall presently see, a scene of horrid rejoicing takes placa Should ttl| 
be unsuccessful, they return in sad silence. 

In the former case, the women welcome the successful fishermen with songi o 
dances, and sometimes become rather rough in the exuberance of their delight. M 
Williams once witnessed an amusiug scene, in which the women brought a quantity i 
bitter oranges down to the shore, and when the fishermen were about to land, pelted thi 
so mercilessly that the men were in self-defence obliged to drive their aggressois c 
the beach. 

As the canoe has so often been mentioned in connexion with fishing, it will be no 
described. In principle it resembles the form which prevails among the great Folyneaii 
group, though in detail it differs from many of the ordinary vessels. All the cans 
possess modifications of the outrigger, but the best example is the double canoe, wfafl 
two boats are placed side by side in such a manner that one of them acts as the outrigg 
and the other as the canoe. 

If the reader will refer to the illustration on the following page, he will be able 1 
understand the general appearance of this curious vessel 

The two canoes are covered over, so as to keep out the water, and are connected ly 
platform which pi-ojects over the outer edges of both boats. Hatchways are cut thmtf 
the platform, so as to enable the sailors to pass into the interior of the canoea In il 
illustration a man is seen emerging from the hatch of the outer canoe. Upon M 
platform is erected a sort of deck-house for the principal person on board, and on the M 
of the deck-house is a platform, on which stands the captain of the vessel, so that he fll 



MANAGEMENT OF THE CANOK 



259 



give Ilia ordera &oni this elevated position, like the captain of a steamboat on the paddle- 
Bojc or bridge. This position also enables him to trace the conrse of the tnrtle, if they 
ihould be engaged in the profitable chase of that reptile. 

The mode of managing the vesael is extremely ingenious. 

The short mast works on a pivot at the foot, and can be slacked over to either end of 
he vcsaeL When the canoe is about to get under way the long yard is drawn up to the 
lead of the mast, and the latter mclmed so that the mast the yard, and the deck form a 
dangle. The halyards are then made fast and act as stays When the vessel is wanted 



toabont, tbe mast is slacked off to the other end, so that the stem becomes the bow, 

k and tbe sheet change places, and away goes the vesael on the other course. 

rill be seen that such a canoe sails equally well in either direction, and, therefore, 

t can be steered from either end. The rudder is a very large oar, some twenty feet 

th, of which the blade occupies eight, and is sixteen inches wide. The leverage of 

car is tremendous, and, in a stiff gale, several men are required to work it. 

r to relieve them in some degree, rudder-bands are used ; but eveu with tliia 

J the men have great difficulty in keeping the canoe to her course, and are 

^ Kire to receive some veiy sharp blows in the side from the handle of the steering 

. Sometimes a sudden gust of wind, or a laige wave, will bring round the rudder 

1 fttdi violence that the handle strikes a man in the side and kills him. With all 

e ditwbacks, canoe-sailing is a favourite occupation with the Fijians, who are as 

~~ 11 possible while on board, singing songs to encourage the steersman, watching the 



260 FIJI. 

waves and giving notice of them, and adding to the joyous tumult by beating any c 
that they may happen to have on board. Even when the wind fails, and the canoe 
to be propelled by poling if she should be in shoal water, or by sculling if she shoal 
too far out at sea for the poles, the crew do their work in gangs, which are relieve 
regular intervals, those who are resting singing songs and encouraging those who 
at work. 

Sculling one of these large canoes is rather heavy work, the great paddles being wo 
from side to side in perfect unison, the men moving their feet in accordance witb 
rhythm of their comrades' song. As many as eight sculls are sometimes employed a 
same time, should the canoe be a large one and the crew tolerably numerous, 
sculling oars pass through holes in the deck, an equal number being out fore and aft 

The mode of building these canoes is so ingenious that I will try to describe it, th 
without a plentiful use of diagrams description is very difficult. 

Canoes of moderate size are cut out of single logs ; and in these there is not 
particularly worthy of remark. But when the native ship-builder wishes to construct 
of the great war-canoes, he has to exercise all the skill of his craft. 

Here it must be mentioned that the canoe-makers form a sort of clan of their * 
and have their own chief, who is always a man eminent for skill in his profession, 
experienced Fijians know the workmanship of these men as well as our artists kno^ 
touch and style of a celebrated sculptor or painter, and contemplate both the man an< 
workmanship with respectful admiration. 

The first process in canoe-building is to lay the keel, which is made of several p 
of wood carefully " scarfed " together ; and upon it the planking is fixed, without requ 
ribs, as in our boats. The most ingenious part of boat-building is the way that the pi 
are fastened, or rather tied together, without a vestige of the sinnet appearing on 
outside. Along the inside edge of each plank runs a bold flange, through which a nui 
of holes are bored downwards at regular distances, so that when two planks are pi 
together the holes in the flanges exactly coincide, and a cord can be run through then 

When a plank has been made, and all the flange-holes bored, the edges are sm< 
with a sort of white pitch, upon which is laid a strip of fine masL This of c< 
covers the holes, which are reopened by means of a small fire-stick. The planks 
prepared are called " vonos." When the vono is ready, it is lifted to its place, and 
carefully adjusted, so that all the holes exactly coincide. The best and strongest sini 
next passed eight or ten times through the hole, drawn as tight as possible, and then 
It will be seen, therefore, that all the tying is done inside the vessel In order to tig 
the sinnet still more, a number of little wedges are inserted under it in different d 
tions, and are driven home with the mallet. 

By this process the planks are brought so tightly together that, when the carp 
comes to smooth off the outside of the vessel with his adze, he often has to look 
closely before he can see the line of junction. Caulking is therefore needless, the n 
pitch and masi rendering the junction of the planks completely waterproof. The fi 
are by no means equal in size, some being twenty feet in length, while others are bi 
thirty inches, but all are connected in exactly the same manner. 

The gunwales, and other parts above the water-mark, do not require so much care^ 
are fastened without flanges, a strip of wood or " bead " being laid upon the junction, 
the sinnet bands passing over and over it and drawn tight with wedges, and the h 
carefully caulked with fibre and pitch. When the canoe is completed, it is beantif 
finished off, the whole of the outside being first carefully trimmed with the adxe^ 
then polished with pumice stone, so that it looks as if it were made of one p 
of wood. 

Ornament is freely used in the best canoes, especially in the two projecting a 
which are carved in patterns, and frequently inlaid with white shells belonging to 
genus Ovulum, or egg shells. This form of canoe has gradually superseded the l 
clumsy forms tliat were once in use in Tonga and the neighbouring islands. IheToqi 
often made vovages to Fyi, being better and bolder scalers, though their cancel i 
inferior ; and, having been struck with the superiority of Fijian t^t-bmlding, hifl 



AN UNSUCCESSFUL VENTURK 



261 



digrees built their own vessels after Fijian models. Being also remarkably good 
cupentets^ they have taken to boat-bnilding even in Fiji itself, and have in a great 
neasore ousted the native builders^ being able to work better and quicker, and for 
IcBspay. 

In spite of their excellent canoes, and their skill in managing their vessels, the Fijians 
not bold sailors, and, according to Mr. }i^illiams, " none have yet taken their canoes 
beyond the boundaries of their own group." He knew one old man named Toa-levu 
weat Fowl), who had a fsincy that he could make a profitable trading expedition 
mtwaid, and who accordingly loaded Ids canoe with pottery and masi, and started off. 
Ifter two or three days, however, he became frightened, and made the best of his way 
bek again, only to become a standing warning to rash voyagers. Yet in waters which 
ley Imow the Fijians are excellent sailors, and the women appear to be as bold and 
feiUiil as the men, assisting in steering, managing the sail, and even in the laborious task 
p seulling or poling. 

r Owing to tiieir excellence in canoe-building, the Fijians carry on a brisk trade Vith 
islands, supplying them not only with the canoes, but with the masts, sails, sinnet, 
other nautical appliances, receiving in exchange the whales' teeth, shells, weapons, and 
valued commodities. 



CHAPTER III. 



GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



A NATIVK LEORNB — THE RAT-GOD, AND HIS MISHAPS ON A JOURNEY ^BYASION OF A HUIOUAI 

CUSTOM — MODERN CHANGES OP GOVERNMENT — THE VARIOUS RANKS OP CHIEFS AND FB< 
THE SYSTEM OP VASU, OR NEPOTISM EXTRAORDINARY — SINGULAR POWER OP THE VA8U- 

SYSTKM A HINDRANCE TO INDUSTRY THE VASU AS AN AMBASSADOR PAYMENT OF Ti 

PRESENTATION OP THE CANOE — TRIBUTE PAID IN KIND AND IN LABOUR ^THE TKNUBI 

LAND A SINGULAR CUSTOM ATTACHMENT TO THE SOIL THE DISAPPOINTED PURCHASl 

FAMILY THE TYPE OF FIJIAN GOVERNMENT — CODE OF ETIQUETTE AMONG THE FUIAMS' 

THE COURT LANGUAGE THE " TAMA," AND ITS MODIFICATIONS MEETING A 8UPEBI0B- 

** BALE-MURI " CUSTOM THE POLITE NATI\TC WHO DID NOT GET A MUSKET HOW GREAT 

VISIT EACH OTHER ORATORY, AND MODES OF GREETING — STRICTNESS OF THE CODE 

ETIQUETTE — THE YOUNG CHIEF AND THE GUANa's TAIL — A FUIAN FEAST — THE VAST O 

AND MODE OF MAKING THEM — PREPARATIONS FOR THE FEAST ARRANGEMENTS FOB 

BANQUET — VARIETY OF DISHES ^MODE OF DRINKING — HOW TO OPEN A COCOA-NUT— C 

THE KING THAKOMBAU — PRESUMED ORIGIN OF CANNIBALISM — ^NATIVE LEGEND — THE 

FORKS — OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN SACRIFICES " TAKING DOWN THE MAST " — AN 

NATE MISTAKE. 

Owing to the geographical nature of the Fiji group, which consists of seven groups 
islands, some of them very large and some very small, the mode of govermuent " 
never been monarchical, the country being ruled by a number of chiefs of greater 
less importance, according to the amount of territory over which their sway 
The various islands had in former days but little connexion with each other. At 
present time, more intercourse takes place, and in one instance the visit involTeB^ 
singular and ludicrous ceremonial. 

One of the gods belonging to Somo-somo, named Ng-gurai, went to visit Mbau, a 
on the eastern coast of Yiti Lemi, one of the greater islands, and to pay his respects to 
god of that place. He was accompanied by a Vuna god named Vatu-Mundre, who 
him a bamboo by way of a vessel, and imdertook to guide him on his journey. Nj^ 
then entered into the body of a rat, seated himself on the bamboo, and set off on 
journey. After they had sailed for some time, Ng-gurai lost his way, on aocotixit 
wanting to call at every island which he passed, and at last, just as he airived on iM 
Mbau shore, he was washed off the bamboo and nearly drowned in the 8ui£ 

From this fate he was rescued by a Mbau woman, who took him into the chkA 
house, and put him among the cooks oir the hearth, where he sat shivering for four d^l 
Meanwhile, Yatu-Mimdre arrived at his destination, and was received in royal manai 
by the Mbau god, who tried in vain to induce him to become tributary to him. 

After a proper interval, the Mbau god returned the visit of Vatu-Mundre, who hd 
craftily greased the path, so that when his visitor became animated, his feet slipped, ta|l 
he fell on his back. Yatu-Mundre then took advantage of his situation, and roioed Ul 
visitor to become Ids tributary. 



THE VASU. 263 

In consequence of this affair, the Mbau people pay a homage to the natives of Vuna, 
bat indemnify themselves by exacting a most humiliating homage from the men of 
Somo-somo, though in fact Somo-somo is the acknowledged superior of Vima. 

Whenever a Somo-somo canoe goes to Mbau, the saQ must be lowered at a certain 
distance from shore, and the crew must paddle in a sitting position. To keep up the sail 
or to paddle in the usual standing position would cost them their lives. As soon as they 
eome within hearing of the shore they have to shout the Tama, t.e. the reverential 
Mlntation of an inferior to a superior, and to reiterate it at short inteorals. 

Arrived on shore, they are not allowed to enter a house, but are kept in the open air 
fcr four days, during which time they are obliged to wear their worst dresses, move about 
m a stooping attitude, and to say the Tama in a low and trembling voice, in imitation of 
Be shivering god-rat. After the four days have expired, they may enter houses and dress 
Bi better clothes, but are still obliged to walk in a half-bent attitude. When a Mbau 
taan meets one of these crouching visitors, he cries out, " Ho i Ho ! " in a jeering manner, 
■id asks the Somo-somo man whether his god is yet at liberty. The imibrtunate visitor 
b then obliged to place his hand on his heart, stoop half-way to the ground, and say 
ibly that Ng-gurai is allowed his liberty. 

Naturally disliking this oppressive and humiliating custom, the people of Somp-somo 

of late years managed to evade it by means of foreign vessels. The custom of 

the sail and paddling while seated was not binding on people of other coimtries, 

80 they contrived to visit Mbau on board of Tongan canoes, or, better still, English 

-boats. 

Of late years the government has assumed a feudal aspect, the chiefs of large districts 

considered as kings, and having imder them a number of inferior chiefs who are 

to them, and bound to furnish men and arms when the king declares war. 

ig to Mr. Williams, the Fijians may be ranked under six distinct orders. First 

the kings, and next to them the chiefs of separate large islands or districts. Then 

the chiefs of towns, the priests, and the Mata-ni-vanuas, or aides-de-camp of the 

chie& Next to them come the chiefs of professions, such as canoe-building and 

-fishing, and with them are ranked any distinguished warriors of low birth. The 

rank includes all the commonalty, and the sixth consists of the slaves, who are 

lys captives. 

As is often the case in coimtries where polygamy is practised, the law of descent 
through the female line, the successor of the king or chief being always the son 
awoman of high rank. 

The oddest part of Fijian political economy is the system of Vasu, or nephew — a 

which may be described as nepotism carried to the greatest possible extreme. 

Williams's description of the Vasu is very curious. " The word means a nephew, or 

but becomes a title of office in the case of the male, who in some localities has the 

linary privilege of appropriating whatever he chooses belonging to his uncle, or 

under his uncle's power. 

' Vasus are of three kinds : the Vastu4aukeif the Vasv^levu, and the Vasu ; — the last is 
m name, belonging to any nephew whatever. VoMb-tavJcei is a term applied to 
Vasu whose mother is a lady of the land in which he was bom. The fact of Mbau 
at the head of Fijian rank gives the Queen of Mbau a pre-eminence over all Fijian 
and her son a place nominally over all Vasus. 
* No material difference exists between the power of a Vasu-taukei and a Vasu-levu, 
latter title is given to every Vasu bom of a woman of rank, and having a first- 
eliief for his &ther. A Vasu-taukei can claim anything belonging to a native of his 
'a land, excepting the wives, home, and « land of a chief Vasus cannot be con- 
apart from the civil polity of the group, forming, as they do, one of its integral 
[|Kti, and supplying the high-pressure power of Fijian despotism. 

In grasping at dominant influence, the chiefs have created a power which ever and 
tiQiBfl round and grips them with no gentle hand. However high a chief may 
however powerfrd a long may be, if he has a nephew, he has a master, one who 
^ noft be ccmtent with the name, but who will exercise his prerogative to the fuU, 



264 FIJI 

seizing whatever will take his fancy, regardless of its value or the owner^s inconvenic 
in its loss, fiesistance is not to be thought of, and objection is only ofifeied in extn 
cases. A striking instance of the power of the Yasu occurred in the case of Thokona 
a Bewa chief, who, during a quarrel with an uncle, used the right of Vasu, and acta 
supplied himself with ammunition irom his enemy^s storea . . . 

" Descending in the social scale, the Yasu is a hindrance to industry, few b 
willing to labour unrewarded for another^s benefit. One illustration will 8iiffio& 
industrious uncle builds a canoe in which he has not made half-ardozen trips, whei 
idle nephew mounts the deck, sounds his trumpet-shell, and the blast announoes U 
within hearing that the canoe has that instant changed masters." 

The Yasu of a king is necessarily a personage of very great importance ; and wbfl 
acts as delegate for the king, he is invested for the time with royal dignity. H» B i 
for example, to other places to collect property, which is handed over to Ids Idni 
tribute ; and were it not for a check which the king has over him, he might be ten 
to enrich himself by exacting more fix)m the people than they ought to give. In 
case, however, the Yasu is held amenable to the king, and, should he ezcMd his pi 
powers, is heavily fined. 

Taxes, to which reference is here made, are paid in a manner diflering nuftn 
from the mode adopted in more civilized countries. In Europe, for example, no one] 
a tax if he can possibly escape from it, and the visits of the tax-gatherer aie looked 1 
as periodical vexations. In Fiji the case is different People take a pride in pig 
taxes, and the days of payment are days of high festival 

On the appointed day the king prepares a great feast, and the people assemble ii 
multitudes with their goods, such as rolls of sinnet, masi, whales' teeth, reedsy 
dresses — and often accompanied by their wearers — ornaments, weapons, and the 
present themselves in turn before the king. Each man is clad in his veiy best 
is painted in the highest style of art, and displays the latest fashion in 
With songs and dances the people approach their monarch, and lay their 
before him, returning to the banquet which he has prepared for them. 

It is hardly possible to imagine a more animated scene than that which occun 
the tribute from a distant place is taken to the king, especially if, as is often the 
valuable article, such as a large war-canoe, is presented as part of the tribute. ^ 

A fleet of canoes, containing several hundred people and great quantities of iptOfB 
makes its appearance off the coast, and is received with great hospitality, as well lUf 
the casa The king having seated himself on a large masi carpet, the principal chifll 
the tribute-bearers comes before him, accompanied by his men bringing the pien 
with them in proper ceremonial, the chief himself carrying, in the folds of his rob 
whale's tooth, which is considered as the symbol of the canoe which is about ta 
presented, and which is caUed by the same name as the canoe which it represents. 

Approaching the king with the prescribed gestures, the chief kneels before hn^ 
first offers to his master all the property which has been deposited on the gronnd. 
then takes from the folds of his voluminous dress, which, as the reader may rememta 
often several hundred feet in length, the whale's tooth, and makes an appropriate ipii 
He compliments the king on the prosperity which is enjoyed by all districtB undipS 
sway, acknowledging their entire submission, and hoping that they maybe allowed tiw 
in order to build canoes for him. As an earnest of this wish, he presents the 
a new canoe, and, so saying, he gives the king the symbolical whale's tooth, calliqgi] 
the name of the vessel On receiving the tooth, the king graciously gives 
permission to live, whereupon all present clap their hands and shouts the erf 
receivers being different from that which is employed by the givers. 

In the following illustration one of these animated scenes is represented. 

Nearly in the centre is the king seated on the masi carpet, having his back, to the 8] 
tator in order to show the mode in which the flowing robes of a great man are aniui| 
In front of him kneels the chief of the tax-paying expedition, who is in the act of oiTei 
to the king the symbolical whale's tooth. One or two similar teeth lie by his side, i 
form a part of the present In the distance is the flotilla of canoes, in which the t 



PAYING THE TAXES. 



have come ; and Dear the shore is the n 
{feting. 



V war-canoe, which fonna the chief 




PRESENTATION OF THE CANOE, 



roregroond are seen the various articles of property which constitute taxes, 
IS, lolJs of ch)th and sinnet, baskets, articles of dress, and young women, the 



266 FIJI. 

last being dressed in the finest of likns, and being decorated, not only with their oidi 
ornaments, but with wreaths and garlands of flowers. Behind the offering chief ar 
followers, also kneeling as a mark of respect for the king ; and on the left hand an 
spectators of the ceremony, in front of whom sit their chiefs and leading men. 

Tribute is not only paid in property, but in labour, those who accompany the 
paying chief being required to give their labour for several weeks. They work in 
fields, they thatch houses, they help in canoe-building, they go on fishing expedil 
and at the end of the stipulated time they receive a present, and return to their horn 

Should the king take it into his head to go and fetch the taxes himself, his 
becomes terribly burdensome to those whom he honours with his presenca He wi 
accompanied by some twenty or thirty canoes, manned by a thousand men or so, an 
those people have to be entertained by the chief whom he visits. It is true thi 
always makes a present when he concludes his visit, but the present is entirely inade 
to the cost of his entertainment. 

The tenure of land is nearly as difficult a question in Fiji as in New Zealand, 
difficult enough when discussed between natives, but when the matter is complicate 
quarrel between natives and colonists, it becomes a very apple of discord. Neither 
can quite understand the other. The European colonist who buys land from a i 
chief purchases, according to his ideas, a complete property in the land, and control 
it. The native who sells it has never conceived such an idea as the total alienat 
land, and, in consequence, if the purchaser should happen to leave any part of the 
unoccupied, the natives will build their houses upon it, and till it as before. Then, 
process of time the proprietor wants to use his groimd for his own purposes, the n 
refuse to be ejected, and there is a quarrel 

The state of the case is very well put by Dr. Pritchard : " Every inch of land i 
has its owner. Every parcel or tract of ground has a name, and the boundaiii 
defined and well-known. The proprietorship rests in families, the heads of & 
being the representatives of the title. Every member of the family can wae the 
attaching to the family. Thus the heads of families are the nominal owners, the 
family are the actual occupiers. The family land maintains the whole family, an 
members maintain the head of the family. 

" A chief holds his lands under precisely the same tenure, as head of his fiEunil; 
his personal rights attain only to the land pertaining to his family, in which right 
member of his family shares so far as on any portion of the land. But the chief i 
head of his tribe, and, as such, certain rights to the whole lands of the tribe appert 
him. The tribe is a family, and the chief is the head of the family. 

" The families of a tribe maintain the chief. In war they give him their service 
follow him to the fight. In peace they supply him with fool In this way, the ^ 
tribe attains a certain collective interest in all the lands held by each family ; and 
parcel of land alienated contracts the source whence the collective tribal support c 
chief is drawn. From this complicated tenure it is clear that the alienation of 
however large or small the tract, can be made valid only by the collective act a 
whole tribe, in the persons of the ruling chief and the heads of fEunilies. Bandoa 
reckless land transactions under these circumstances would be simply another mm 
Naboth's vineyard, for which the price of blood would inevitably have to be paid' 

Another cause of misunderstanding lies in a peculiar attachment which the ""' 
to the soil When he sells a piece of land, it is an imderstood thing between 
and seller that the latter shall have the exclusive right of working on the gromiU 
none but he shall be employed to till the ground, or build houses upon it Tb^i 
settlers who understand the customs of the natives have accepted the condition, aal 
that it answers tolerably well. Those who are unacquainted with native ideas havpl 
suffered severely for their ignorance, and, when they have brought a gang of tbdr I 
workmen to put up a house on the newly-purcheised land, have been fairly driven o^ 
armed parties of natives. 

Mr. Pritchard narrates an amusing anecdote, which illustrates the workiog cf < 
principle. A missionary had purchased some land according to the code of lawi 4 



A TEDIOUS CODE OF ETIQUETTE 267 

i agreed upon by the native chiefs and the colonists; all the natives who belonged 

muy having been consulted, and agreed to the purchase. As a matter of course, 

)ected that the work of clearing the ground and building the house would be 

them. Being ignorant of this custom, the purchaser took some of his own 

)ut was immediately surrounded by a body of armed savages, who flourished 

lbs and spears, and frightened him so much that he retreated to his boat, and 

When he was well out of range, all those who had muskets fired them in the 

of the boat, as if to show that their intention was not to kill but merely to 

U be seen from the foregoing passages, that the whole government of Fiji is a 
1 of one principle, namely, that of the family. The head of a family is the 
possessor of the land. All the members of the family use the land, and support 

d, as a return for the use of the land. Districts again are considered as families, 
' being the head, and being supported by the district. The king, again, is con- 
s the father of all the chiefs, and the nominal owner of all the land in his 
s, and he is therefore entitled to be supported by the taxation which has been 

Practically, however, he has no more right to land than any other head of 

the preceding observations the reader may see that a definite code of etiquette 
imong the Fiji islands. Indeed, there is no part of the world where etiquette is 
a greater extent, or where it is more intimately interwoven with every 
ordinary Ufa If, for example, one man meets another on a path, both having, as 
ir dubs on their shoulders, as they approach each other they lower their clubs to 
es, as a token that they are at peace, and pass on. Setaining the club on the 
would be equivalent to a challenge to fight. 

characteristic of this code of etiquette is the reverence for the chief, a 

which is carried to such a pitch that in battle a chief sometimes comes out 

mply because his opponents were so much awe-stricken by his rank that they 

are to strike him. Each superior therefore partakes of the chiefly character as 

inferiors are concerned, and expects the appropriate acknowledgments of rank. 

extraordinary reverence is carried so far that it has invented a language of 

no one with any pretensions to good breeding speaking in ordinary language of 

F a chiefs head or limbs, of a chief's dress, or indeed of any action performed by 

rat supplying a paraphrastic and hyperbolical phraseology, of which our own 

guage is but a faint shadow. The Tama, which has before been mentioned, is 

of a chief, and is therefore uttered by men of inferior rank, not only when they 

chief himself, but when they come within a certain distance of his village. So 

is this code of ceremony that, discourteous as it might be to omit the Tama 

e, it would be thought doubly so to utter it on occasions when it was not 
r example, the Tama is not used towards the close of the day, or when the chief 
making a sail or watching a sail maker at work ; and if the Tama were uttered 
ich occasion, it would be resented as an insult. 

Qg a superior on the wrong side, and sailing by his canoe on the outrigger side, are 
d as solecisms in manners, while passing behind a chief is so deadly an insult that 
irho daied do such a d^ would nm the risk of getting his brains knocked out on 
, or, if he were a ricli man, would have to pay a very heavy fine, or " soro," 
f compensation. The reason of this rule is evident enough. The Fijian is apt 
icherous, and when he attacks another always tries to take him unawares, fmd 
him, if possible, from behind. It is therefore a rule, that any one passing behind 
r is looked upon as contemplating assassination, and makes himse^ liable to the 
lie penalty. 

tnan should meet a chief, the inferior withdraws from the path, lays his club on 
id, and crouches in a bent position until the great man has passed by. If^ howr 
two men should be of tolerably equal rank, the inferior merely stands aside, 
s body slightly, and rubs the left arm with the right hand, gr gr^ps Ids be^4 
• faiB eyes fixed on the ^und. 



268 FIJI. 

The act of giving anything to the chief, touching him or his dress, op anything aboii 
his head, or receiving anything from him, or hearing a gracious message from hm,i 
accompanied by a gentle clapping of the hands. Standing in the presence of a chietj 
not permitted. Any one who addresses him must kneel ; and if they move about, mj 
either do so on their knees, or at least in a crouching attitude. ' 

In some cases the code of etiquette is carried to an extreme which appean to 
exceedingly ludicrous. If a superior fall, or in any other way makes himself 
awkward, all his inferiors who are present immediately do the same thing, and ezpeetj 
fee as recognition of their politeness. 

Mr. Williams narrates an amusing anecdote of this branch of etiquette, wl 
called bale-muri (pronounced bahleh-mooree), i.e, follow in falling. " One day I 
a long bridge formed of a single cocoa-nut tree, which was thrown across a rapid 
the opposite bank of which was two or three feet lower, so that the declivity wu 
steep to be comfortable. The pole was also wet and slippery : and thus my 
safely was very doubtfuL 

" Just as I commenced the experiment, a heathen said with much animation, '' 
I shall have a musket.' I had, however, just then to heed my steps more than his 
and so succeeded in reaching the other side safely. When I asked him why he 
a musket, the man replied, * I felt certain you "would fall in attempting to go over, 
should have fallen after you (that is, appeared to be equally clumsy) ; and as the brie 
high, the water rapid, and you a gentleman, you would not have thought of giviiy] 
less than a musket.' " Ludicrous as this custom appears, it is based upon a true 
courtesy, a desire to spare the feelings of others. 

When one person of rank visits another, a number of ceremonies are iperic 
regular order. Should the visit be paid in a canoe, as is mostly the case, a herald is 
a few days previously to give notice of his coming, so as to avoid taking the 
host by suiprise. As soon as the canoe comes in sight, a herald is sent out to inqi 
name and rank of the visitor, who is met on the shore by a deputation of petty 
headed by one of the Matas, or aides-de-camp. If the visitor be a personage of veiy! 
rank, the Matas will go ten miles to meet him. 

As soon as the visitor and his retinue have reached the house of their entertaineTij 
seat themselves, and the host, after clapping his hands gently in token of sail 
welcomes them in a set form of words, such as " Come with peace the chief 
Mbau," or " Somo-somo," as the case may be. 

A series of similar remarks is made by both parties, the main point being that 
oratory is the driest and dullest of performances, always broken up into short 
without any apparent connexion between them, and further hindered by the 
courtesy which the speaker has to adopt. It is impossible for the finest orator in the* 
to make an eff'ective speech if he has to deliver it in a kneeling position, with his 
bent forward, his hands holding his beard, and his eyes directed to the ground. In 
parts of Fiji etiquette requires that the orator's back should be towards the chief 
he is addressing. Nobody takes the trouble to listen to these speeches, or is 
do so, the chiefs often talking over indifferent matters while the proper ni 
speeches are rehearsed. 

The ceremonies on leave-taking are quite as long, as intricate, and as tedion8;1 
when the speeches are over, the two great men salute each other after the fashion off 
country, by pressing their faces together, and drawing in the breath with a loud 
if smelling each other. A chief of inferior rank salutes his superior's hand, 
his face. 

When the visitors start upon their return journey, the host accompanies iheiftl 
part of the way, the distance being regulated by their relative rank. If they shonUl 
come by sea, the proper etiquette is for the host to go on board, together with M 
his chief men, and to accompany his visitors to a certain distance from land, wlM 
all jump into the sea and swim ashore. 

As is the case in all countries, whether savage or civilized, the code of etimi 
rigidly enforced at meal-times. Even the greatest chief, if present at a banquet^ Ibi 



PBEPARATIONS FOR A FEAST. 269 

\ deferential a manner as the commonest man present. Though he may be in his 
dominions, and though he may hold absolute sway over eveiy man and woman 
in sighty he will not venture to taste a morsel of food until it has first been offered to 
TilhLDj years ago one chief did so, and, in consequence, the Fijians have hated his 
name ever sinca 

great would be the breach of manners by such a proceeding, that the life of the 
ier would be endangered by it On one occasion it did cost the chief Ms life. He 
'ertently ate a piece of cocoa-nut which had not been offered to him ; and this insult 
ikled in the mind of one of his ofScers, who was in attendance, that he ran away from 
wn chief, and joined another who was at war with him. A battle took place, the 
ling chieir was worsted, and was running for his life, when he met the insulted 
r, and asked for Ids assistance. The man was inclined to give it, but the insult 

not be forgotten, and so, with an apology for the duty which he was caUed on to 
rm, he knocked out his former master's brains with his club. 

still more astonishing instance of this feeling is mentioned by Mr. Williams. A 
J chief and his father-in-law were about to dine together, and a baked guana was 
led for each. The guana is a lizard which has a long and slender tail In passing 

1 relative's guana, the young man accidentally broke off the end of its tail, which 
I necessarily be rendered brittle by cooking. This was held to be so gross an insult, 
he offender paid for it with his life. 

aquette is shown to its fuUest extent when a king or principal chief gives a great 
let. As with the New Zealanders, such a feast is contemplated for many months 
wisly; v^etables are planted expressly for it, and no one is allowed to kill pigs or 
r froit, lest there should not be a suflficient quantity of provisions. 
I8t before the day of festival, the final preparations are made. Messages are sent to 
B neighbouring tribes, or rather to the chiefs, who communicate them to the people. 
aoiile-fishers bestir themselves to get their nets and canoes in order, and, as soon 
sy are ready, start off to sea. Yams and other root-crops are dug up, the ovens 
, and the fuel chopped and brought ready for use. 

Iieae ovens are of enormous size, as each is capable of cooking a number of pigs, 
s, and vast quantities of vegetables. With all our skill in cooking, it is to be doubted 
ler we are not excelled by the Fijians in the art of cooking large quantities of meat 
lima The ovens are simply holes dug in the ground, some ten feet in depth and 
1 feet or so in diameter. 

iie mode of cooking is very simple. A small fire is made at the bottom of the pit, 
i is then filled with firewood, and as soon as the wood is thoroughly on fire, large 
B aie placed on it. When the wood has all burned away, the pigs, turtles, and 
aUes are laid on the hot stones, some of which are introduced into the interior of 
animal, so that it may be the more thoroughly cooked. The oven is then filled up 
boughs and green leaves, and upon the leaves is placed a thick covering of earth. 
iven regulates its own time of cooking, for as soon as steam rises through the earthy 
ing, the contents of the oven are known to be properly cooked. 
V» the two or three days preceding the feast, all the people are full of activity. 
' take a pride in the liberality of their chief, and each man brings as many pigs, 
I, turtles, and other kinds of food as he can manage to put together. The king him- 
faJces the direction of affairs, his orders being communicated to the people by his 
18^ or aides-de-camp. Day and night go on the preparations, the pigs squealing as 
are chased before being killed, the men hard at work at digging the ovens, some 
ning the earth with long pointed sticks, others carrying off the loosened soil in 
ets, whUe the flames that blaze from the completed ovens enable the workmen to 
itue their labours throughout the night. 

)n these occasions the Fijians dispense with their ordinary feelings respecting cooking. 
Iji, 18 in New Zealand, cooking is despised, and the word " cook " is used as a term of 
mch and derision. In consequence of this feeling, all cooking is performed by the 
a. But on the eve of a great feast this feeling is laid aside, and every man helps to 
the food. Even the king himself assists in feeding the ovens with fuel, arranging. 



270 FIJI 

the pigs, stirring the contents of the cooking-pots, and performing offices whicli 
following day, none but a slave will perform. 

By the time that the cooking is completed, the various tribes have assembled, 
ovens are then opened and the food taken out. It is then arranged in separate 
layer of cocoa-nut leaves being placed on the groimd by way of dish. On the 1( 
placed a layer of cocoa-nuts, then come the yams and potatoes, then puddings, ai 
top of all several pigs. The quantity of provisions thus brought together is ei 
Mr. Williams mentions that at one feast, at which he was present, two hundred n 
employed for nearly six hours in piling up the food. There were six heaps of i 
among their contents were about fifty tons of cooked yams and potatoes, fifteei 
pudding, seventy turtles, and about two hundred tons of imcooked yams. There 
pudding which measured twenty-one feet in circumference. 

Profusion is the rule upon these occasions, and the more food that a chief { 
the more honour he receives. One chief gained the honourable name of Hi( 
because he once provided such vast quantities of food that before it could be 
decomposition had begun in the pork. 

All being arranged, the distribution now begins, and is carried out with that ] 
of etiquette which pervades all society in Fiji The various tribes and their chii 
seated, the Tui-rara, or master of the ceremonies, orders the food to be divided 
many portions as there are tribes, regulating the amount by the importance of ti 
He then takes the tribes in succession, and calls their names. As he calls each t 
people return their thanks, and a number of young men are sent to fetch the fboi 
goes on until the whole of the food has been given away,*when a further dirt 
takes place among the tribes, each village first taking a share and then ead 
receiving its proper portion, which is handed to its head. 

It is evident that the Tui-rara has no sinecure. He must possess the most J 
knowledge of all the tribes, and the ranks of their respective chiefis, and mul 
same time be on the alert to distinguish any stranger that may make his vgf 
Should he be a foreigner, he is considered a chief, and a chiefs portion, i.e. a ^ 
sufficient for twenty Fijians or sixty Englishmen, is sent to him. Of course he i 
greater part away, but in so doing he acts the part of a chief. It is, in fact^ theo 
of Benjamin's mess translated into Fijian. 

The men always eat their food in the open air, but send the women's portifli 
houses to be eaten within doors. 

The illustration on page 271 will give an idea of a Fijian feast. On the t 
is seen the master of the ceremonies, calling the name of a tribe, and in the eii 
seen the young men running to fetch the food. In the foreground is the poxtioaj 
tribe, consisting of pigs, yams, turtles, and so forth. In front of them are aomi 
curious drums, which will be presently described, and in the distance are 8 
members of the different tribes, some eating, and others waiting for their poitio 
curious building in the background is one of the Bures, or temples, which 
presently described. 

From the preceding description it will be seen that the Fijians are not bad ca 
that the number of dishes which they produce is by no means small The va 
the dishes is, however, much greater than has been mentioned. They eat many 
fish, together with almost every living creature that they find in the coral reefs, 
of their preparations very much resemble those to which we are accustomed in 1 
For example, a sort of shrimp sandwich is made by putting a layer of shrimps 
two tare leaves. Several kinds of bread are known, and nearly thirty kinds of p 
Turtle-soup is in great favour, and so are various other soups. 

The Fijians even make sauces to be eaten with various kinds of food, the sw« 
of the sugar-cane being much used for this purpose. They also have a sort of a 
tion of tea, infusing sundry leaves and grasses in boiling water, and drinking it 
becomes sufficiently cool. Most of their food is cooked ; but, like ourselves, the 
some food in an uncooked state. Small fish, for example, are eaten alive, just tt 
oystera 



CANNIBALISM. 271 

ly driok water, or the milk of the cocoa-nut To drink water in natiTe 
very easy. They keep it in loi^ bamboo tubes, so that when it is 
ips ^e greateat care is required leet it Bbould Buddenly deli^ the &ce 

are opened in rather a curioua manner. A stout stick is sharpened at 
one end driven firmly into the ground. Taking the nut in both haikds, 
lea it on the stick, which splits open the thick husk, and allows the nut to 
With a atone, or even with another cocoa-nut in case a stone should 
d, the native hammers away round the pointed end, and contrives to 




* FUIA.N FE.^T. 



lall round lid, which is then removed, leaving a natural drinking-cup in 



>me to the terrible subject of cannibalism, on which no more will be said 
ty to illustrate the character of the people. 

are even more devoted to cannibalism than the New Zealanders, and their 
11 more appalling. A New Zealander has sometimes the grace to feel 
jitioning the subject in the bearing of a European, whereas it is impos- 

a Fijian really feel that in eating human fiesh he has committed an 
He, sees, indeed, that the white men exhibit great disgust at cannibalism, 
t he despises them for wasting such luxurious food as human 3eeh. 
^Jhzistiaiuzed natives have to be watched carefully lest they should be 



272 FIJI. 

tempted by old habits, and revert to the custom which they had promised to abjure. 1 
example, Thakombau, the King of Mbau, became a Christian, or at least pretended to 
so. He was not a particularly creditable convert. Some time after he had announ 
himself to be a Christian, he went in his war-canoe to one of the districts under his swi 
He was received with the horribly barbarous ceremonial by which a very great cb 
is honoured, conch-shell trumpets blowing before him, and the people shouting their soi 
of welcome. Thus accompanied, he walked through a double row of living victinu 
men, women, and children of all ages — suspended by their feet, and placed there to gi 
the king his choice. The hopeful convert was pleased to accept the offering, touclu 
with his club as he passed along those victims which seemed most to his taste. 

The natives are clever enough at concealing the existence of cannibalism when th 
find that it shocks the white men. A European cotton-grower, who had tried 
cessfuUy to introduce the culture of cotton into Fiji, found, after a tolerably long 
dence, that four or five human beings were killed and eaten weekly. There was 
of food in the place, pigs were numerous, and fish, fruit, and vegetables abundant 
the people ate human bodies as often as they could get them, not from any su 
motive, but simply because they preferred human flesh to pork. 

Many of the people actually take a pride in the number of human bodies whidi 
have eaten. One chief was looked upon with great respect on account of his 
cannibalism, and the people gave him a title of honour. They called him the TurUe-] 
comparing his insatiable stomach to the pond in which turtles are kept ; and so proud 
they of his deeds, that they even gave a name of honour to the bodies brought 
consumption, calling them the " Contents of the Turtle-pond." TMs man was ace 
to eat a human body himself, suffering no one to share it with him. After his 
were grown up, he bethought himself of registering his unholy meals by placing a 
on the ground as soon as he had finished the body. His son showed these stones to 
English clergyman, who counted them, and found that there were very nearly 
hundred. 

One man gained a great name among his people by an act of peculiar atrocity, 
told hLs wife to build an oven, to fetch firewood for heating it, and to prepare a 
knife. As soon as she had concluded her labours her husband killed her, and baked 
in the oven which her own hands had prepared, and afterwards ate her. Some 
man has been known to take a victim, bind him hand and foot, cut slices from lus 
and legs, and eat them before his eyes. Indeed, the Fijians are so inordinately vain, 
they will do anything, no matter how horrible, in order to gain a name amoi^ 
people ; and Dr. Pritchard, who knows them thoroughly, expresses his wonder that 
chief did not eat slices from his own limbs. 

Cannibalism is engrained in the very nature of a Fijian, and extends throiu ^ 
classes of society. It is true that there are some persons who have never eaten fleab,' 
there is always a reason for it. Women, for example, are seldom permitted to 
" bakolo," as himian flesh is termed, and there are a few men who have refrained 
cannibalism through superstition. Every Fijian has his special god, who is sup 
have his residence in some animal. One god, for example, lives in a rat, as we 
already seen ; another in a shark ; and so on. The worshipper of that god never etti 
animal in which his divinity resides ; and as some gods are supposed to reside in ' 
bodies, their worshippers never eat the flesh of man. 

According to the accounts of some of the older chiefs, whom we may believe or 
as we like, there was once a time when cannibalism did not exist Many yean 
some strangers from a distant land were blown upon the shores of Fiji, and 
hospitably by the islanders, who incorporated them into their own tribes, and made 
of them. But, in process of time, these people became too powerful, killed the 
chiefs, took their wives and property, and usurped their office. 

In this emergency the people consulted the priests, who said that the F^iaM 
brought their misfortunes upon themselves. They had allowed strangers to live, 
'' Fiji for the Fijians " was the golden rule, and from that time every male stranger 
be killed and eaten, and every woman taken as a wife. 



THE BLACK LIST. 273 

Only one people was free from this law. The Tongans, instead of being killed and 
ken, were always welcomed, and their visits encouraged, as they passed backwards and 
rwsods in their canoes, and brought with them fine mats and other articles for barter. 
\ much have these people intermingled, that in the eastern islands, which are nearest to 
ose of Tonga, there is a decided mixture of Tongan blood. With this exception, how- 
€ir, the Fijians went on the same principle as the Ephesians of Shakespeare — 

*• If any iSjTaciisan born 
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies ; " 

•ve that^ instead of merely putting to death those who came from one country, they only 
Dcepted one country from the universal law. 
The reader may remember that a sort of respect is paid to a human body used for 
Educated people speak of it in the court language, and, instead of using any 
term, such as a human body, tliey employ the metaphorical language, and call it 
long pig." As a general rule, the vessels in which human flesh is cooked are 
ired expressly for that purpose, and both the vessel in which it is cooked and the 
from which it is eaten are held as tapu. 

So highly is " bakolo " honoured, that it is eaten, not with fingers, but with a fork, 

the implement in question is handed down from father to son, like the merais and 

of the New Zealander. These forks are quite unlike those which we use in England. 

mostly have four prongs, but these prongs, instead of being set in a line, are 

lly arranged in a circle or triangle as the case may be. They are carved out of 

very hard wood, and, when they have become venerable by reason of age or of the 

of their proprietor, they receive names of honour. For example, the cannibal chief 

ate nearly nine hundred human bodies had a fork which was named " Undro-undro," 

I title signifying a small person carrying a great burden. The fork was a small object, 

it had carried ta the lips of its master the bodies of nearly nine hundred human 

As the Fijians set such a value on human flesh, it is to be expected that they will 

it a variety of excuses for obtaining it. For example, when a chief builds a house, 

fkills at least one human victim to celebrate the event. If he builds a large war-canoe, 

ies of sacrifices take place. A man is killed, for example, when the keel is laid, and, 

chief be a very powerful one, he will kill a victim as each plank is fixed in its 

Even when it is finished the slaughter is not over, as, in the first place, the planks 

new vessel have to be washed with human blood, and, in the next, the launch 

be commemorated in the same way as the building. One chief gained some 

iety by binding a number of men, and laying them side by side along the shore to 

as rollers over which the canoe was taken from the land into the sea. The weight of 

canoe killed the men, who were afterwards baked and eaten. 

Even aft^r the canoe is launched, excuses are found for carrying on the system of human 
leiy. Whenever it touches at a place for the first time, a man must be sacrificed in 
of taking do^ii the mast, this being done to show that the vessel means to make 
stay at the place. If a chief should arrive in a new canoe, and keep up his mast, 
people understand the signal, and bring on board a newly-slain victim, so that the 
may be taken down. 
On one occasion, when a war-canoe had been built at Somo-somo, the missionaries 
themselves so successfully that the canoe was launched without the sacrifice of a 
Ufa Eventually, however, their well-intentioned interference rather increased 
diminished the number of victims. When the canoe arrived at Mbau, the chiefs 
80 vexed that it had reached them unhonoured by human blood that they straight- 
attacked a village, killed some fourteen or fifteen men, and ate them in order to do 
hBOur to the ceremony of taking down the mast. 

[ Sometimes, in order to secure a victim whenever one is wanted, the chiefs pick out 
petly a certain number of men, and put them, so to speak, on the black list. Whenever 
wrifice is needed, all the executioners have to do is to find out how many victims are 
K&ted, and then to go and kill the requisite number of the black-list men. 

▼OL. IL T 




274 FIJI. 

Whole towns are sometimes put on the black list, a curious example of which < 
is given by Mr. Williams. " Vakambua, chief of Mbau, thus doomed Tavua, and 
whale's tooth to a Ng^rara chief, that he might at a fitting time punish that placa 
passed away, and a reconciliation took place between Mbau and Tavua, but, unhappi 
Mbau chief failed to neutralize the engagement made with the Nggara. A day cam< 
human bodies were wanted, and the tiioughts of those who held the tooth were 
towards Tavua. They invited the people of that place to a friendly exchange o 
and slew twenty-three of their unsuspecting victims. 

" When the treacherous Nggarans had gratified their own appetites by pieces 
flesh cut oft' and roasted on the spot, the bodies were taken to Yakambua, wl 
greatly astonished, expressed much regret that such a slaughter should have grown 
his carelessness, and then shared the bodies to be eaten." 

The Fijian can seldom resist meat, and that he should resist " bakolo " could 
expected of him. In Mrs. Smythe*s " Ten Months in the Fiji Islands," an ai 
instance of this predilection is recorded. "A white man had shot and carried ofl 
belonging to a Fijian, who, being a convert, went to a native teacher named Obadia 
asked him to go to the delinquent and remonstrate with him. The teacher put < 
black coat, went to the man's house, and with much earnestness pointed out to hi 
iniquity of the deed, asking him how he would have liked it had a Fijian killed • 
his own pigs. The man listened very respectfully, and allowed the error of his 
acknowledging that the teacher had put the matter in a new light. * But,' said he 
pig is now dead, and we cannot bring it to life again. Shall we throw it out and 
go to waste, or, as it is just baked, and you have not breakfasted, shall we not sit 
and you will ask a blessing ? ' 

" Obadiah, taken by suri^rise by Q 's penitence, and the compliment paid 

own clerical functions, and swayed perhaps a little by the irresistible love of all I 
for roast pork, bowed his head, and reverentially said a long prayer, after which th 
set heartily to work on the pig." When the teacher went to the missionary to repo 
successful labours, he was quite astonished at being charged with complicity 
the thief 



CHAPTER IV. 



WAR AND AMUSEMENTS. 



OF THK FIJIANS — THK ELIKO, AND MODR OP USING IT — THE CLUB, AND ITS VARIOUS 

ICATIONS — GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OP THE CLUB INTO THE PADDLE MODE OP MAKING 

I^irBSy AND PBEPAHATION OP THE TREES — ORNAMENTS OF THE CLUBS, AND THEIR NAMES 

AN SPBABS THEIR TERRIBLE BARBS — OBJECTS OF WAR — THE REVIEW THE FATE OP 

OASTBR INGENIOUS ENGINEERING CRUELTY TOWARDS PRISONERS '* CONSECRATION " OF 

^RIOB, AND HIS NEW NAME — DOMESTIC LIFE — CEREMONIES AT BIRTH TRAINING IN 

rOK AMUSEMENTS — VARIOUS GAMES — RIRIKI WOMEN AGAINST MEN DANCES AND SONGS 

IRIAGB FESTIVITIES WEDDING OF A CHIEf's DAUGHTER DOMESTIC DISCIPLINE THE 

STAFF — FESTI%^TIES AT HOUSE-BUILDING — MODE OF THATCHING AND DECORATING THE 
8 A PRACTICAL JOKE. 



lance with tlie plan on which this work lias been arranged, Fijian warfare will 
bed as it was before fire-arms were introduced, and had changed the ancient style 
•e. 

iriginal weapons of the Fijian are the club, the axe (which, by the way, is little 
m a modification of the club), the bow, the sling, and the spear. In most of 
ipons is exhibited the fancifully artistic nature of the manufacturers. The sling 
ps the only weapon from which ornament is almost wholly absent. Like the 
iding w-eapon of the New Caledonians, it carries stones of tolerable weight and 
■dness, and, when wielded by a skilful hand, becomes no inefficient weapon even 
ire- arms themselves. A stone hurled from a Fijian sling has been known to 
musket useless, the stone having struck the barrel, and bent and indented it as 
would have been done by a bullet. 

3hief weapon of the Fijian is the club, and upon this he lavishes all the artistic 

t his command, covering nearly the whole of it with the most intricate and 

y executed carvings. Some clubs are straight, like thick cudgels, others are 

Those which are knobbed at the end have an infinite variety in the knob, as we 

«eiitly see. Some are more or less flattened, while there are some which are so 

so broad that it is not easy at first sight to determine whether they are clubs or 

Some are so large that they require the whole exertion of a muscular man to 

em, while others are so short that they are kept stuck in the girdle, and used as 

precisely as the short knob-kerries are used by the South Africans. A Fijian 

n cany two or more of these clubs in his girdle. 

g of the most characteristic forms of Fijian clubs are given on the following page, 
drawn from specimens in my collection. The right-hand figure represents a club, 
ridently modified from a gnarled and knotted branch, and by comparing a number 
oens together it is easy to trace the progress of manufacture. This form of club is 
e found among the Papuans of New Guinea, the natives of the Outanata district 
it With the exception of the deep transverse cuts, there is no attempt at 

T 2 



276 



FIJI. 



omameDt. It is tolerably heavy, thoagh not veiy lai^e, and requires two bands 
wielded properly. 

The central figiire represents one of the paddle-like clubs which has jnrt 
mentioned. The blade is not an inch in thickness in the middle, and it gradually 
off to either side, so as to form a tolerably sharp edge. With the exception of the fa 



■If 





it is entirely covered with carving ; the dentated pattern, which seems common to i 
all savage art, being very conspicuous. It is extremely we^hty, and, to a Eon 
appears a very awkward instrument, except perhaps that the broad blade tnig 
utUized as a shield. 

On the left hand is seen a third club, which may be considered as a sort of 
mediate form between the other two. Like the last, it has a broad blade, bat is evil 
a club and not a paddle. The blade is strengthened by a bold ridge running aid 
centre. In order to show the mode in which it is flattened, a side view of the bwB 
is shown at flg. 2, and a cross section of the blade is given at fig. 3. This kind of t 
modified in various ways, but is always made on the same principle, t.e. a round 1 
and a flattened paddle-like end, sometimes nearly plain, as in ^e above-nunl 
specimens, and sometimes furnished with knobs, teeth, and spikes projecting frM 



THE CLUB AND ITS VABIOUS FORMS. 277 

I 9Mne cases it assnmes the shape of a crescent, and looks, indeed, mach like a 
ife very much magnified. 

er very chanusteristic shape is given in the left-hand figure of the engraving below. 
« imagised from the illustration, it is very weighty, so that even to cany it 





ist be raiher troublesome. It is covered with c-arvings in the moat lavish 
ind such value has been set by the manufacturer upon the weapon, that he has 
en the trouble to invent dift'erent patterns for the opposite sides. In two of 
ba the reader will observe that the dentated pattern is alternated with a sort of 
ke carving, and so lavish of his work has he been that in tlie cylindrical club 
shown on the right hand of the illustration, although he has divided the club by 
1 carved each space with a different pattern, he has on several portions of his 
hanged the pattern as soon as lie has drawn it half round the club. 
leculiar form of the left-hand elub'ia evidently due to the structure of the branch 
ch it waa cut, the projecting portion being the base of another branch. Although 
J own among the number — the club has been carved irom a great 



278 FIJI. 

log of solid wood, the form has evidently been borrowed from the junction of two 
branches. The edge of the club is cut into slight teeth, and just within the edge aw a 
number of round holes, set in a line. A tolerably bold ridge runs along the head of the 
club and follows its curve, and through this ridge are also bored a number of holes, 
apparently for the purpose of attaching bunches of feathers, or other ornaments, to 
the weapon. 

The most characteristic club of Fiji is, however, that of which an example is given 
in the central figure. It is made from the stem and part of the root of a young tree. It 
this part of the world there are certain trees which grow in a manner which to us seeu 
very peculiar. As is the case with many trees, it sends a tap-root deeply into the 
and is further supported by a number of smaller roots which diverge from it on all sidi 
and n^taiu it in its upright position, just as a mast is upheld by the standing rigging. 

While the tree is very young, it is drawn down nearly horizontally, and fixed in t! 
position, so as to bo bcut nearly at right angles close to the earth. When it hasgro' 
to the thickness of a niaii's wrist, the top is cut off and the roots dug out of the groui 
The tap-root is then scraped down to a point, and all the smaller roots are cut 
to within an inch and a hall' of the tap-root, so as to form a radiating m<a3s of spiki 
whir:h are sharpened, and thus ])resont the appearance shown in the illustration. 

8uch a club as this is an excecdiui^dy vahuible weapon, and the greatest care is 
in its manufacture. The spike at the end is scra])cd and rounded until it assumes 
perfectly re.uular shape, and is then i:)olislied until it shines like a well-rubbed piece 
maho<^^any. 'J1ie radiating si)ikclets are each trimmed with the greatest nicety, so tliat, 
whatever direction the weaj)on is viewed, they all radiat<^ with exact regularity. 

The handle is polished as carefully as the lower spike, and in most cases is ado: 
with elaborately (?arv<Ml patterns. In many clubs it is completely covered with bl 
and white sinnel made I'xpressly for this purpose, and })laited in patterns as elaborate 
those which are cai'ved. S«Mne of the best clubs are further ornamented by havi 
scarlet feathers worked in with sinnet. There are, indeed, scarcely any bountls to 
decoration of clubs, many of which are inlaid with shell, or hog's tusks, or whales' t 
or even the teeth of men. These latter ornaments are chiefly reserved for the knobs of 
small missile club. 

lU'side these, there is an infinite variety of forms, some of the clubs exactly reseni 
the steel maces of the days of chivaliy, others being first squared and then cut 
]>yramidal form, while others look just like enormous mushrooms. Some of them 
tiie handles completely covered with wicker-work ; but, as a rule, these highly omamei 
weapons are not for use but for show, like the court sword of the present day. 

Some of the names given to these clubs are highly suggestive. For example, 
was called "Weeping urges me to action," others *' Disperser," " Smasher." and so fi 
Those which Ixjlong to well-known chiefs or distinguished warriors are used much as 
among ourselves. If, for example, a great chief desires to pay a visit, he will send 
club as an intimation that the owner will follow. Or, if one chief asks another for 
in war, the ordinary mode of showing that the application is favourably received is 
the latter to send his club by the ambassador who brought the message. 

Thei-e is as great a variety of spears as of clubs. Speara are almost invariably 
gi'cat length, some measuring fourteen or fifteen feet in lengtli. They ave made fi 
hard w^ood, and are almost invariably armed with a series of barbs. In the manufacti 
and arrangement of the barbs, the Fijians show wonderful ingenuity. Mostly, they 
not from the same piece of wood as the spear itself, but in many weapons they are m 
of other materials. The sharp tail-bone of the sting-ray is a favourite material, both 
the points and barbs of speai's, probably because it is very hard, and so brittle that it i 
nearly sure to break oflf in the wound. Other barbs are made of a wood which has 
property of swelling up when moistened, and bursting in the wound, so that it can h«n 
be extracted. Such spears as this are called by a very ominous title, " The priest is 1 
late." Some of the spears are not only carved in various patterns, but have the liei 
cut into a kind of bold open work pattern, which has a very elegant appearance, thoa 
it must detract greatly from the strength of the weapon. One of the ordinary F^ian spa 



Dil ' 



280 FIJI. 

is shown in the illustration, and is taken from specimens in my collection, in which thei 
are several others, but all of a simiUir character. 

Many of the weapons have more than one point, a good example of which may beaeei 
in the illustration on the preceding page, which is taken from a specimen in my own ool 
lection. The points are rather more than a yard in length, and are made of separate pieoa 
of wood, ingeniously dovetailed into the shaft of the spear, and held in their place bj 
lashings of sinnet. In my specimen, the manufacturer has been so lavish of his labom; 
that he has not only woven the sinnet into elegant patterns, but has continued thai 
along the whole of the shaft, covering it with a sort of mixture of the zigzag and thf 
dentated patterns. There are also spears with several points, each point being barbed oi 
deeply serrated on the inside cap. These are not for war, but for lishing purposes. Am 
for the war in which these weapons are used, it is hardly deserving of the name. 

When two chiefs have decided on going to war, messengers pass between them, 
both sides beat up recruits for their armies and offer gifts to the gods. Whalei^ 
and food form the chief part of these offerings, and the latter is often siven ii 
quantities. Independent chiefs often take advantage of war to increase their 
Such a chief, for example, though urged by both sides to join them, trims and 
and bides his time. One party will tlien send him a bribe, and as soon as the other | 
hear of it, they send a larger bribe, in order to " press down " the former gift. The: 
usually is, that the recipient keeps both bribes, and eventually declines to 
either side. 

The forces are gathered by a series of reviews, held as the army marchea 
reviews form the great charm of war, as any amount of boasting may be done 
the slightest risk. Each warrior rushes up to the commanding chief, bi 
weapons, and boasts of the great deeds which he is going to do ; all the warrion^ 
in their very best, wdth bodies covered with black powder, so as to contrast 
snow-white masi, and their faces painted as none but a Fijian can paint 
order to look as mai-tial as possible. 

The chief often ridicules the pretensions of these men, insinuating that they 
more ready to run away than to fight ; but this is only for the purpose of inc 
to display their courage, and, by way of inducing them to fight well, laige 
promised to those who distinguish themselves in battle. 

Sometimes a warrior, carried away by the excitement of the moment, booste 
will kill the enemy's chief, eat his flesh, and make a drinking-cup of his skulL 
generally a very foolish proceeding. The menaced chief is sure to hear of it^ 
promise a large reward if the boaster be taken alive. 

Should he be captured, his fate is certain. His hands are bound behind him, 
large bundle of dried cocoa-nut leaves is fastened tightly across his shouhlers, pnji 
for several feet on either side. Tlie ends of the leaves are then lighted, and the 
wretch is left to die, the spectators laughing and jeering at him as lie runs al 
maddened by the torment. This punishment is called by a name which 
carrying fuel. 

The party that are attacked usually retire into a native fort, the structure of ▼! 
often shows great engineering skill. The Fijians are very apt at selecting a spot 
is difiRcult of access, and foi-tifying it in such a manner that two or three men could 
it against a thousand. Mr. Williams visited one of these forts, and found that 
approach to it w^as not without danger, even in time of peace. The only path to the 
led through thick and tangled vegetation, and terminated on the edge of a pi 
The entrance to the fort was on the face of the precipice, several yards from the enl^ 
the path, and there was no mode of getting to it except by crawling along the 
dicular rock by means of little holes in which the toes and fingers could be inserted 

When the natives cannot find a place of such natural strength, they have a wiyjj 
defending the entrance by a series of gates with traverses between them, so that 
enemies who forced the first gate were obliged to go for some distance through a 
passage, which was pierced with loop-holes, through which spears could be throat 
arrows shot. Even if they succeeded in passing the second gate, a similar gauntlet 



j 



MODE OF WARFAItK 



28r 



re they coidd reach the third. Thomj trees are in great request for the 
of these forta, the bare-skinned natives greatly dreading the prickly Walls, 

ear grow more dense and less penetrable. 

the strength of the forts, the natives do not care about assaulting them, 

Ivance to the walls, avail themselves of eveiy cover. They then yell and 
taunts at the enemy, challenging them to come out and fight. Sometimes 

is answered, a number of warriors issuing from the fort and each selecting 
often, howe^'er, as soon as the besiegers see their challenge answered, tJiey 




THE FATE UF THE BOASTER. 



ast as they can, the Fijian liking to come behind his enemy and knock him 
tealthily better than to oppose him in open fight, 

fort be taken, the slaughter is dreadful, and is nothing but a massacre, the 
er being killed, and the rest reserved to he put to death by torture. One 
le of torture is to stun the unhappy captive with a club, and to throw him 
I oven by way of bringing him back to his senses. The atru^les of the 
aan as the fierce heat restores liim to consciousness are greeted with laughter 
the delighted spectators. Others are bound hand and foot and given to the 
I as subjects on which they can try their skill at torturing. 
expeditions are nearly always made in canoes, the return of the war party 
I great distance, and all the population assemble on the beach to welcome 
I warriors, the women dancing and singing songs of triumph in honour of 
rs. A horrible scene then takes place, too horrible indeed to be described ; 
the dead are offered in the temples, the ovens are prepared, and for some 
id licence leigns supreme. 



282 FIJI. 

In connexion with warfare must 1h3 mentioned a curious custom of giving a new 
name to men who have killed any of the enemy during the campaign. Whether die 
enemy be an armed warrior slain in fair fight, an unarmed man knocked down by stealtli, 
a woman, or even a little child, signifies nothing. The warrior has clubbed an enemy, 
and has a right to his new name of honour. Should he have killed a chief, he takes the 
name of his victim, and sometimes his own chief honoui's him by calling the man big 
flag, his canoe, his comb, &c. Of the consecration ceremony, wherein the new name ii 
given, Mr. Williams once saw a very excellent example at Somo-somo, the subject of 
consecration being a young chief. 

" The king and leading men having taken their seats in the public square, fonrteaj 
mats were brought and spread out, and upon these were placed a Ixile of cloth and 
whale's teeth. Near by was laid a sail mat, and on it several men's dresses. Tlie yoi 
chief now made his appearance, bearing in one hand a large pine-apple club, and in 
other a common reed, while his long train of niasi dmgged on tlie ground behind him. 

" On his reaching the mats, an old man took the reed out of the hero's hand, 
despatched a youth to deposit it carefully in the temple of the war- god. The king 
ordered the young chief to stand upon the bale of cloth ; and while he obeyed, a numl 
of women came into the square, brin^nng small dishes of turmeric mixed with oil, whi 
they placed before the youth, and retired with a song. The masi Wiis now removed 
the chief himself, an attendant substituting one much larger in its stead. The 
Mata (aide-de-camp) next selected several dishes of the coloured oil, and anointed 
warrior from the roots of the hair to his heels. 

" At this stage of the proceedings one of the spectators stepped forward and excht 
clubs with the anointed, and soon another did the same. Then one left him a gun: 
place of the club, and many similar changes were effected, under a belief that 
weapons thus passing through his hands derived some viitue. 

"The mats were now removed, and a portion of them sent to the temple, some of 
turmeric being sent after them. The king and old men, followed by the young man 
two men sounding conches, now proceeded to the sea-side, where the anointed one 
through the ancients to the water's edge, returned, while the king and tho.se with 
counted one, two, three, four, five, and each then threw a stone into the sea. The wl 
company now went back to the town with blasts of the trumpet-shells, and a 
hooting of the men. 

" Custom requires that a hut should be built, in which the anointed man and 
companions may pass the next three nights, during which time the newly-named 
must not lie down, but sleep as he sits ; he must not change his masi, or remove 
turmeric, or enter a house in which there is a woman, until that period has elapsed, 
the case now described, the hut had not been built, and the young chief was permit 
to use the temple of the god of war instead. 

" During the three days he was on an incessant march, followed by half a score 
reddened like himself. After three weeks he paid me a visit, on the first day of 
being permitted to enter a house in which there was a female. He informed me 
new name was Kuila, or Flag." 

When a name of honour has thus been given to a man, the complimentary tide 
Koroi, or consecrated, is prefixed to it. 

The battles of the Fijians are not, as a rule, remarkable for the slaughter that 
place. They are, in fact, little but a series of single combats. When a man falls, his 
try to get him off the ground to save his liie, if possible, or to be able to bury the 
if he should die ; while the enemy use their best endeavours to secure the wounded 
in order to bake and eat him. No dishonour is attached to the fact of a slain man 
eaten. On the contrary, it is a proof of his courage, for none but tliose who die bnvi^ 
in battle are eaten in the feast which follows upon the victor}', the bodies of slain cowafi 
being contemptuously thrown into the bush. 

We now come to a more pleasing part of Fijian diameter, namely, the varioa 
incidents of domestic life. , 




AMUSE.MENTS. 283 

an as the Fijian child comes into the world, it is taken from the mother, and 
mother woman for three days, during which time she lies at her ease. The firat 
j^hich the child receives is a thick coating of turmeric and oil, and the first 
jh it knows is either the juice of sugar-cane or of cocoa-nut. A name is given 
lild as soon as possible after its birth, and these names are generally signifi- 
some event that has happened either to the child itself or to some member of 

r 

• 

jh the Fijian children spend the great part of their time in the open air, and are 
immelled by clothing, they are liable to a very unpleasant disease called the 
which somewhat resembles the "yaws" of the negro tribes. The parents are 
id than sorry to see their children afflicted with this disease, as they believe that 
I necessary adjunct to infantile health, and that a cliild who escapes the thoko 

be sickly and feeble when it grows up. 

Ijian child receives no training, unless encouragement of every bad passion may 
by that name. Eevenge is impressed upon the child's mind from its earliest 
md most horrible are the means which are sometimes employed for this purpose, 
years the duty of revenge is kept always before his eyes. Should one man 
3ther, the offended individual keeps himself constantly reminded of the offence 
g some object in his sight, and not removing it until he has avenged himself, 
times he will effect the same purpose by depriving himself of some luxury until 
id his revenge. One man, for example, will plait his hair in a particular manner, 
dll hang some article of dress in his house, while another will refuse to dance, 
of some particular kind of food. One chief, for example, hung a roll of tobacco 
of of his house, with the intention of refusing to smoke until he had killed his 
id could smoke that tobacco over the dead body. Another refrained from 

and would only answer by whistling. 

:nowledge of this custom makes the Fijians a most nervous race. Should a 
Mioe appear ofif the coast, the inhabitants of the villages are all in a stir, some 
to the woods, and others concealing their food and other valuables in secret 
€S. They do not like to w^alk alone in the evening. Mr. Williams mentions 
as seen a whole company dispei'se at the lifting of a telescope, and, more than 
in he was visited by natives and the door suddenly slammed with the wind, the 

his visitoi*s rushed tuniultuously out of the windows. On one occasion, a 
3f men were dragging a large canoe into the sea, when one of them espied a 
.ck on one side. He whispered his discovery to the man next him, he to the 
I SO on, and in a few minutes eveiy man had run away from the boat, fearing 
wner should charge him with having done the damage. 
musements of the Fijians are rather more varied than is usually the case among 

Some of them are identical with many of our own children's games, such as 
d seek," "blind man's buff," and a sort of " hop, skip, and jump." A sort of 
nd toss " is also in vogue, the substitute for pence being the flat, circular fruit 
ies of mimosa. 

have one game which bears some resemblance to that of the " kangaroo-rat " of 

, which has been described on page 41. The players have a reed about four feet 

, at one end of which is an oval piece of hard and heavy wood some six inches 

This instrument is held between the thumb and middle finger, the end of the 

being applied to its extremity. With a peculiar underhand jerk the player 
horizontally, so that it glides over the ground for a considerable distance, the 
lo sends the missile farthest being the winner. In order that this favourite 
r be constantly played, each village has attached to it a long strip of smooth 
lich is kept sedulously trimmed, so that the missile may skim along with as 
stance as possible. 

there is the swing. This is made much like the New Zealand swing, but is 

different manner. Instead of being held by the hands alone, the rope has a 

le end, into which the swinger inserts his foot. Sometimes, it has a large knot, 

both feet can be supported. Drawing the rope to the top of a convenient bank, 



284 



FIJI. 



the swinger grasps it vitb his hands, leaps in the air, places his foot in the loop, and gon 
sweeping through an enormous arc, the nidius of which often exceeds fifty feet 

In some cases the swing is fixed by the water side, and the moi« daring of the ptft 
formers loosen their grasp at the propt-r moment, and are hurled through the air inlQ 
the water. i 

One favourite game, called Ririki, is played after the following fashion : — Close to th 
water's edge is fixed a stout post, and on this is laid the trunk of a tall cocoa-nut tree, i 
that its base rests on the ground, and the tip projects over the water. Tlie game consist 




in ruuuiug at full ^perid up this inclined ti'ee, s.nd jumping into the water one ■ 
other, swimming ashore, and repeating the process. This is a verj- lively ( 
natives shouting and laughing the whole time, aud plunging so rapidly in i 
that the water benealh the end of the inclined tree ia white with foam. 

The people are admirable awiiiimere, and, having been accustomed to swim as » 
they could walk, disport themselves in the water with aa mucli ease as on land, 
are fond of swimming out to aea in parties, and join in various aqimtic games, siidll 
trying to push each other under wattr, diving, i-acing, and so forth. 

Some of their sports are rather rough. They have one game which bears a c 
reBemblance to snow-balling, except that the missiles are bitter oranges instead of si 
balls. In some places they jerk stones at each other by means of elastic bambooa,^ 
do so with such force that considerable pain is caused when the missile strikes i 
bare skin. 



I^ETROTHAL AND ALA.RRIAGE 285 

Sometimes a sort of mock battle takes place. When food is brought to the men, the 
lien suddenly rush upon them, try to drive them away, and to seize the food. Sough 
he women may be, the men seldom retaliate, except by taking their assailants round 
waists and throwing them on the ground. Mr. Williams mentions one instance when 
oman actually shot a man dead with an arrow, turning the mock fight into a sad 
ity. Several cases are known where the men have been so severely handled that they 
e afterwards died of their wounds. 

On certain occasions an amusing game is played by the young men. A thin earthen- 
•e vessel is filled with water and suspended from a bough, and a number of young 
tt, with their eyes blindfolded, try to break the vessel by striking at it with long sticks. 
]SIusic and dancing are greatly studied among the Fijians, and any one who knows a 
? dance is sure to earn plenty of goods by teaching it. Their musical instruments are 
f poor, consisting of drums, pipes, and trumpets. The first-mentioned instruments 
nothing more than wooden cylinders, through one side of which a groove is cut about 
iMUch or BO in width. The pipes are of two kinds ; namely, a soit of pandean pipe 
le of several strips of bamboo fastened together, and the flute. This latter instrument 
tlaved by placing the aperture close to one nostril, and breatliing through it while the 
er is stopped with the thumb of the left hand. The trumpets are merely conch-shells 
m through a hole in the side. 

The dances are very carefully got up, and more resemble military movements than 
oes, the similitude being inci-eased by the martial array of the dancers, who are all 
88 if for war, their faces painted with scarlet, their bodies powdered with black, 
heet clubs or spears in their hands. They execute intricate manoeuvres, 
in Tarious figures, wheeling, halting, and stamping their feet in exact time to 
of the song and the beat of the drum. Sometimes several hundred men are 
in the dance, while the musicians are twenty or thirty in number. 
aoene at one of these dances is very picturesque, but it wants the furious energy 
JBvee anch fiery animation to the war-dance of the New Zealanders, the move- 
^noqgh correct in point of time, being comparatively dull and heavy. In order to 
n it a litde more, a professional buffoon is usually introduced upon the scene, who 
nmdry grotesque movements, and is usually applauded for his exertions. 
and dancing are always used at the celebration of a maniaj^e, and, as may be 
Ipned ficom the punctilious nature of the Fijian, there is no lack of ceremony on 



Mastitjr, girls are betrothed when they are quite infants, no regard being paid to 
prity of age between themselves and their intended husbands. The form of betrothal 
iflier carious, and oousbts in the mother of the child taking a small liku, or woman's 
Ae; and presenting it to the man, who from that moment takes her daughter under his 
ileetion until she is old enough to be married. 

In those cases where a young maij takes a liking to a young woman, he asks her of 
r father, making at the same time a small present as a matter of form. Should the 
plication be successful, an interchange of presents then takes place between the friends 
both parties, and in a few days follows the ceremony called " warming," which consists 
conveying to the house of the bride some food prepared by the intended husband. In 
»t parts of Fiji, the bride has a complete holiday for four days, sitting quietly at home, 
BKed in her finest apparel, and painted with turmeric and oiL At the expiration of the 
ir days, she is taken by a number of married women to the sea, where they all join in 
liing, and afterwards cook the fish that they have taken. The cooking being completed, 
5 bride^TToom is sent for, and the betrothed couple eat together, each giving the other a 
(tion of food. 

After this ceremony comes a period during which the bridegroom is employed in 
Qding a house for his intended wife, and the girl undergoes the painful tattooing which 
izks her as having taken her place among women. During this time, she remains 
thin the house so as to shield her complexion from the sun. The house being com* 
ted, all the friends of both families are gathered together, and a great feast takes place, 
vhich the givers make it a point of honour to be as lavish as possible. At the end of 



28fi 



KM!. 



this feast, the girl is formally hauded over to her Imsl'aml, and exchanges her narrowl 
for the broader garment befitting her new condiiion. 

"When the daughter of an important chief to married, her father always gives b 
number of female attendants, sometimes as nuiny as twelve or fifteen accompanying 
bride to her home. They are placed under the chaise of an elderly wonian wlio art 
their superintendent, and are called by a name which signifiee a pet servant Thei 
always a great scene at the depnrture of a bride to her home, all her relations and M> 
crowding round her, and kissing her until she is nearly smothered by their carcsEes. 




* FIJIAN WEDDINQ. 



An interesting descriptioii of the presentation of a bride is given by Mr. Willi 
" She was brought in at the principal entrance by the king's aunt and a few niatroai, 
then, led only by the old la<iy, approached the king. She was an interesting gii 
fifteen, glistening with oil, wearing a now liku, and a necklace of curved ivoiy po 
radiating from her neck, and turning upwards. The kinj; then received from his aual 
girl, with two whale's teetli, which she carried in her hand. When she was seated tl 
feet, his majesty repeated a list of their gods, and 6nislied by pi-aying that the girl m 
live, and bring forth male chililrcn. 

"To her friends, two men who had cimie in at the back door, he gave a mot 
begging them not to think hardly of his having taken tlieir cliild, as the step was count 
with the good of the land, in which their interests, as well as his own, were invol 
The musket, which was about equivalent to the necklace, the men received with 
beads, muttering a short prayer, the close of which was exactly the same as tbey 



HOUSE-ia:iLI)IN(r. 287 

for years, ' Death to Natawa.' Tuikilakila then took off tlie girl's necklace and 
her. The gayest moment of lier life, as far as dress was concerned, was past ; and 
hat the untying of that polished ornament from her neck was the first downward 
a dreary future. Perhaps her forebodings were like mine, for she wept, and the 
hich glanced off her bosom and rested in distinct drops on her oily legs were seen 
king, who said, * Do not weep. Ai-e you going to leave your own land ? You are 
ng a voyage, soon to return. Do not think it a hardship to go to Mbau. Here 
ve to work hard ; there you will rest. Here you fare indifferently ; there you will 
beat of food. Only do not weep to spoil yourself As he thus spoke, he played 
T curly locks, complimenting her on her face and fij^ure. She reminded him of a 
F hers, who had been taken to Mbau in years past." 

had certainly reason for her tears, as the condition of Fijian wives is not a very 
B one. As is the case with most countries in which polygamy is practised, the 
ne apt to be very jealous of each other, and to quarrel among themselves. 
iy, ibeSx squabbles are treated with contemptuous indifference by the husband as 

tbej do not annoy him personally; but if he should feel himself angered, he 
^ <^»^^ the tumult by belabouring all parties alike with a very sufficient stick 
i^L keeps for the purpose. One chief had a cudgel as thick as a broomstick, in 
lA BCOllli mI to take no little pride, having carved and inlaid it with ivory. 
IHSn aie not held in any great estimation, whether they be single or married. A 
jjjfteBO ua example of the value set by Fijians upon women occurred in the course 
p lietween Europeans and natives. A chief had bargained with the captain of a 
' m iknialEet^ the price of which was to be two pigs. The chief went off with his 
but oould only find one pig. So he honourably kept his bargain by sending the 
and a yoong woman instead of the other. 

be dflBcription of the ceremonies attendant upon a wedding, mention was made of 
nm of bmlding a house for the bride. The form of Fijian houses varies according 
gfeality. In some places they are sharp-ridged and gabled, like those which have 

~ when treating of Xew Guinea. In others they are round, and in 
Some are built on posts, and others simply on the ground. 
ii'tbe case throughout all Polynesia, the houses are made of a wooden framework 
qgelher, and covered with a thatch of reeds. Many of these houses are of great 
m than a hundred feet in length and about forty in width. A house that is 
ho endue for any length of time is made of a wood called by the natives vest, 
iepmsily similar to the greenheart of India, and a sort of sandal wood is also 
rjihe same purpose. 

r mdls are generally made of reeds arranged in three layers, the middle layer 
oriaontal ana the outer and inner layers perpendicular. They are tied or sewn 
r with sinnet, and it is the Fijian architect's y)ride to w^eave the sinnet into elegant 
3. Some men are celebrated for their skill in inserting and executing these 
5, and go about from place to place as tlicy are wanted. Even the posts that 

the edifice are often covered with reeds, IkhuuI together in the same ingenious 
. The door is always a small one, prol»ubly for the same reason that induces a 

make so low an entrance to his hut ; namely, fear of enemies. 

thatch is sometimes of cocoa-nut or sugar-cane leaves, and sometimes of grass. 

1 a few of the best houses both are used. The leaves are doubled over reeds and 
ogether, so as to form lengths of Jibout five or six feet. Grass thatch is fixed 
exactly as straw is used in Eii<^land, being laid on the roof in bundles, and held 
y long mangrove branches, and tied firmly with rattan. 

ise-thatching is one of the most animated scenes that can be imagined. As soon 
•oof is finished, notice is given that the thatchers are wanted, and then straightway 
le a gang of merry labourers, varying in number .according to the size of the 
IS many a-s three hundred sometimes uniting to thatch a very large house. Some 
he leaves and grass, others bind and sew them into the proper form, and others 
pm to the thatehers. Those who actually apply the reeds always arrange them- 
u pairs on the roof, one outside and the other inside the building, so that they can 



take the entl of the lashing as it is pushed through the thatch by liis comrade, draw it 
tight, and return it to him. 

The noise that arises from a large house during the process of thatching is elnurt 
deafening. Naturally, the Fijian has a great genius for shouting, and on such occauoH 
he fairly outdoes himself. Some call for more grass, leaves, mangrove rods and nttanit 
others from below shout in reply to them. Those ^vho bring the materials must neek 
ahoat as they clamber to the roof, and every one throws in a Few yells occasionally \lf 
way of encouragement to his companions. 




The most characteristic part of a Fijian house is the ridge pole which runs along I 
top of the rtKjf. It projects at either end for a considerable distance, and in fiTst-clf 
buildings is worked into a trumpet-like shape at the extremities. These projecting M 
are mostly blackened, and decorated with large white cowrie shells. A sort of eal 
made of grass and bound with vine-stalks is generally laid on the ridj,'e pole, and 
many eases is linisbed oil' with a raw of taasels, and nearly covered with piittems woA 
in siunet. 

Some, though not all, the bouses have openings by way of wiiwlows, whivh cut k 
closed by means of mats fastened over them like curtains. Within the house, asd iiei4 
in the centre, is the fire]>lace, which is sniik in the ground to a foot or bo in deptli, Ml 
surrounded by a sort of fender made of hard wood. In very large houses, the tiieplM 
is ten or twelve feet square, and is covered by a wooden framework of several tieii, • 
which cookinft-pote and similar utensils can be kept. There is no chimney, nor effO 



A PRACTICAL JOKE. 289 

the loof, 80 that alt the smoke &om the fireplace sscends to the roof, and finds its 
it throngli the thatch as it best can. In nearly every case the doorway is fumished 
projecting roof. 

connexion with roof-thatching, a characteristic joke is recorded of the Mbaa 
The short missile club is called lUa, and the act of hurling it is called vlavla. 
ter word, however, also signifies house-thatching. By way of a practical joke, tie 
of Mbaa sent to those of Tailevu, asking them to come and vlauia. The latter, 
the word in its ordinary sense, accepted the invitation, and came, expecting the 
icene of merriment, when, to their suiprise, th^ were saluted by a volley of tdiu 
at them by their entertainers. 

! fumitore of a Fijian house is simple At one end is a raised dais, on which the 
of the house sleeps by night and reclines by day. It is covered with mats, and 
are hong the dieets of thin masi which are nsed as mosquito curtains. On this 
9 genecally one or two pillows. These implements are not unlike those of the 
, tieing nothing more than cylindrical bars of wood supported on legs at either end. 
f fiiem are from fonr to five feet in length. This form of pillow ia used on accoimt 
aap^Ske headdress of the natives, which would be pressed out of all shape were 
an i»n oi-vUuaiy pillow. 

liiaha atth are several lai^ earthenware cooking-pots, oval in shape, and each set 
\_-4? '^^ quantity of food in them diminishes, they are gradually tilted, 
_ ._^r:4Qatftin but very little food they lie quite on their sides. Near the 
»^iek concave board on which bread is kn^ed, and close to the board are 
1 round Etones by which the operation of kneading is conducted. The small 
tts used for fishing are kept near the fire, together with the knives and other 
— 'n used in preparing food. Several earthen water-jars are always placed near 
*" ' 3 diatiuguished by their glazed surfaces, and are placed carefully 

IBS. A few bamboo vessels containing salt and fresh water, are 
EUie hirger jars. Bound the foot of the wall are ranged a series of 
■ ' n the arrowroot and similar articles of food. 




CHAPTER V. 



RELIGION AND FUNERAL RITES. 



THE aODS AND THEIB AB0DR8 VISIT OP THE LAND CKAB — FUIAN PRIESTS AND THEIR IX8IGX 

C0N8ULTINO THE DEITY VARIOUS MODES OP DIVINATION THE DIPFICULT PASSAGE TO HIAl 

NATIVE TEMPLES, THEIR STRUCTURE AND USES — FEASTS GIVEN TO THE GODS — 8A< 

STONES — MURDER OF THE AGED AND SICK A STRANGE MARK OP AFFECTION — PROVIDING 

DEAD WITH ATTENDANTS BURIAL OF A UVING KING A TERRIBLE SCENE — VOYAGE TO 

CEMETERY^ AND THE FUNERAL — SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE CUSTOMS OF FUI AKD INDIA — ^1 
OP MOURNING — THE SUCCESSI\'E RITES AFTER A FUNERAL THE CUSTOM OF LOLOKU TOIO 

A chief's wife. 

The religion, or rather the superstition, of the Fijians is much like that of 
polytheists. The people acknowledge vast numbers of gods of greater or lesser poi 
most, if not all, of which are symbolized under some natural form, such as a hawk, a 
or the like. Every Fijian considers himself under the protection of some especial 
and, as has been stated, will not eat the animal which is his symbol 

An amusing instance of the reverence paid to the symbols of the gods occunedj 
Tilioa, A very powerful god, who is worshipped at that place, resides in a land-crab, " 
as that crustacean is scarcely ever seen in the localitj'', there are but few opportunitktj 
paying the proper worship, \\nienever any one saw a land-crab, he immediately ran to f 
priest, and forthwith the whole place was in a commotion. The people assembled to 
their respects to their deity, and a number of cocoa-nuts were gathered, strung 
and humbly presented to the crab-deity in order to propitiate him, and to iuduoe 
give them fair weather and a healthy season. 

As to the particular doctrines of the Fijian religion, it is scarcely possible to 
much about them. In the first place, the people know nothing, and the priests, 
know but little, dislike communicating their knowledge Even the Christian 
can seldom be induced to speak on the subject with any degree of truth. 

The priests are known by their official insignia, which consist of an oyal fironQeitj 
scarlet feathers, and a long-toothed comb made of separate pieces of wood ingenu 
fastened together. Several of these combs are in my collection, and are em 
examples of the artistic capabilities of the makers. None of them are alike, the 
thread which fastens them together being woven in a singular variety of patterns, 
threads are nearly as fine as hairs, and an additional beauty is given to tiie pattern I 
using alternately a deep black and a glittering yellow thread. 

The priests communicate with their deities by throwing themselves into a sort- 
ecstatic state, technically called " shaking," in which the whole body is convnlsedt 
the utterances which come from the foaming lips are held to be the responses of tfao 
A vivid idea of this mode of consulting a deity is given by Mr. Williams in the vah 
work to which reference has often been mada 



J 



CONSULTING THE ORACLE. 291 

ling like regular worehip or habitual reverence is found, and a principle of 

I the only motive for religious observances ; and this is fiUly practised on by 

t, through whom alone the people have access to the gods, when they wish to 

etitions affecting their social or individual interest. When matters of im- 

ire involved, the soro or offering consists of large quantities of food, together 

es' teeth. In smaller affairs 

lb, mat, or spear, is enough. 

.ts covered with turmeric 

rmed the meanest offering 

QOwn. On one occasion, 

kilakila asked the help of 

tomo gods in war, he built 

•d a large new temple, and 

a quantity of cooked food, 

¥ turtles, beside whales' 

jf the offering — the sigana 
Wirt for the deity, the rest 
feast of which all may 
the portion devoted to the 
ai by his priest and by old 
to youths and women it is 

igera wishing to consult a 

quantity of fire-wood for 
e. Sometimes only a dish 
ir a whale's tooth is pre- 
t is not absolutely neces- 
e transaction to take place 
e. I have known priests 
i inspired in a private 
in the open air ; indeed, 
aita of Fiji, the latter is 
i ease. 

rho intends to consult the 
ses and oils himself, and, 
ed by a few others, goes priests' combs, 

eat, who, we will suppose, 

previously informed of the intended visit, and is lying near the sacred comer 
dy his response. When the party arrives, he rises and sits so that hia back is 
! white cloth by which the god visits him, wliile the others occupy the opposite 

Bar& The principal person presents a whale's tooth, states the purpose of hia 
sxpresees a hope that the god will r^ard him with favour. Sometimes there is 
ore the priest a dish of scented oil with which he anoints himself, and then 
le tooth, regarding it with deep and serious attention. 
oken silence follows. The priest becomes absorbed in thought, and all eyes 

with unblinking steadiness. In a few minutes he trembles ; slight distortions 
I hifl face, and twitching movements in his limbs. These increase to a violent 
iction, which spreads until the whole frame is strongly convulsed, and the man 

with a strong ague-fit. In some islands this is accompanied with murmurs 
he veins are greatly enlai^ed, and the circulation of the blood quickened, 
ffiest is now possessed by his god, and all his words and actions are considered 
iT his own, but those of the deity who has entered into him. Shrill cries of 
Eoi an!' ('It is I! It is I!') fill the air, and the god is supposed thus to notiiy 
eh. While giving the answer, the priest^s eyes stand out and roll as if in a 
{ voice is unnatural, his face pale, his lips Uvid, hia breathing depressed, and 
u2 




292 FIJI. 

his entire appearance like that of a furious madman. The sweat runs from every poo^ 
and tears start from his strained eyes ; after which the S}rmptoms gradually diaappoK 
The priest looks round with a vacant stare, and as the god says ' I depart/ annoimoeB )m 
actual departure by violently flinging himself down on the mat, or by suddenly strikqg 
the ground with a club, when those at a distance are informed by blasts on the conch, ei 
the firing of a musket, that the deity has returned into the world of spirits." 

In many cases it is evident that the priests enact deliberate impositions, but it is ila 
certain that in many others they are completely under the dominion of frenzy, and tU 
they do not recollect afterwards the words which they uttered while in their deliikM 
state. " My own mind/' said one of them, *' departs from me, and then, when it is tn|j 
gone, my god speaks by me." ] 

Various modes of divination are employed by the Fijian priests. 

They have, for example, divination by the leaf, by the reed, by the nut, and by 
The leaf is tested by taking it between the front teeth and biting it If it be comp 
severed, the omen is good; if it hang together, even by a single fibre, the omen 
unfavourable. One priest had a very strange mode of divination by the lea£ He 
two magic leaves, which he placed on the sides of the applicant, and then left them, 
the leaf on the right side stung the skin, the omen was good ; but if any plots or 
were hatched, the leaf stung the man on the left side, and so warned hiTn of the 
Another mode of divination by the leaf is to bite it, and judge by the flavour whether 
omen be adverse or the contrary. 

The reed-test is managed as follows. A number of short reeds are cut^ and laid 
row on the ground, a name being given to each. The priest then holds his right foot 
each, and the response is given by the trembling of the foot 

The water-test is perlbnned by holding the straightened arm slightly upwards, 
pouring a few drops of water on the wrist. If the water should run to the shouldei; 
response is favourable ; should it fall off at the elbow, the answer is adverse. jl 

The next test is performed by laying a cocoa-nut on a small surface and spinmqfli 
When it stops, the response is given by the direction in which the eye pointa 

According to Fijian notions, the passage to Buruto or heaven is a very difScnlt 
except for great chiefs, and tlie only plan by which a man of inferior rank can 
obtain admission is by telling the god a lie, and proclaiming himself a chief with so 
apparent truthfulness that he is believed, and allowed to pass. Taking on his 
his war-club and a whale's tooth, the Fijian spirit goes to the end of the world, 
grows a sacred pine, and throws the tooth at it. Should he miss it, he can go no 
but if he hit it, he travels on to a spot where he awaits the arrival of the womei 
were murdered at his death. 

Escorted by them, he proceeds until he is met and opposed by a god called Bv 
whom he fights with his club. Should he fail, he is killed and eaten by the go4 
there is an end of him. Should he conquer, he proceeds until he finds a canoe^ 
which he gets, and is conveyed to the lofty spot where the chief god, Ndengei, 
Over the precipice extends the long steering-oar of the god's canoe. He is tto 
his name and rank, when he replies with a circumstantial account of his grandeur 
magnificence, of the countries over which he has ruled, of the deeds which he did i 
and of the devastation which he caused. He is then told to take his seat on the 
the oar. Should his story have been believed, he is conveyed to Buruto ; but 
Ndengei disbelieve his story, the oar is tilted up, and he is hurled down the 
into the water below, whence he never emerges. 

It has been mentioned that the spirit has to wait for the escort of his wivesL 
in order to prove that he is a married man, bachelors having no hope of admii 
Buruto. Should a wifeless man start on his journey, he is confronted by a godde% 
the Great Woman, who has a special hatred of bachelors, and, as soon as she 
flies at him, and tries to tear liim in pieces. Sometimes she misses him in Imt 
ness ; but, even in such a case, he has to deal witli another god, who hides 
the spirit path, and, as the soul of the bachelor passes by, he springs on the 
being, and dashes him to atoms against a stone. 



NATIVE TEMPLES. 293 

[lie Btir& or temples of the gods abotmd in Fiji, at least one Burd being found in 
T village, and some of the villages having many of these buildings. They aie made of 
lame material as the houses, but with much more care. Inst^ of being merely 
m the ground, they are placed on the top of a mound of earth, sometimes only 
tty elevated, and sometimes twenty feet or more in height. 




« natives think no labour too great for the decoration of a Bur^, and it is in 
btiildioga that their marvellons skill in plaiting ainnet is best shown. Every beam, 
ad pillar is entirely covered with sinuet plaited into the most beautiful patterns, 
•od led being the favourite colours ; and even the reeds which line the window 
i, wad fin ap the interatices between the pillars, are hidden in the plaited sinnet 
vbidi they are covered. So lavish are the natives of their work, that they are not 
dvith covering the pillar and reeds with sinnet- work, but they make large plaited 
nf Uie aame m^erial, and hang them in festoons from the eaves. 
bu already been mentioned that the best houses have the ends of the ridge-poles 
fad with cowriee, bnt those of the Burt^ are adorned with long strings of cowries that 



294 FIJL 

sometimes reach the ground. Ordiiiaiy laths are thought too common to beusedinthatdi* 
ing temples, and the beautifully- carved spears of warriors are employed instead of simpb 
wood. When the Bur^ is erected on a high mound, entrance is gained to it by means rf 
a very thick plank cut into notched steps. 

Although the Bur^s are considered as temples, and dedicated to the god, they 09 
mostly used for secular purposes. Visitors from a distance are generally quartered m 
them, and in many instances the principal men of the village make the Buri tlieii 
sleeping-place. Councils are held in the Bur^s, and entertainments are given in them, d 
which the offerings to the god form a large part. Sometimes, as has been mentioned, 1 
chief who wishes to propitiate some deity offers a great quantity of food in his temphj 
and this food is consumed in a general feast. A certain portion is dedicated to the m 
and may only be eaten by the priests and the old men, but the remainder may be esM 
by any one. 

None of the food is left to perish, the Fijians having a convenient belief which 
bines piety with self-indulgence. The god is supposed to be a great eater, but only 
consume the soul of the provisions, so that when food is cooked and offered, the god 
the soul and tlie people the body. The chief god, Ndengei, used to be both greedy 
dainty in his demands for food. He sometimes ate two hundred hogs and a hi 
turtles at a single feast, and was continually insisting on human sacrifices. In order 
procure these, no respect was paid to persons, and so infatuated were the people tha^ 
keep up Ndengefs supplies of human food, chiefs were known to kiU their own wivea 

No regular worship is ever offered in the Bures, which, indeed, are often left to 
into decay until some one desires to consult or propitiate the god, when the builc 
repaired and cleaned for the occasion. As may be expected, during the building of 
Bur(5 several human sacrifices are offered. 

If the reader will refer to the drawing of the Bur^ on the preceding page, he willi 
that in front of it are two oddly-shaped objects. These are examples of the sacred 
several of which are to be found in various parts of Fiji. They are considered as 
dwelling-place of certain gods, and are held to be either male or female, according to 
sex of the deity who inhabits them. Should the god be of the female sex, the 
known by a woman's apron or liku being tied round the stone. One such god is a 
useful one, because he hates mosquitoes, and keeps them away from the spot in wl 
dwells. Food is prepared and offered to those sacred stones, the god, as usual, eating' 
spirit of the food, and the priest and officers consuming its outward form. 

We now come to the funeral ceremonies of Fiji, taking those of the chiefs as 
of the whole. 

Among the Fijians a very singular superstition reigns. When men or 
become infirm with age, they are considered to have lived their full time on eartbf 
preparations are made for their burial. So ingrained is this belief, that if a man 
himself becoming feeble with age or disease, he requests his sons to strangle him, 
with this request they think themselves boimd to comply. Indeed, if they think UttiJ 
is too slow in making the request, they suggest to him that he has lived long enoad, 
ought to rest in the grave. Such conduct seems to imply that they are desf ' ' 
affection, but in reality it is their way of showing their love for their parent 

They are really a most affectionate race of people. A young chief has been 
sob with overpowering emotion at parting from his father for a short time, and yet 
his parents to become ill or infirm, he would think it his duty to apply the fatal 
with his own hands. To be strangled by one's children, or to be buried alive by 
considered the most honourable mode of death. The reason for this strange custom 
to be that the Fijians believe the condition of the spirit in the next world to be 
same as that of the individual when in life. Consequently, affectionate childxei 
unwilling to allow their parents to pass into the next world in an infirm state of 
and therefore strangle them out of sheer kindness. 

From a similar notion of kindness, they also strangle the favourite wives and 1 
dants of the dead chief, so as to provide him with the followers to whom he hM 



A TERRIBLE SCENE 295 

ccustomed. They also kill a powerful warrior, in order that he may go before his chief 
hiough the passage into the spirit-land, and drive away the evil spirits who oppose the 
ipgress of a new comer. These victims go by the name of " grass," and are laid at the 
ottom of the grave ; the warrior painted and dressed for battie, with his favourite club 
f his side, the women arranged in folds of the finest masi, and the servants with 
leir implements in their hands ; so that the inhabitants of the spirit-world may see how 
teat a chief has come among them. 

All their preparations are carried on in a quiet and orderly manner, the victims never 
tempting to escape from their fate, but vying with each other for the honour of accom- 
myii^ their chie£ In some cases, when a chief has died young, his mother has insisted 
i sharing his grava So deeply do the Fijians feel the necessity for this sacrifice that 
16 custom has been a greater barrier against Christianity even than cannibalism or poly- 
imy, and even those natives who have been converted to Christianity are always uneasy 
% the subject. On one occasion a Christian chief was shot, and by the same volley a 
mng man was killed. The Christian natives were delighted with the latter catastrophe, 
ittBmuch as it provided an attendant for their slain chiet 

The scene which takes place when a great chief is expected to die has been described 
w Mr. Williams with great power. The King of Somo-somo, a magnificent specimen of 
p savage, was becoming inJBrm through age, and towards the middle of August 1845 
m unable to do more than walk about a little : — 

t * I visited him on the 21st, and was surprised to find him much better than he had 
In two da3rs before. On being told, therefore, on the 24th that the king was dead. 
Id that preparations were being made for his interment, I could scarcely credit the 
ppCHl The ominous word preparing urged me to hasten without delay to the scene of 
but my utmost speed failed to bring me to Nasima — the king's house — in time. 
moment I entered it was evident that, as far as concerned two of the women, I was 
late to save their lives. The efiTect of that scene was overwhelming. Scores of 
murderers in the very act surrounded me : yet there was no confusion, and, 
a word from him who presided, no noise, only an unearthly, horrid stillness. 
seemed to lend her aid and to deepen the dread effect ; there was not a breath 
in the air, and the half-subdued light in that hall of death showed every object 
unusual distinctness. 
* All was motionless as sculpture, and a strange feeling came upon me, as though I was 
becoming a statue. To speak was impossible ; I was unconscious that I breathed; 
involuntarily, or rather against my wUl, I sunk to the floor, assuming the cowering 
of those who were actually engaged in murder. My arrival was during a hush, 
at the crisis of death, and to that strange silence must be attributed my emotions ; 
I was but too familiar with murders of this kind, neither was there anything novel 
apparatus employed. Occupying the centre of that large room were two groups, 
ilasiness of whom could not be mistaken. 

" All sat on the floor ; the middle figure of each group being held in a sitting posture 

several females, and hidden by a large veil. On either side of each veiled figure was 

ipany of eight or ten strong men, one company hauling against the other on a white 

which was passed twice round the neck of the doomed one, who thus in a few 

ites ceased to live. As my self-command was returning to me the group furthest 

me b^an to move ; the men slackened their hold, and the attendant women removed 

laige covering, making it into a couch for the victim. 

"iS that veil was lifted some of the men beheld the distorted features of a mother 

tfaey had helped to murder, and smiled with satisfaction as the corpse was laid out 

deooratian. Convulsion strongly on the part of the poor creature near me showed 

she stLl lived She was a stout woman, and some of the executioners jocosely 

led those who sat near to have pity and help them. At length a woman said, ' She 

Rvidd' The fatal cord fell, and as the covering was raised I saw dead the oldest wife 

pl uiwearied attendant of the old king." 

t leaving the house of murder, Mr. Williams went to the hut of the deceased king, 
™Mim?ypg to see his successor, and beg him to spare the lives of the intended victims. 



29$ FIJI. 

To hia horror and aBtonisliineQt, he found that the king was stOl aUve. Be was lyii 
conch, veiy feehle, but perfectly conscious, every now and then placing his hai 
Bide as he was racked hy cough. The young king was full of grief. He emb 
visitor with much emotion, saying, " See, the father of us two is dead." It was 1 
dispute the point. The poor old king certainly did move, and speak, and 
according to the son's ide^, the movements were only mechanical, the spirit hi 
the body. 

So the preparations for his foneral went on. His chief wife and an assistant i 
themselves in covering his body with black powder, as if dressing him for the w 




BnRUL OP A UYINO KING. 



and &stening upon his arms and legs a number of long strips of white mas 
rosettes, with the ends streaming on the ground. They had already clad him 
masi of immense size, the white folds of which were wrapped round his feet. Ii 
the osnal masi turban, a scarlet handkerchief was bound on his hair with a < 
white cowrie-shells, and strings of the same shells decorated his arms, while i 
neck was an ivory necklace, made of long curved ciaw-like pieces of whale's teet 

The reader may perhaps wonder that the chief wife of the king was suETere 
The fact was that the young king would not allow her to be killed, because n6 ez< 
of sufficient rank could be found. She lamented her hard lot in being forbidden I 
pany her husband to the spiritrland, and begged to be strangled, but without suo 

Presently the sound of two conch-shell trumpets was heard outside the hi 
being the official intimation that the old king was dead, and the new king ' 
formally acknowledged by the chiels who were present. He seemed oyetcome n 



MODE OF MOURNING. 297 

ing on the body of his father's attendant, he exclaimed, ^ Alas, Moalevu ! There 
)man truly wearied, not only in the day but in the night also ; the fire consxuned 
gathered by her hands. If we awoke in the still night, the sound of our feet 
her ears, and, if spoken to harshly, she continued to labour only. Moalevu I 
)alevu I " 

bodies of the murdered women were then rolled up in mats, placed on a bier, 
led out of the door, but the old king was taken through a breach made in the 
the house. The bodies were carried down to the seaside and placed in a canoe, 
being on the deck, attended by his wife and the Mata, who fanned him and kept 
isects. 

n they arrived at Weilangi, the place of sepulture, they found the grave already 
lined with mats. The bodies of the women were laid side by side in the grave, and 
the dying king. The shell ornaments were then taken from him, and he was 
enveloped in mats, after which the earth was filled in, and thus he was buried 
lie poor old man was even heard to cough after a quantity of earth had been 
»n him. 

final scene is represented in the illustration on the preceding page. In the fore- 
» seen the open grave, with the bodies of the murdered women lying in it as '' grass." 
. ImDg kii^ is being borne to the grave by the attendants, while his successor 
mftilly surveying a scene which he knows will be re-enacted in his own case, 
A live to be old and infirm. Just above the grave are the rolls of fine mats with 
be body of the king is to be covered before the earth is fiUed in ; and in the 
md appears the mast of the canoe which brought the party to the burial-ground. 
reader cannot but notice the resemblance between this Fijian custom of strangling 
B and the well-known suttee of India. In both cases the women are the fore- 
flemand death, and for the same reason. Just as the Hindoo women arrange their 
Sfal pile, and light it with their own hands, the Fijian woman helps to dig her 
re, Imes it with mats, and then seats herself in it. 

fact is, that the woman has positively no choice in the matter; a wife who 
her husband is condemned to a life of neglect, suffering, and insult, so that the 
my of immediate death is preferable to such a fate, especially as by yielding to 
mal custom she believes that she shall secure a happy and honoured life in the 
id. Moreover, her relatives are bound by custom to insist upon her death, as, 
iid not follow this custom, they would be accused of disrespect towards her 
end Iiis fiunily, and would run the risk of being clubbed in revenge. 
B U eqn ence of this horrid custom, the population of Fiji has been greatly checked, 
ijdjr 18 there the direct sacrifice of life, but much indirect loss is occasioned. 
Iflie murdered women are mothers, whose children die for want of maternal care, 
ivliai with the perpetual feuds and continual murders, the custom of cannibalism, 
fioe of wives with their husbands, the strangling of the old or sick, and the death 
en by neglect, very few Fijians die from natural causes. Mr. Williams mentions 
. class of nine children under his charge, the parents had all been murdered with 
ption of two, and these had been condemned to death, and only saved through 
kions of the missionaries. 

r a king is buried, sundry ceremonies are observed. For twenty days or so, no 
until the evening, the people shave their heads either partially or entirely, and 
len cut off their fingers, which are inserted in split reeds, and stuck along the 
the royal house. Those who are nearly related to the dead king show their grief 
ing to wear their usual dress, and substituting rude garments of leaves. They 
ay themselves the luxury of a mat to lie upon, and pass their nights on the grave 
friend. The coast is rendered tapu for a certain distance, no one being allowed to 
1 the proper time has elapsed, and the cocoa-nut trees are placed imder a similar 
»n. 

ras strange rites take place on certain days after the funeral On the fourth day 
ids assemble, and celebrate the melancholy ceremony called thd '^ jumping of 
^ in which they symbolize the progress of corruption. Next evening is one of a 



298 FIJI. 

directly opposite character, called the '' causing to laugh/' in which the immediftte fried 
and relatives of the dead are entertained with comic games. On the tenth day the woub 
have an amusing ceremony of their own. Arming themselves with whips, switches, or ooidi 
they fall upon every man whom they meet, without respect to age or rank, the greatai 
chiefs only being exempt from this persecution. The men are not allowed to retaliili 
except by flinging mud at their assailants, and those who have witnessed tiie scene og 
that nothing more ludicrous can be imagined than to see grave, elderly men ranning i 
all directions, pursued by the women with their whips and switches. 

The last ceremony is the completion of some special work begun in honour of ihj 
dead. It may be the erection of a house, the making of a huge ball of sinnet, a 
bale of cloth, and, in any case, it bears the name of the person in whose honour it 
undertaken. Building large canoes is a favourite form of this custom, and, during 
whole time that the work is in progress, the canoe is put to sleep at night by the 
of drums, and awakened every morning in a similar manner, when the carpenters 
to their work. 

A curious ceremony is observed in Fiji when one of the principal chiefis has died 
is called the loloku of the sail, and is a sort of signal of honour. Whenever a 
approaches the coast for the first time since the death of the chief, the vessel is obliged] 
show the loloku. This is genemlly a long strip of masi tied to the head of the mas^ 
as soon as the canoe touches the land, both the sail and masi are thrown into the 
Sometimes, when the owner of the canoe is tolerably rich, he adds to the simple h 
whale's tooth, which is flung from the mast-head into the water, when the people 
and scramble for it. 

Should the chief perish at sea, or be killed in a warlike expedition, and be eatei ' 
his enemies, the loloku is shown as carefully as if he had been buried on shore, and 
relatives try to compensate him for his adverse fate, by killing an unusual number 
women as his attendants. Nearly twenty women have thus been sacrificed on the 
of a young chief who was drowned at sea. 

The graves of chiefs and their wives are marked by tombs. These are soi 
nothing but stones at the head and foot of the grave, or large cairns of stones pi 
the deceased. Sometimes they are roofs from three to six feet in height, decorated, 
Fijian custom, with patterns worked in sinnet. 

One tomb, that of a chiefs wife, was a very remarkable one. Her husband 
large mound of earth thrown up, and faced with stones. On the top of the mound 
double canoe, forty feet in length, held firmly in its place by being imbedded in 
Fine shingle was strewn on the deck, and mats were spread on the shingle for the 
tion of the body. Sand was then heaped over the canoe, and on the sand was 
body of a little child of whom the deceased woman had been very fond. Over aU 
then built a large roof, made of mahogany, and adorned with white cowrie-shells. 






9 OF THS SOLOMON ISLANDS — BEA80N FOB THE NAME OF THE OBOUP CHASACTBB OV THE 

[VS8 CANNIBALISM DBESS AND 0BNAMENT8 NEW IBELAND AND NEW BBTTAIN — ^NOMAD 

BACTKB OF THB NATIVES CAVE HOUSES — THE ADMIBALTY ISLANDS — DISTINOUISHINO MABKS 

rHB CHIEFS, AND THEIB DOMINION OVEB THE PEOPLE THE BOUKA ISLANDS — THE NEW 

BIDK8 MODE OF OOVEBNMENT, AND DIVEB8ITY OF LANGUAGE THE INHABITANTS OF YATE 

UBIOXm DBB88 OF THB WOMEN — 0BNAMENT8 OF THE HOUSES TAUNA AND EBBUMANQA 

DB IN SANDAL WOOD ^ANEITEUM AND YANIKOBO. 

KK New Goinea and the Fiji group lie the Solomon (or Salomon) Islands. They 
iscovered, as far as we know, by Alvero de Mendana, who touched upon them in 
\i 1S67. Being desirous of inducing his countrymen, who held in those days the 
dace among sailors, to visit and colonize so fertile a land, he concocted a pious 
and called the group by the name of Solomon Islernds, as being the Ophir from 
Solomon's ships brought the vast quantities of gold with which he adorned the 
3 and his own palace. 

I scheme failed, inasmuch as, when he again went in search of the islemds, he could 
d them, the imperfect astronomical instruments of that day being far inferior to 
rf the present time, by means of which a competent observer can tell within a few 
lis exact place on the earth. 

i natives of the Solomon Islands are so fierce and treacherous, that comparatively 
as as yet been learned about them. They have displayed a great genius for lulling 
rs into a fancied security, and then murdering and eating them ; so that the 
rds lost nothing by Mendana's inability to find the islands again. They contrived 
:o entrap a gentleman who visited their islands in his yacht, and murdered him 
be was on shore, shooting pigeons. They have committed so many murders on 
I, and even captured so many vessels, that the greatest precautions are now taken 

fk.^% ^PotS^^^ «9«^i««> ^1<%.««««B ^N> l^ ^•^««.«-k«« 



300 



SOLOMON ISLANDS. 



employed in the trade, sncli as glass bottles, beads, axes, dotli, knirefl, and 
objects. 

The natives are veiy dark, and may even be called black, with thick and cr 
That they are cannibals has already bc«n mentioned. They are snch inordinate 1 
human flesh that, according to the accounts of some travellers, which loaj howe 
been exaggerated, they m^e it their customary diet. It is evident, borever, i 
■tatement must be somewhat overdrawn, as no people inhabiting a limited count 
make human flesh the chief article of diet withont 
extermination. That they prefer it to all other food 
enough, and in this they only follow the example 
Papuans. Ifendaua mentions that the chief of on< 
islands sent him a handsome present of a qoarter o 
and that be gave great offence to the natives by 
instead of eatmg it. 

They do certainly use great quantities of this horri 
and one traveller mentions that, in visiting their ho 
has seen human heads, legs, and arms hong ^m th( 
just as joints of meat are hung in a larder. The hon 
token in other ways of the cannibalistic habits of the 
being ornamented with skulls and similar relics of 
feasts, together with other ornaments. 

The Solomon Islanders are not handsome people, 
not add to their beauty by their modes of adornment 
inveterate use of the betel-nut blackens their teeth, a 
faces are disfigured with streaks and patches of whit 
which has a horribly ghastly appearance against the bis 
They are fond of wearing numerous ornaments in tb 
the lobes of which are perforated, and so distended t 
can wear in them circular blocks of wood nine ii 
circumference. Their chief ornament is, however, a 
made from a large shell found on the reefs. Shells 
cient size for this purpose are extremely rare, and ai 
even more than whales' teeth among the Fijians and neighbouring people. Wars i 
caused by a struggle for the possession of a single armlet ; while, in comparison 
valuable an article, human life is looked upon as utterly worthless. Very gre 
and warriors wear several of these rings- on their arms; but they do so with 
knowledge that their finery is as perilous as it is valuable, and that they are liki 
murdered merely for the sake of their ornaments. 

The Solomon Islanders care little for clothing, their whole dress being simply 
of matting tied round the waist ; and it is rather a remarkable fact that they pu 
same art of staining the hair yellow, white, or red, or dischai^ing all colour out o 
is practised by the Fijians. 

Warlike as well as fierce, they possess a variety of weapons ; such as clubs of 
kinds, spears, bows and arrows. In order to guard themselves against the missile i 
they carry shields made of rushes, woven so thickly and tightly together that 
able to resist the arrows and to render the spears almost harmless. 

That they possess canoes may be inferred from the fact that they inhabit is 
such diminutive size. These canoes are made in a most ingenious manner, and 
structed in a mode that gives a clue to the peculiar shape which is so often seei 
the islands of Polynesia. Both at the stem and stern the ends of the canoe are ve 
raised. This structure is not only for ornament, though decoration is &eely usi 
but is principally intended for defence. When the crew attack an enemy, or are « 
they always take care to present the bow or stem of the canoe to the foe, and thi 
a great measure protectea by the raised ends. 

As ia the case with most of these oceanic peoples, the inhabitants (^ the ! 
Islands profusely adorn the aides of their canoes with earrings, feathers, and ii 




KUNNING THE GAUNTLET. 301 

last-mentioned purpose white shells are liberally used, and tortoiseshell is also 
i. Sometimes these portions of the canoe are carved so as to resemble the human 
i eyes being made of mother-of-pearl^ the ears of tortoiseshell, and the chin 
d with a long beard. 

ne of these canoes Captain BouganviUe found a great quantity of weapons and 
nts, such as speais, bows and arrows, shields, and fishing-nets. The shape of the 
was nearly oval, and the arrows were tipped with sharp fish-bones. Various 
of food w6re also found in the boat, such as cocoa-nuts and other fruits, among 
ras the somewhat startling object of a human jaw-bone partially cooked. 

NG the same group of islands are New Ireland and New Britain, both of which, 
rsj, seemed to have been named on the lucus a non liLcendo principle, inasmuch 
scarcely possible to find any part of the world less like Ireland or Britain in 
than these little islands. 

heir dress and ornaments the inhabitants differ but little from the Solomon 
8, except that the chiefe wear circular ornaments of pearl almost exactly like 
d-dibbi of North Australia. Tortoiseshell is also used for the purpose. 
\e tribes seem to be continually on the move, the warriors being ordered by the 
rom stations much like our own regiments at home, and being accompanied by 
ves and Ceimilies. In their various migrations the men are bound to look to the 
I of their families ; and if they neglect to do so, the case is brought before a 
of chiefs, who investigate the matter. Should the accusation be proved, the 
mt is condemned to run the gauntlet, a punishment which is inflicted in exactly 
e mode as has been employed in Europe. 

the inhabitants of the village, men, women, and children, are drawn up in a double 
1 each is furnished with a bundle of twigs bound together like the birches of 
The culprit is placed at one end of this line, and at a signal from the chief 
i>liged to run through it a certain number of times, receiving a blow from 
ne as he passes. Sharp and severe as is this law, it shows no small amount 
ical wisdom, and lifts the people in a degree from mere savage life. Among 
r savages the man is everything and the women and children nothing, and that 
i remote islands they should be placed under the protection of the government 
L considerable advance towards civilization. There is, moreover, an ingenious 
ive justice in the mode of pimishment. By deserting his family, the man throws 
den of their maintenance on the community, and it is, therefore, thought only 
; the punishment should also be left to the community. 

architecture of these people is good, and we shall presently see an example of it. 
. new village is to be built a large space is cleared, in the middle of which is 
incil-house, a large circular edifice, supported on red pillars, and distinguished 
Qg on the roof a number of tall poles, each beaiing on its point a human skulL 
)r is carpeted with fine mats, coloured with turmeric, and adorned with birds' 
woven into it. 

dwelling-houses are made in a very different manner. The native architect 
by digging a large square hole in the groimd some five feet deep, and over this 
erects the house, which is rather low, in consequence of the depth gained in 
3ment The thatch is of weeds, and is covered with a thick coating of clay, 
serves the double purpose of rendering the hut fire-proof and of keeping the 
cooL 

weapons of the warriors are much the same as those of the other islands, but 
ire also employed, and the spears are generally tipped with sharp flint. like 
the Papuans, the victorious party eat the enemies whom they kill in battle. 
ng to the character of these islanders, little is known of their religion. That 
ve some form of worship is evident from the fact that they make great wooden 
onetimes ten or more feet in height, and plant them in different parts of the 
, To these idols offerings of food are constantlv made ; and, as such offerings 
sr taken away, the odour of decomposing figs, fowls, and fruit betrays the presence 



302 SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

of the idol at a great distance. In one of the islands, called Ysahel, the nati^'es m 
said to worship snakes, toads, and various reptiles. 

The most eastward of this group, San Christoval, is abeut seventy miles long ul 
twenty wide. In the acconi]>auying illustration is given a view taken in Maldn hn 
hour, in order to show the ingenious houses which the natives build for the protectici 
of their canoes. As may be seen, tlie house is capable of accumulating a considenUj 
number of the beautifully car\'ed vessels, and is elaborately adorned, after the stlifi 
fashion, with idols in images, human skulls, tufts of feathers, and similar ornaments. 




i;AKO)i nousE at m.vkika ii.\y 



The extremest of tlic gioup ai-e those which are known by the name of the Adniiial^ 
Islands. 

The natives of these idkuils make use of a sort of obsidian, which they split iafe 
fn^ments and use as we use steel. For example, they make razors of it, with which tfa^ 
shave every part of their bodies exceptinj^ the head, on whicli the hair is allowed tognn 
and is tied up in a knot on tlie top of the head. Tlie hair is often coloured with m 
ochro and oiL They use tlie same material as heads to their spears, tying the head ll 
the shaft with plaited string coated with gum. The clothing of the Admiralty IslandcB 
is very simple, tlie women wearing a piece "f matting tied round the waist, and the mM 
nothing but a large white shell. Tliey have bracelets and armlets made of plaited fibn 
and a belt of similar material round the waist. Some of them make their bracelets el 
lai^e sea-ear shells, gi'inding out the iniildlc and rounding the edges ; and omamok 
of a similar character are hung in the ears, which are often dragged down to such n 
e.\tent that the lower tips of the lobes almost rest on the shoulders. This enormous oi 
is attained at the cost of much trouble, an elastic hoop being constantly kept in tb 
aperture so as to kei-p it firaduully distended. A few of the natives also have the snitni 
of the nose pierced, and hang upon it a string, lo the end of which are fastened teeth. 

The chiefs are distinguished liy a double row of little shells on the forehead, UK 
seem to exercise considerable authority over their inferiors. 



DESPOTISM OF THE CHIEFS. 303 

. Captain D'Entrecasteaux visited the place, his boats approached the shore, 
a number of natives were collected, and the captain made signs of peace. A 
ingoished by the insignia of rank on his forehead, ordered one of the natives to 
:he boats with some cocoa-nuts. " The fear of approaching persons of whose 
s he was ignorant, made the islander, swimming and defenceless, hesitate a 

But the chief, who doubtless was little accustomed to have his will disobeyed, 
dlow him to reflect. Blows from a cudgel, which he held in his hand, imme- 
Lcceeded his order, and enforced instant obedienca . . . 

way of comforting the poor fellow, our people gave him some bits of red stuff, a 

and a knife, with which he was greatly pleased. No sooner had he returned to 

I, than curiosity collected all the rest around him, every one wishing to see our 

Canoes were immediately launched, many natives took to the water and swam, 
short time there was a great concourse round our boats. We were surprised to 
neither the force of the surf nor of the breakers discouraged them from the 

re was another chief distinguished by the same ornaments as he who has been 
lentioned, and also by the blows which he inflicted with his cudgel upon those 
he gave his orders." 

uioes of these pe(Jple are furnished with a double outrigger, only one touching 
, and the other projecting at an equal distance on the opposite side. They are 
. by a platform, on which the commander stands when the sail is lowered and 
e second outrigger. When the sail is hoisted, he stands on the place where it 
laid. Each outrigger projects about eight feet from the gunwale. The paddles 
; six feet in length, and are furnished with a broad blade, which is made 
' bata the handle, and firmly lashed to it with cord. 

dl is made of matting, and about thirteen feet square. The mast is twenty feet 
, and when the canoe is to be pushed to its full speed, the sail is hoisted 
fy 'Vifli one angle projecting a yard above the top of the mast. When the 
M0B to go slowly, they only hoist a few feet of the sail, the rest of it lying in 
; md by thus hoisting or lowering the sail they can regulate their speed much 
Oka When the sail is hoisted to its fullest extent, the canoe can beat the 
liling ships. The ordinary length of a canoe is about thirty-two feet, and the 
>readth is only twenty-six inches. 

dmiralty Islanders chew the pepper leaf, with the addition of lime, which they 
little calabash, but do not seem to add the coca-nut. Only the chiefs appear 
e this habit, probably on account of the difficulty of obtaining the proper 



f these islands, named Bouka, was visited by Captain D'Entrecasteaux in 1792. 
es are black, tall, powerful, and quite naked. The face is rather broad and flat, 
projects but little, the mouth is large, and the lips peculiarly thin. They 
the hair off the body, and only allow that of the head to grow, sometimes 
f it with red chalk. Eed and white paint are freely used on their bodies, and 
I are pierced and loaded with large shells, which drag them nearly to the 
Hound the waist they wear a cord which passes round the body several 
i some of them have a custom of binding the upper arm in a similar manner, 
»me flat pieces of wood between the arm and the ligature. 
people are good canoe-men, and, when they man their large war canoes, exhibit 
le which is hardly to be expected among savages. Between every two paddlers 
ide stands a warrior armed with bow and arrows, while intermediate parties of 
itand with their faces towards the stem, so as to observe the enemy and fight 
retreat Two of the crew are told off" to bale out the water, which beats 
y over the side of the canoe when the wind blows freshly. 
yw is remarkable for having the string coated with a sort of resinous substance 
3 preserve it, the middle of the cord being skilfully wrapped with bark to guard 
injury from the knock of the arrow. The arrows are made of two pieces, the 



304 NEW HEBEIDES. 

head being shaped from a hard and heavy wood, and the shaft being a reed. The pla 
where they are joined is strengthened by a ligature of bark. The butt of the arrow 
wrapped in the same manner to prevent it from being split by the string. Theyi 
these weapons with much skill, ancC as was proved by Captain D'Entrecasteaux, are* al 
to kill birds with them. 

The natives were ready to part with their weapons in exchange for red stuff, biscai 
bottles, and other commodities, but were rather prone to cheat, agreeing to deliver a b 
for a handkerchief, and, when they had got the handkerchief, pretending that the batgi 
was not made for a bow but for an arrow. The natives of Bouka Island, naked a 
savage as they are, have some sort of civilization among themselves, as is evident fii 
the fact that they cultivate the cocoa-nut palm, large plantations of which usefol t 
extend to the water- side along a great portion of the coast 



Following the line of the Solomon Islands in a south-easterly direction, we 
upon another group of islands called the New Hebrides, extending for some four handl 
miles, and containing a considerable number of islands of various sizes. They are pe4 
best known from the fact that one of them, called Errumanga, was the place in which 1 
celebrated missionary, John Williams, met with his death. These islands attttj 
importance in a secular point of view from the fact that several of them produce sao^ 
wood, and therefore attract to them a great number of trading vessels of diffld 
countries, with whom a considerable commerce has been carried on. 

The islands are mostly of a volcanic nature, and present the usual variations of 
localities, some parts being rough, craggy, and bare, while others are fertile and prol 
a degree that can scarcely be conceived by those who have never seen tropical xi 
As is often the case with islands of no great size and divided from each otl 
moderately wide channels, the tribes which inhabit them diifer considerably in 
language and manners, and are in a chronic state of feud with each other. They are, 
far enough apart to have but rare and infrequent intercourse with each other, 
gradually diverge into different customs, and they are not far enough apart to 
them, and confer upon them a nationality. 

We find this feeling in every one of the innumerable groups of islands which 
the Pacific, and, as we shall soon see, it prevails even among those groups which 
the same language and customs. In fact, among the Pol3niesians there is that very 
of local jealousy which prevails even in civilized countries, and which is, though 
sarily more limited, far more rancorous than the feelings of enmity which prevail 
mighty nations. 

One of the largest of these islands is Vat^, sometimes called Sandwich Island, 
latter term should not be used, as it tends to cause confusion between a single is) 
the New Hebrides and the great group of the Sandwich Islands, which are inhal 
a totally different race of men. 

To strangers Vat^ is very unhealthy, but the causes which produce malaria also 
duce a wonderful fertility of vegetation. This island is about seventy miles in 
ference, and is remarkable for the thick growth of forests upon its lower limits* 
verdure upon the higher portions which are not so well fitted for trees. The natives 
to give some time and trouble to agriculture. 

The inhabitants are black of skin, but tall and well-formed, and their dress in 
points reminds the observer of the costume of several African tribes. That of the 
consists of a broad belt or wrapper of matting wrought in patterns coloured wikli 
wliite, and black. The hair is generally gathered up into a bunch at the top of the 
stained yellow, and adorned with a plume of feathers. 

As to ornaments, they are much like those which have already been mentionei; 
belonging to the Solomon Islanders. The lobes of the ears are always much disUni 
from the habit of wearing in them heavy ornaments cut from white shells, or i 
materials. The septum of the nose is mostly pierced, and the aperture filled with a 
stona Baised scars are made in the arms and chest, and arranged in definite pil« 
Armlets made of shells are used by these islanders. I 



A CURIOUS ADOKNMENT. 



305 



IB women are equally well made with the men, and the general fashion of the dreee 
ch the aama They wear, however, a curious addition to the dress, which is very 
like that of the Ovambo women of Africa. Passing round the waist is a belt some 
inches wide, made of plaited fibre woven into neat patterns. From this belt 
Is in front a square apron of no great size, and behind is attached a broad atrip of 
Dae plaited matting as that 
faces the belt. It descends 
a.y down the 1^, and is 
d off with a &D-Iike fringe 
ited grass, some eighteen 
long, and of proportionate 

The women, as well as the 
ractise the cnstom of making 
scars on their bodies. They 
Tom the men in the mode 
Bing the hair, keeping it 
sely to the head instead of 
ig it to grow to its full 
and tying it up in a buDch. 
J weapons of these islanders 
oarkable for the beauty of 
Snish. the barbs of the 
being neatly carved, and 
£tion of the head and shafc 
neatly ornamented with 
grass and feathei-s. Indeed, 
rows have a curious re- 
nce to those made by some 
Tibea of tropical America. 
:e the Solomon Islanders 
ubitants of the ^ew He 
lave large council chambers 
r villages Instead how 
■{ being circular they are 
ly made of considerable 

sometimes measurmg as 
is a hundred feet from one 
Jie other. They are entirely 
I one side. For some reason 
leems rather obscure they 
med with bones of various 
I, the particular species 
Fhich they are taken not 

[;tobeof any consequence. "■'■■ """ """"" "■■ "•"■- 

:ample, in one of these 
may be seen bunches of 

aken indiscriminately from pigs, fowls, and iishes, while the shells of lobsters 
ler Crustacea are mixed with them. It is believed that human bones are not 
rthis purpose. 

iTKiocs contrast to these tribes is presented by the inhabitants of another island 
Tasiu, who are certainly inferior to those of Vat4 in stature and general appear- 
id are thought to be so in point of intellect. They have a bad leputation, being 
be treacherous and cruel That they are also reputed to be cannibids is no matter 
ler, inasmuch as they belong to the Papuan race. They are said to rival the Fans 
a in one respect, and to dig up the bodies of the buried dead, in order to eat them. 




306 NEW HEBRIDES. 

The island is volcanic, and the Buhterranean firea seem to aid the ahead; e: 
vegetation of the tropics, which in Tanna attains a development that is ahnost in 

The inhabitants of Tanna are as black as those of Vat^, but seem to have i 
points of resemblance The men appear to think that they are not black en 
nature, for they have a way of daubing their sable countenances with black I 
painting upon the black groundwork sundry patterns in red ochre. The hair i; 
ont after the ordinary Papuan type, and is dyed a reddish dun colour by means o 

As to Ebbuhanqa, it has kept up its traditional ferocity, and, not conb 
murdering the first missionary who set his feet on their shores, the people ma 

afterwards murdered anol 
sionary and his wife, Thi 
murder was owing to th' 
who persuaded the peopli 
epidemic which had doi 
damage among the nat: 
caused by the missionari< 
strange land. The ignorai 
readily believed this staten 
wild with the uncontro 
of the savage, they murdd 
the accused persons. I 
was scarcely done before tl 
repented of it, and only 
after the murder, when ll 
were buried, the nativ 
round tlie grave overwheh 
gnef, the most sincere 
being the chief of the di 
The murder of tliese 
unfortunate as it may see; 
paved the way for others 
in their footsteps ; and, as 
rally the case with per 
the cause only gained ai 
strength by the attempts 
lepress it by main force. 
At one time the int 
were held in such dread 
natnes were not allowed 
on board the ships, nor \ 
men permitted to land. 
' ' trade was carried on in 

iwLvonuvoi' \NHTnv wood, which the natives c 

the boats by swimming 
the surf, and being nei 
nnanned, could be allowed to make their bargains without suspicion of t: 
Although, therefore the savage nature of the inhabitants has occasionally broken 
showed itself m bloodshed, the >ery fact that Europeans have been allowed to r 
any time on the island shows a great improvement m the character of the native; 

Thi northernmost island of the group is Aneiteum, one of the islands which 
sandal-wood in great plenty The natural ferocity and suspicion of the nati^ 
been overcome by the judicious estabhshment and introduction of a factory, t 
the sandal-wood is taken by the natives, and from which it is sold to the ship 
find here a Btoie of tlHs valuable wood always ready for them. The chief nuukel 




DISCOVEttY OF EELICS. 307 

is foond in China, where it is cut into various articles of luxury with the customary 
ce which characteriaes the artista of that country. The bucccss of this factory 
that the best way of dealing with savages is to treat them precisely as children 
»ted, and to employ iu all dealings with them an equal mixtui'e of kindness and 
38, making allowanoea for the different constitution of their minds and the influence 
age habitfi upon their conduct; but at the same time to be firm almost to severity, 
;ver to permit an encroachment The safest maxim in dealing with savages is 
to deceive and never to 



E inhabitants of Maucolo 
Mnsiderably from those of ' 
ands which have been men- 
While the natives of Vati 
1 and finely made, those 
amanga scarcely inferior to * 
and those of Tanna stout 
owerful, though compara- 
short of stature, the in- 
its of Malicolo are small, 
■ortioned people, ugly of 
od disfiguring themselves 
ring a belt round the waist, 
so tight that it gives them 
r-glass or waspish aspect. 
t reader may perhaps be 
that, in the year 1788, the 
Botuaole and Astrolaie, com- 
1 by the celebrated voyager 
XDuae, disappeared, and 
; more was heard of them. 
< last seen at Botany Bay, 
iie had arrived from Tonga. 

1791 an expedition, con- 
of twove3sels,the Recherche 
e Esperance, was fitted out 
the command of Captain 
ecasteaux, and sent out in 
of the missing vessels. The 
3on foiled in its immediate 
though in, the coarse of the 
itdons some valuable dis- 
B were made. 

1792 lyEntrecasteaux's vessels got among the New Hebrides, and found them- 
jn the midst of coral reefs and shoals of which they knew nothing, and which 
no small alarm. In consequence of the danger of these reefs, the captain did not 
It all the islands which were seen, but contented himself with naming them, and 
ig their places on a chart As it turned out, one of these islands, Vanikoho, or 
fA» Island, as D'Entrecasteaux named it, was the place on which La P^rouse was 
id, BO that the expedition actually passed within sight of the very spot which was 
ject of their voyage. Indeed, D'Entrecasteaux practically completed the voyage 

Ia P^rouse began, and his narrative furnishes a necessary supplement to that 
voyager in search of whom he sailed It was not until some forty years after- 
Ihst the relics were discovered which proved beyond a doubt that Vanikoro was 
ue in which Xa F^use and his companions perished. Vanikoro is sometimes 
Pitfa Idand. 

x2 




WUMAK AND CHILD OP YAMKORO. 



TONGA. 



CHAPTER T. 



GOVERNMENT AND SCALES OF RANK. 



FRIENDLY BBLATIONS BRTWSBN TONGA AND PUI ^THE ARMY OP OCCUPATION 6ENRRAL APP 

OP THB T0NGAN8 ^THEIB DRESS THE ONATOO, AND MODE OP WEARING IT MAE 

ONATOO — BEATING, JOINING, AND PRINTING THE PIECES — THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN! 
AND TAPPA — ORNAMENTS WORN BY THE TONGANS — WHALE'S TEETH, AND THE VALUl 

THEM — PINOW AND THE TEETH — DISTINCTIONS OP RANK SECULAR AND RELIGIOUS RA 

TOOI-TONGA, HIS ORIGIN AND PRIVILEGES — THE VEACHI THE HOW, OR KING, OPTEN 

IN RANK TO MANY OP HIS CHIEP8 THE EOI, OR NOBLES — THE MATAB00LE8, THE 

AND DUTIES THE MOO AS, OR GENTRY ; AND THE TOO AS, OR COMMON PEOPLE MAT) 

ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN PEOPLE OP DIPPERENT RANKS — TREATMENT OP WOMEN. 

OuK readers may remember that, in the account of the Fiji Islands, it was m< 
that there was one nation which was held by the Fijians as free from their usual 
of killing and eating all visitors to their coast. These people are the inhabitant 
Tongan group, popularly known as the Friendly Islands. Owing to their courag 
and superior intellect, they have perfonned towards the Fijians the same part t 
so often been played by more civilized people. On one or two occasions the 
the Fijian chiefs hard pressed by rebellion, took the part of their hosts, crushed t 
forces, and restored the chiefs to power. 

A remarkable instance of this timely aid occurred as late as 1855. Thakoi 
whom we have already heard, was in danger of losing his life and throne 
through a rebellion led by a chief named Mara, Fortunately, he had previous 
a magnificent canoe to the Tongan king, who sailed over, according to custoni 
panied with a large fleet, in order to receive the royal present with due honoi 
instantly led his forces against the rebels, stormed a fort called Eamba which xn 
by them, took it, and utterly dispersed the enemy, Mara himself only escaping by 
over the sharp shells of the reef, thereby nearly cutting his feet to pieces, and sii 
to a neighbouring town on the coast. 

After this exploit, the Tongan chief followed up his blow by sailing to the i 
Taviuni, where another rebellion was raging in consequence of the murder of tl 
by his sons. He put an end to this rebellion also, inquired which of the n 
chief's other sons had the best claim to his father's rank, and installed him fi 
The vanquished rebels, finding that the Tongan leader was too strong for them, 
entrap him in an ambuscade, but only succeeded in murdering one of his chid 
Tongans immediately landed on the island, and avenged the death of their fideo 



TONGAN ORGANIZATION. 309 

errible maimer. A large party of Tongan warriors was afterwards left under the 
md of a cbief named Maafu, a relatioD of the king, and by means of this force 
jels were eSectually suppressed. 

might be expected, the Tongans took advantage of their sitoation, and enacted over 
:he fable of the deer, the horse, and the man. Some four hundred of them generally 

in Fiji, and domineer over the uatives much like armiea of occupation in other 
ies. A Tongan warrior baa 
e least scruple in going to 
nge village, entering the 
that pleases him best, and 
Jig himself in the best place 
.he simple words : " This 
" the house is mine." He 
he best of the food, and, if 
Ids a canoe, merely acts ns 
n. making the Fijiaus do all 
rd work. There is nothing 
he Tongana do, however, 
io much incenses the natives 
r careless habit of shaking 
iad-fruit trees in order to 
i the fruit, which ought 

to V* gathered by hand. 
is said, and perhaps with 

that the Tongans contem- 
be complete conquest of the 
group ; and from their ex- 
«, courage, and discipline, 
! fear which they have con- 
to instil into the Fijiana, 
is little doubt that the 
t, if it were to be mnde, 
be a successful ona The 
?rarrior fights on his own 
t, each man separately, 
lie Tongans act in unison ; 
i the Fijians who have 
against them compare them 

gods, against whom it is 

to strngglfe 

may be gathered from these 

Ian, the Tongans are a su- 

nce to the Fijian. They 

leed, a different people alto- 

; the Fijians belonging to 

qman race, whereas the 

s belong to the Polynesian race, which does not possess the very crisp hair aud 

skin of the Papuans ; and, as a rule, is much lighter in skin, the complexions 

)ftai as white as that of many Europeans. They are, on the whole, a singularly 

me set of people, the beauty not being limited to the men, as is the case with 

ly aavi^e tribes, but possessed equally, if not to a superior ext&nt, by the 

I dnsB of both sexes is made of similar materials, but is differently arranged. 
)nc IB called in the Tongan language "gnatoo," and is almost identical with the 
ntn. It is made from the bark of the same tree, and is beaten out in very similar 
, cisept periiapa that the Tongan women are more particular than those of Fiji in 




DAUOHTBB OF TOHOAN CHIEF. 



310 TONGA. 

the care and delicacy with which they beat out the bark with their grooved mallets. Tbe 
gnatoo varies somewhat in quality according to the island in which it is made, that oC 
Vavau being considered as the finest. 

In putting on the gnatoo, there is nearly as much diversity as in the arrangement ol 
a Scotch plaid, and the mode in which it is arranged serves to denote difference of rank 
The most fashionable mode, which is practised by the chiefs, is to wrap a portion of % 
round the loins in such a manner that the folds allow fair play to the limbs, and thenti 
pass the remainder round the waist like a broad belt, and tuck the ends under the belti| 
front of the body. The portion which forms the belt is so arranged that it can be looaewj 
at any moment and thrown over the head and shoulder. This is always done when thj 
wearer is obliged to be abroad in the night time. 

The gnatoo of the men measures about eight feet in length, by six in width. Ui 
the gnatoo is a belt made of the same material. 

Women have a larger piece of gnatoo than the men, and arrange it in folds which 
as graceful as those of antique art, and seem as likely to fall off the person. This, 
ever, is never the case, and, even if the gnatoo were by any accident to slip, the wc 
wear under it a small mat or petticoat about a foot in depth. 

As this gnatoo plays so important a part in the clothing of the Polynesians^ 
manufacture will now be described, the account being taken from Mariner's 
history of the Tongans : — " A circular incision being made round the tree near the 
with a shell, deep enough to penetrate the bark, the tree is broken off at that point, 
its slenderness readily admits o£ When a number of them are thus laid on the 
they are left in the sun a couple of days to become partially dry, so that the inner 
outer bark may be stripped off together, without danger of leaving any of the 
behind. 

" The bark is then soaked in water for a day and a night, and scraped carefully 
shells for the purpose of removing the outer bark or epidermis, which is thrown a 
The inner bark is then rolled up lengthwise, and soaked in water for another day. 
now swells, becomes tougher, and more capable of being beaten out into a fine texti 

" Being thus far prepared, the operation of too-(oo, or beating, commences. This 
of the work is performed by means of a mallet a foot long and two inches thick, in 
form of a parallelopipedon, two opposite sides being grooved horizontally to the 
and breadth of about a line, with intervals of a quarter of an inch. 

" The bark, which is from two to three feet long, and one to three inches bi 
then laid on a beam of wood about six feet long and nine inches in breadth and tl 
which is supported about an inch from the ground by pieces of wood at each end, so 
allow of a certain degree of vibration. Two or three women generally sit at the 
beam ; each places her bark transversely upon the beam immediately before her, 
while she beats with her right hand, with her left she moves it slowly to and 
that every part becomes beaten alike. The grooved side of the mallet is used fiiatbi 
the smooth side afterwards. 

" They generally beat alternately, and early in the morning, when the air is calnii 
still, the beating of gnatoo in all the plantations has a very pleasing effect. Some 
being near at hand,^ and others almost lost by the distance, — some a little more acul 
others more grave, — and all wdth remarkable regularity, produce a remarkable effeoij 
is very agreeable, and not a little heightened by the singing of the biixis and the 
influence of the scene. When one hand is fatigued, the mallet is dexterously ti 
to the other, without occasioning the smallest sensible delay. 

" In the course of about half an hour, it is brought to a sufficient degree of 
being so much spread laterally as to be now nearly square when unfolded ; for it 
observed that they double it several times during the process, by which means it 
more equally and is prevented from breaking. The bark thus prepared is called, 
and is mostly put aside till they have a sufficient quantity to go on at a future tiiDi 
the second part of the operation, which is called cocanga, or printing with coca. 

*' When this is to be done, a number employ themselves in gathering the beniei 
toe, the pulp of which serves for paste (but the mucilaginous substance of the mab 



MANUFACTURE OF GNATOO. m 

xn.es substitmted for it) ; at the same time others are busy scraping off Hie soft 
the coca-tree and the tooi-toair'tTee, either of which, when wrung out without 
aids a reddish-brown juice, to be used as a dya 

stamp is made of the dried leaves of the pdoongo sewed together so as to be of 
at size, and afterwards embroidered, according to various devices, with the wiiy 
the cocoa-nut husk. Making these stamps is another employment of the 
.nd mostly women of rank. They are generally about two feet long, and a foot 
f broad- They are tied on to the convex side of half cylinders of wood, usually 

or eight feet long, to admit two or three similar operations to go on at the same 

stamp being thus fixed, with the embroidered side uppermost, a piece of the 
bark is laid on it, and smeared over with a folded piece of gnatoo dipped in one 
Idish-brown liquids before mentioned, so that the whole surface of the prepared 
)iiies stained, but particularly those parts raised by the design in the stamp. 
jiece of gnatoo is now laid upon it, but not quite so broad, which adheres by 
the mucilaginoiis quality in the dye, and this in like manner is smeared over ; 
ird in the lame way. 

subBtance is now three layers in thickness. Others are then added to increase 
th and breadth by pasting the edges of these over the first, but not so as there 
a any place more than three folds, which is easily managed, as the margin of 
falls short of the margin of the one under it. 

Lng the whole process each layer is stamped separately, so that the pattern may 
) exist in the very substance of the gnatoo ; and when one portion is thus 
► the size of the stamp, the material being moved farther on, the next portion, 
length or breadth, becomes stamped, the pattern beginning close to the spot 
3 other ended. Thus they go on printing and enlarging it to about six feet in 
md generally about forty or fifty yards in length. It is then carefuUy folded up 
i under ground, which causes the dye to become rather dark, and more firmly 
he fibre ; beside which it deprives it of a peculiar smoky smell which belongs to 

en it has been thus exposed to heat for a few hours, it is spread out on a grass- 
n the sand of the seashore, and the finishing operation of toogi-hca commences, 
ng it ill certain places with the juice of the hea, which constitutes a brilliant red 

This is done in straight lines along those places where the edges of the printed 
join each other, and serves to conceal the little irregularities there ; also in sundry 
ces, in the form of round spots, about an inch and a quarter in diameter. After 
rnatoo is exposed one night to the dew, and the next day, being dried in the sun, 
ked up in bales to be used when required. When gnatoo is not printed or 
it is called lappa." 

)us ornaments are worn by both sexes among the Tongans, among which may be 
ted a kind of creeper, with flowers at intervals along the stem. This is passed 
e neck or the waist, and has a singularly graceful and becoming appearance. The 
ued ornament is, however, that which is made of the ivory of the whale's teeth, 
\ to resemble in miniature the tooth itself. They are of different sizes, varying 
5 inch to four inches in length, and strung together by a cord passing through a 
ed in their thick ends. 
e teeth are even more valued in Tonga than in Fiji, and a common man would 

to have one in his possession, knowing well that he would assuredly lose his life 
ery first occasion that offered the slightest opportunity of an accusation. Once 
he King of Tonga, was told of a whale which had been stranded on a little island 
d only by a man and his wife. When Finow reached the place he found that the 
d been removed, and ordered the man and woman into custody on the charge of 
them. Both denied that they had more than two teeth, which they gave up, 
on the man was immediately killed with a club, and the woman threatened with 
* Caitei Under fear of this threat she produced two more teeth which she had 
bat^ refusing to acknowledge that she knew of any others, met with the same 



312 



TONGA. 



fote as her husband. Many years aft«rwTtrd8 the niisain;; teeth were discoTered, the 
woman having buried them in the ground. Tliia anecdote shows the valne in wliiA 
whales' teeth are held, the king taking the trouble to go in person to claim them, and tU 
woman allowing herself to be killed rather than part with her treasures. 

A good idea of the appearance of a Tongan woman of rank may be obtained from As 
accompanying illustration, which represents the interior of a chiei's house, end part of Iw 
family. 




In the foregiwind is one of the odd wooden pillows which are so much in n| 
throughout Polynesia; while one of the most conspicuous objects is a roll of nm 
matting, which is used for the purpose of surrounding men and women of high nnkj 
they sit on the floor. Within it is seated the chief's wife, in the graceful attitude adq 
by the Tongans, exhibiting the simple and really elegant folds of the guatoo dress. , 
reader will observe the apparent looseness with which the dress is put on, the folds '. 
BO loosely that they seem ready to slip every moment. They are, however, perfectly I 
and there is not the least danger of their slipping. 

Within doors the children never wear any clothing until they are two years old; 
when they go out, their parents always wrap round them a piece of gnatoo or tappa. 
natives are exceedingly fastidious about their dress, criticising every fold with mi 
care, and spending a considerable time in arranging them. Even when bathing, 
always array themselves in a slight dress made for such occasions, going a.side for 
purpose of exchanging the usual gnatoo for an apron of leaves or matting. So disn 
is utter nudity reckoned among the Tongans, that if a man be obliged to tmdress 
spot where a chief is buried, the leaf apron is worn while the dress is changed. 

We now oome to the various divisions of rank in Tonga, and the mode of g( 
Banks may be divided into two distinct orders, namely, the religious and the civil 
must take them in this order, because among the Tongans religiouB takes the 
of civil rank. 



GKADATIONS OF lUNK. 313 

By &r the greatest man in point of rank is the Tooi-toxga. This word literally 
Unifies Chief of Tonga, and is given because the man who bears it is the greatest man in 
!hi^ which is the chief of the whole group of islands. The word does not represent a 
me, but a rank, the family name being Fatagehi, and the rank passes downwards by 
iptimate descent So great a man is the Tooi-tonga, that in his presence no man may 
and, bat is obliged to sit down in the attitude of i-espcct. Even the king is not exempt 
om this law; and if he should happen to meet the Tooi-tonga, he would have to squat 
rwn humbly until the great man had passed by. 

The Tooi-tonga stands alone in many particulars, and, according to our ideas, he has 
Bnty of dignity, but very little comfort, leading a life somewhat like that of the spiritual 
npeior of Japan. He has certainly one advantage over his fellows : he does not undei'go 
B operation of tattooing, because there is no one of sufficiently high rank to draw the 
)od of so sacred a personage. He is married after a manner peculiar to himself, is 
ried in a peculiar manner, and is mourned in a peculiar manner. He is so sacred, that 
speakiiig of him another language is used, many phrases being reserved expressly for 
B Tboi-tonga These are probably relics of an ancient and nearly lost language, as is 
B case witik the incantations of the New Zealand priests. 

The leason for this extraordinary veneration is, that the Tooi-tonga is supposed to be 
beet descendant of a chief god who was accustomed to visit the islands ; but whether 
k fonala ancestor was a goddess or a native of earth is an open question with the 
ppasL In spite of all the veneration which is shown to him, the Tooi-tonga has vciy 
Ib nal powet; and in this respect is far surpassed by the king, and equalled by many 
pieiioUeBL 

; There is another chief, the Veacht, who is also supposed to have a divine origin, and 
ifliew ibi e held in higher veneration t^an any of the chiefs, but is inferior to tlie Tooi- 
Ifp. It is true that in his presence the king has to sit on the ground in the attitude of 
taiility, and that he is considered a being next in rank to the great Tooi-tonga himself; 
tk the other marks of veneration, such as a separate language, and diil'erent modes of 
triage, burial, and mourning, ai-e not paid to him ; and in jjower he is equalled by 
hoy of the chiefs. 
Next in rank, but at a very great distance, come the priests. These men receive their 
from their capability of being inspired by certain gods, and, except when actually 
1, have no special rank, and are paid no honour except such as may belong to them 
rate individuals. Mariner remarks that he never knew a case in which a priest was 
The king occasionally becomes inspired, because there is one god who cannot 
except by the royal mouth ; but the king is not, in consequence, considered as a 
Neither are the Tooi-tonga and Veachi considered as priests, nor is there any 
m between them and the priesthood. 
[Should, in an assembly, a priest become inspired, he is immediately held in the 
veneration as long as the inspiration lasts, because a god is supposed to be speaking 
his lips. If, on such an occasion, the king should be present, he immediately 
his place, and sits humbly among the spectators. Even the gicat Tooi-tonga him- 
icts in the same manner, and, though the descendant of a god, he retires before the 

presence of a divinity. 
80 much for the spiritual rank, and we now pass to the temporal rank. 
Jhe highest man in a secular point of view is the How, or king, who is the most 
oir all the chiefs, and yet may be in point of rank inferior to the poorest of his 
I, or EoiS. Bank is measured in Tonga by relationship to the Tooi-tonga or Veachi, 
^datiTes of the former being held superior to those of the latter. The consequence is, 
^the king may meet a poor man who has scarcely any power, and yet who is so high 
'^ above the king that the latter must sit down till his superior has passed. Should 
Jjot do so, or should he by any accident touch anything that belonged to his superior, 
*^pa would assume its sway, and he would not be permitted to feed liimself with his 
^ liands nntil he had gone to his superior, and saluted him by touching his feet 
In consequence of these customs, the king avoids associating with nobles who are 
superior in rank, and they in their turn keep out of his way as far as possible, so as 



314 TONGA. 

not to humiliate him by makiug him sit while they stood. Originally, the king vu t 
descendant of the Tooi-tonga, and thus was equally high in spiritual and temporal luiU 
But when the throne was usurped by other families, the king still retained the tempori 
power, though he yielded in spiritual rank to othera : 

Next to the king come the Eois, or nobles. These are all relations of the Tooi-toDflJ 
the Yeaclii, or the king, kinship to the king being held as conferring rank because!^ 
holds the reins of power. liank descends in Tonga, as in other Polynesian islanfj 
through the female line, so that all the children of an Egi woman possess the rank ^ 
Egi, no matter who may be the father. 

After the nobles come the Matabooles, or coimcillors, who are the companions 
advisers of the chiefs, and take their rank from that of the chief to whom they 
attached. They are always the heads of families, and are mostly men of mature age 
experience, so that their advice is higlily valued. The eldest son of a Mataboole is 
trained to take his father's place when he dies, and is thoroughly versed in all the 
and ceremonies, the administration of laws, and the many points of etiquette about wl 
tlie Tongans are so fiistidioiis. He also learns all the traditionary records of his 
and by the time tliat lie is thirty years old or so is perfectly acquainted with his 
sion. But until his father dies he has no rank, and is merely one of the ordinary 
who will now be described. 

Last of all those who possess any rank are the geutr}^ or MooAS. All the 
Matabooles are Mooas, and act as assistants of the Matabooles, aiding on gre-at cei 
in managing the dances, distributing food, and so forth. like their superiors, they 
themselves to the service of some chief, and derive their relative consequence fjtnJ 
rank. As a rule, the ^Vfooas all profess some art, such as canoe-building, ivory-^ 
and superintending funeral rites, in which three occupations the Matabooles also 
])art. They also preside over the makers of stone coffins, the makers of neta^ 
fishermen, and the architects, and all these employments are hereditary. 

Just as the childr(;n and brothers of Matabooles take the next lowest rank, tl 
Mooa, so do those of Mooas take the next lowest rank, and are considered as Tooi 
plebeians. In this case, however, the eldest son of a Mooa assumes the rank of his 
after his death, and is therefore more respected than his brothers, who are regarded] 
younger sons among ourselves. The Tooas do all the menial work, and act as 
barbers, tattooers, clul)-car\^ers, and so forth. The two latter occujiations, how( 
requiring artistic skill, are also practised by Mooas. 

It will be seen from this brief sketch how elaborate, and yet how intelligible, is 
system of the Tongans, even when complicated with the double grades of spiritual 
tem]ioral rank. This respect for rank is carried even into the privacy of home. U,\ 
example, an Egi woman marries a Mataboole, or a ilooa, she retains her original 
which is shared by all her children, so that both she and her children are superior to I 
husband and fatlier. He, on his part, has to play a double role. He is master in 
own house, and his wife submits to him as implicitly as if he were of the same rank] 
herself. Yet he acknowledges the superior rank both of his wife and children, and, 
he even ventures to feed himself with his own hands, he goes through the ceremoi 
touching the feet of his wife or either of his children, in order to free himself 
the tapu. 

When the case is reversed, and a man of high rank marries a woman of an infe 
station, she does not rise to the rank of her husband, but retains her original st 
which is inherited by her children, who, together with herself, have to touch the feetj 
the husband whenever they eat. They imagine that if they did not do so a tei 
sickness would consume them. AVlien Mariner lived among the Tongans, he did 
trouble liimself about the tapu, much to the horror of the natives, who expected that 
ofifended gods would wreak their vengeance on hiuL Finding that he suffered no 
they accounted for the phenomenon by the fact that he was a white man, and in conaeqi 
had nothing to do with the gods of the Tongans. 

In consequence of the strictness of this system, Finow, who was king when ISmM 
lived among the Tongan islands, used to feel annoyed if even a child of superior lanknti 



i 



GENERAL CHAEAGTERISTICS. 315 

imnight near him, and used angrily to order it to be taken away. Such conduct^ however 
nrald not be thought right unless both parties were nearly equal in rank ; and if, for 
panmple, the Tooi-tonga's child had been brought near the king, he would at once have 
lone homage after the customary fashion. 

Some very curious modifications of this custom prevail throughout Tongan society. 
fat example, any one may choose a foster-mother, even though his own mother be alive, 
|m1 he may choose her from any rank. Generally her rank is inferior to that of her 
adopted son, but even this connexion between them does not earn for her any particular 
npect She would be much more honoured as an attendant of a young chief than as his 
sr-mother. 

So elaborate and yet simple a system implies a degree of refinement which we coidd 

ly expect among savages. In consonance with this refinement is the treatment of 

len, who are by no means oppresssed and hard-worked slaves, as is the case with 

savage nations. Consequently the women possess a gentle freedom of demeanour 

grace of form which are never found among those people where women are merely 

drudges of the men. So long ago as 1777, Captain Cook noticed that the women 

much more delicately-formed than the men, that they were beautifully proportioned, 

that the hands were so small and soft that they would compare favourably with the 

examples in Europe. Hard and constant labour, such as is usually the lot of savage 

len, deteriorates the form greatly, as indeed we can see among ourselves, by comparing 

a high-bred lady and a field labourer. The two hardly seem to belong to the 

race, or scarcely to the same sex. 

The Tongan women certainly do work, but they are not condemned to do it all, the 

taking the hard labour on themselves, and leaving the women the lighter tasks, such 

pleating gnatoo, plaiting baskets, making crockery, and the like. At the great dances, 

women are not only allowed to be present, but assist in them, taking as important a 

as the men, and infusing into the dance a really cultivated grace \vhich would not 

without them. 

The light-coloured hue of the skin, which has already been mentioned, is much more 

among the women than the men, for the reason that the better class of women 

more care of themselves than the men ; and, though all classes live for the most part 

^tfae open air, the wives and daughters of powerful and wealthy men are careful not to 

themselves to the sun more than is absolutely necessary, so that many of them, 

of being brown, are of a clear olive tint, the effect of which is shigularly beautiful 

contrasted with their dark clustering hair, their gnatoo garments, and the leaves 

flowers with which they adorn themselves, changing them several times daily. 

ither, a Tongan chief looks, and is, a gentleman, and his wile a lady. 



CHAPTER II. 



WAE a:^d ceremonies. 



NATDBAL MILDNESS OF THE TONGANS — BOASTlKG DISCOURAGED — WAR APPAHKNTLY lAABXKD f^ 
THE FIJIANS — FINOW'S SPEECH TO HtS SOLDIERS, AND A NEW DISCIPLINE — FATB OF t 

VANQUISHED — THE DROWNED CHIEFS — CEREMONIES — KAVA-DRINKING STRICT CODE OF S 

QCETTE — PREPARATION OF THE KAVA A QRACISPUL PERFORMANCE — DISTRIBUTION OF ^ 

KAVA — POINTS OF CEREMONY — A TONTJAN PLANTATION — SETTING THE YAMS CBRRHOKT' 

INACHI —THE POLE-BEARERS AND THfelR BURDEN — THE YAM PILLARS LIFTING THE FlOi 

DISTRIBUTION OF PROVISIONS, AND CONCLUSION OF THE CEREMONY — TOW-TOW, AND ITS OBJI 

PRESENTATION OF THE OFFERING A GRAND SCRAMBLE — BOliNG AND W^RRSTLING MATCBH 

GOOD-HUMOURED COMBATANTS — FIGHTS WITH CLUBS — THE SAMOAN ANt) TONGAN B17LB8. 

By nature the Toiigaus are gentle and kind-hearted, and present a most carious mixfaf 
of mildness and courage. To judge by many traits of character, they might be stigmatai 
as effeminate, while by others they are shown to possess real courage, not merely ^ 
dashing and boastful bravery which is, when analysed, merely bravado, and which is 04 
maintained by the hope of gaining applause. The Tongan never boasts of his own coi 
nor applauds that of another. When he has performed a deed of arms which would. 
a Fijian boasting for the rest of his life, he retires quietly into the background and 
nothing about it. His king or chief may acknowledge it if they like, but he will be 
on the subject, and never refer to it. 

For the same reason, he will ijot openly applaud a deed of arms done by one of 
fellows. He will regard the man with great respect, and show by his demeanour 
honour in which he holds him, but he will not speak openly on the subject. Mi 
relates an instance in which a young warrior named Hali Api Api, who seems to 
been the very model of a gentleman, performed a notable deed of arms, equally 
able for courage and high-minded generosity. During a council, the king called him 
and publicly thanked him for his conduct The man blushed deeply, as if ashamed at 
public recognition of his services, saluted the king, and retired to his place without 
a word. Neither did he afterwards refer either to his exploit or to the public 
of it. 

One warrior actually declared that he would go up to a loaded cannon and throw 
spear into it. He fullilled his promise to the letter. He ran up within ten or 
yards of the gun, and, as the match was applied, threw himself on the ground, so that 
shot passed over him. He then sprang up, and, in spite of the enemy's weapons^ hi 
his spear at the cannon, and struck it in the muzzla Having performed this feit^ 
quietly retired, and was never heard to refer to so distingidshed an act of courage^ 
he was greatly respected for it by his countrymen. 

We need not wonder that such men should establish a moral influence over 
boastful but not warlike Fijians, and that the small colony established in the T^i 
should virtually be its masters. Two hundred years ago, the Tongan appean to 



MUEDER OF PEISONEBS. 



317 



Qorani of weapons and warfare, and to have borrowed his first knowledge of both 
ijL Consequently, the Tongan weapons are practically those of Fiji, modified 
lat according to the taste of the makers, but evidently derived from the same 
Captain Cook, who visited the islands in 1777, remarks that the few clubs and 
ehich he saw among the Tongans were of Fiji manufacture, or at least made after 
pattern. Yet, by a sort of poetical justice, the Tongan has turned 
lan's weapons against himself, and, by his superior intellect and 
irous comt^, has overcome the ferocious people of whom he was 
y in dread. 

;e the introduction of fire-arms, the superiority of the Tongans has 
jseU even more manifest, the Fijians having no idea of fighting 
men who did not run away when fired at, but rushed on in spite 
veapons opposed to them. 

) possible that the Tongans may have learned this mode of fighting 
ariner and his companions. When the king Finow was about to 
731 upon a neighbouring island, he assembled the warriors and 
liein an address, telling them that the system of warfare which 
in previously employed was a false one. He told them no longer 
nee or retreat according as they met with success or repulse, but to 
»rward at all risks ; and, even if a man saw the point of a spear at 
ast, he was not to flinch like a coward, but to press forward, and 
of his own life to kill his foe. He also instructed them in the art 
Lving the onset of the enemy with calmness, instead of indulging 
and gesticulations, telling tihem to seat themselves on the ground 
jnemy approached, as if perfectly unconcerned, and not to stir until 
, even if they threw spears or shot arrows. But as soon as they got 
•d to advance they were to leap to their feet, and charge without 
to consequences. The reader may remember that this is exactly 
itegy which was employed in Africa by the great KaflSr chief 




may easily be imagined how such a course of conduct would 
ert their opponents, and tlie Fijians in particular, with whom 
g and challenging took the place of valour. Emboldened by the 
it weakness of the enemy, they would come on in great glee, 
Qg to make an easy conquest, and then, just when they raised the 
f victory, they found themselves suddenly attacked with a disci- 
fury which they had never been accustomed to meet, and were 
lently dispersed and almost annihilated before they could well 
their position, 
ugh tolerably mild towards their captives, the Tongans sometimes 

an unexpected ferocity. On one occasion, some of Finow*s 
rprised and captured four of the enemy, whom they imagined to 
to a party who had annoyed them greatly by hanging on ^their 
id cutting off the stragglers. 

irst they wished to take the prisoners home and make an example 
, but the chief of the party suggested that they would have all the 

of guarding them, and proposed to decapitate them, and take 
!ads home. One of them objected to the proposal on the ground 
*y had no knives, but another man, fertile in expedients, picked up some oyster- 
bat were lying about, and suggested that they would answer the purpose. 
ras in vain that the victims protested their innocence, and begged that at least 
;ght be clubbed before their heads were cut ofiF. The conquerors coolly took oif 
esses to prevent them being stained with blood, and deliberately sawed off the 
f the captives with their oyster-shells ; beginning at the back of the neck, and 
r their way gradually round. The reason for this course of action seemed to be 
— fii8t> that they thought they might spoil the heads by the club ; and secondlv, 



CLUB. 



:U8 TONGA. 

that as the heads must be cut off at all events, clubbing the captives beforehand 
taking needless trouble. 

Indeed, the character of the Tongan presents a curious mixture of mildness 
cruelty, the latter being probably as mucli due to thoughtlessness as to ferocity. ( 
when eighteen rebels had been captured, Finow ordered them to be drowned, 
punishment is inflicted by taking the prisoners out to sea, bound hand and foot, 
towing some worthless canoes. When they are far enough from land, the culprib 
transferred to the canoes, which are then scuttled, and left to sink. Care is t^en 
the holes made in the canoes are small, so that they shall be as long as possible in sin] 

On that occasion, twelve of the prisoners begged to be clubbed instead of dro?i 
and their request was granted. The young men divided the prisoners among themse 
being anxious to take a lesson in clubbing a human being, which would serve them i 
they came to make use of the club against an enemy. The twelve were, accordi] 
dispatched with the club, but the others, being tried warriors, scorned to ai 
favour, and were drowned. The leading chief among them employed the short 
which was left him in uttering maledictions against Finow and his chiefs, and even ^ 
the water came up to his mouth, he threw back his head for the purpose of utt< 
another curse. 

We will now pass to a more pleasant subject, namely, the various ceremonies in ^ 
the Tongan delights. Chief among these is the drinking of kava, which fonns an 
portant part of every public religious rite, and is often practised in private. Kava-drin 
is known throughout the greater part of Polynesia ; but as the best and fullest accou: 
it has been obtained from Mariner's residence in Tonga, a description of it has 
reserved for the present occasion. It must first be premised that the kava is made ; 
the root of a tree belonging to the pepper tribe, and known by the name of Pi^Kr mf^ 
ticum, i.e. the intoxicating pepper-tree. Disgusting as the preparation of the kava 
be to Europeans, it is held in such high estimation by the Polynesians that it is d 
made or drunk without a complicated ceremony, which is the same whether the part 
a large or a small one. 

The people being assembled, the man of highest rank takes his place under the c 
of the house, sitting with his back to the house and his face towards the marh/y or ( 
space in front, and having a Mataboole on either side of him. Next to these Matabo 
who undertake the arrangement of the festival, sit the nobles or chiefs of highest r 
and next to them the lower chiefs, and so forth. They are not, however, very partic 
about the precise order in which they sit, distinctions of rank being marked by the c 
in which they are served. 

This is the business of the presiding Matabooles, and as the distinctions of rani 
most tenaciously observed, it is evident that the duties of a Mataboole are of a most diffi 
nature, and can only be learned by long and constant pmctice. If the men sat accor 
to their rank, nothing would be easier than the task of ser^^ing them in order. Bi 
often happens that a man of high rank happens to come late, and, as he is too polit 
disturb those of lower rank who have abeady taken their places, he sits below tl 
knowing that his rank will be recognised at the proper time. 

It mostly happens, however, that when one of the presiding Mataboole^ sees a 
occupying a place much below that to which his rank entitles him, he makes some 
exchange places with him, or even turns out altogether a man who is seated in a '. 
place, and puts the chief into it. 

The people thus gradually extend themselves into a ring, sometimes single, but c 
several ranks deep when the pai-ty is a large one, every one of the members being a 
of some recognised rank. Behind those who form the bottom of the ring opposite 
presiding chief, sit the general public, who may be several thousand in number. It 
remarkable fact, illustrating the rigid code of etiquette which i3revails among the Ton( 
that no one can sit in the inner ring if a superior relative be also in it ; and, no m 
liow high may be his rank, he must leave his place, and sit in the outer circle, if his fi 
or any superior relative enters the inner ring. 



MAKING THE KAVA. ?,19 

is ring; which constitutes the essential kava party, is formed mostly of the sons of 
and Matabooles, and it often happens that their fathers, even if they be chiefs of 
;hest rank, will sit in the outer ring, rather than disturb its arrangements. Even 
1 of the king often adopts this plan, and assists in preparing the kava like any of 
ler young men. 

acUy opposite to the king is placed the kava-bowl, and behind it sits the man who 
repare the drink. On either side of him sits an assistant, one of whom carries a 
lerewith to drive away the flies, and another takes charge of the water, which is 
1 cocoa-nut shells. The rank of the preparer is of no consequence. Sometimes he 
ooa or gentleman, and sometimes a mere cook ; but, whoever he may be, he is known 
ibie to perform his difficult task with sufficient strength and elegance. 
I being ready, one of the presiding Matabooles sends for the kava root, which is then 
i quite clean and cut up into small pieces. These are handed to the young men or 

the yoimg women present, who masticate the root, contriving in some ingenious 
) keep it quite dry during the process. It is then wrapped in a leaf, and passed to 
eporer, who places it in the bowl, carefully luiing the interior with the balls of 
d root, so that the exact quantity can be seen. 

hen all the kava has been chewed and deposited, the preparer tilts the bowl towards 
esiding chief, who consults with his Matabooles, and if he thinks there is not enough, 
the bowl to be covered over, and sends for more kava, wliich is treated as before. 
i he be satisfied, the preparer kneads all the kava together, and the Mataboole then 
or water, which is poured into the bowl until he orders the man to stop. Next 
i the order to put in the fmv. This is a bundle of very narrow strips of bark of a 
elongiug to the genus hibiscus, and it has been compared to the willow shavings 
iie used in England to decorate fire-places in the summer-time. The assistant takes 
Dtity of this material, and lays it on the water, spreading it carefully, so that it lies 
ly on the surface of the liquid. Now begins the imi)ortant part of the proceeding 

1 tests the powers of the preparer. 

In the first place, he extends his left hand to the farther side of the bowl, with his 
B pointing downwards and the palm t^^wards himself; he sinks that hand carefully 
.the side of the bowl, carrying with it the edge of the fow; at the same time his 
band is performing a similar operation at the side next to him, the fingers pointing 
wards and the palm presenting outwards. lie does this slowly from side to side, 
lally dMcending deeper and deeper till his fingers meet each other at the bottom, so 
Dearly the whole of the fibres of the root are by these means enclosed in the fnu\ 
ii^ as it were a roll of above two feet in length lying along the bottom from side to 
the edges of the fow meeting each other underneath. 

He now carefully rolls it over, so that the edges overlapping each other, or rather 
mingliDg, come uppermost. He next doubles in the two ends and rolls it carefully 
again, endeavouring to reduce it to a narrower and firmer compass. He now brings 
ntionsly out of the fluid, taking firm hold of it by the two ends, one in each hand (the 
t of his hands being upwards), and raising it breast high with his arms considerably 
ttded, he brings his right hand towards his breast, moving it gradually onwards ; and 
bfc his left hand is coming round towards his right shoulder, his right hand partially 
liiig the^iwff, lays the end which it holds upon the left elbow, so that the/ow; lies thus 
ftded upon that arm, one end being still grasped by the left hand. 
■The right hand being at liberty is brought under the left fore-arm (which still 
lins in tiiie same situation), and carried outwardly towards the left elbow, that it may 
II seize in that situation the end of the foiv. The right hand then describes a bold 
^ outwardly from the chest, whilst the left comes across the chest, describing a curve 
w to him and in the opposite direction, till at length the left hand is extended from 
and the right hand approaches to the left shoulder, gradually twisting \i\efoiv by the 
I and flexures principally of that wrist : this double motion is then retraced, but in 
i a way (the left wrist now principally acting) that the fovj^ instead of being un- 
tedyis still more twisted, and is at length again placed on the left arm, while he takes 
V and less constrained hold. 




" Thus the IinniU and ariim ])orfui'iii a variety of curves of tlie most gn 
suriptiun : the muscles both of the ariiiij iiiid ciumt aie seen lisiii^ as they 
intu action, disi)layiiig what voiild be a fine and uuuominou subject of stui 



DRINKINC THE KAVA. 321 

or no combinations of aniiual action can develop the swell and play of the 
ith more grace and better effect. 

iegree of strength which he exerts when there is a large quantity is very great, 
sxterity with which he accomplishes the whole never faDs to excite the attention 
ation of all present. Every tongue is mut€, and every eye is upon him, watching 
on of his arms as they describe the various curvilinear lines essential to the 
the operation. Sometimes the fibres of the fow are heard to crack with the 
tension, yet the mass is seen whole and entire, becoming more thin as it 
lore twisted, while the infusion drains from it in a regularly decreasing quantity 
:th it denies a single drop." 

DStration on the preceding page represents this portion of the ceremony. On the 
is seen the presiding chief seated under the eaves of the house, with a Mataboole 
side of him, and just beyond him extends a portion of the inner ring. In 
16 chief sits the performer, who is wringing out the kava, and is just about to 
\ grasp of his right hand, according to Mariner's description. On either side sit 
stB^ both of whom are engaged in fanning away the flies. 
hem lie the cocoa-nut shells from which tlie water has been poured. Beyond 
ring are seen the outer rings and the general population, who have come to 
^ oeremony and get their chance of a stray cup of kava or some food. 
tiie fmo ceases to give out any more fluid, a second and third are used in the 
wr, 80 that not a particle of the root remains in the liquid. Should more fcno 
IB granted, an order is given, and twenty or thirty men rush off for it, going 
Sqg at fiill speed, as if running for their lives ; and anything else that may 
is fetched in the same manner. 

the operator is going through his task, those who are in the outer circle and 
ipeiiy see him occupy themselves in making cups from which the kava can 
These cups are made of the unexpanded leaves of the banana tree, cut up into 
about nine inches across. The cups are made in a most ingenious manner by 
F-fhe two ends and tying them with a fibre drawn from the stem of the leaf. 
bole then orders provisions to be served out, which is done in an orderly manner. 
lexal assembly this is the most interesting pai-t of the ceremony, for they have 
hance of getting any kava, and it is very likely that they will have a share of 
be T^gnlar kava drinkers never eat more than a morsel or two at these 

JBiiiior having done his part, now comes the test of the Mataboole's efficiency. 
li to be distributed in precisely the proper order, a slip in this respect being 
lia dBsp offence. Should a visitor of rank be present, he gets the first cup, 
iig Mataboole the second, and the presiding chief the third. If, however, 
19 ffiven by one of the guests, the donor always has the first cup, unless 
tt be a visitor of superior rank to himself, in which case the donor is ignored 
Biil^ having the kava according to his rank. No person is allowed to have two 
die same bowl, but after all the inner circle and their relatives are served, the 
ia given out to the people as far as it will go, and a second bowl is prepared. 
ee& that, if the preparer be a man of low rank, he stands a chance of never 
Uqnid which he has so skilfully prepared. 

ond bowl is prepared in precisely the same way as the first, except that the 
dding Mataboole gives the orders ; and, if a third or fourth bowl be ordered, 
he mrection alternately. When the second bowl is prepared, the cups are 
anded round in exactly the same order as before, so that those of high rank 

four cups, and those of lower rank only one, or perhaps none at all. 
point of etiquette that no chief ever visits the kava party of an inferior chief, 
ise the latter would be obliged to retire from the presidency and sit in the outer 
n the Tooi-tonga presides, no one presumes to sit within six feet of him ; and 
e an inspired priest be prasent, he takes the presidency, and the greatest chief, 

king himself, is obliged to retire into the outer ring on such occasions. A 

T 



priest always presides at religioTW ceremonies, and the kava party is held in fi 
temple dedicated to the particular god which they are about to consult B 
cases a god haa no priest, and in those oases he is supposed io preside in pen 
invisibly, the president's place being left vacant for him. 

The reader will see from the foregoing account that kava is a luxury practical 
to the higher classes. The great chiefs and Matabooles drink it every day, eith 
denis or members of the inner ring. Those of lower rank obtain it occasionally 
Tooas seldom taste this luxury, except by taking the kava after it has been wi 
operator, and preparing it afresh. 

As the reader will see, it is impossible to separate the secular and religiouj 
Tongans. They are inextricably woven together, and therefore must be describi 
There are a vast number of ceremonies in which these two elements are uni 




two of which will be described, by way of sample of the rest The first is thi 
Inichi, a feast of fiistfruits, a ceremony which in principle is found throughou' 
earth, though the details necessarily differ. In the present case, the ofTerini; 
the Tooi-tonga, as being at once the descendant and representative of the goda 
About the latter end of July the ordinary yams are planted in the ground 
which are intended for the feast of Inachi are of a different kind, coming 1 
earlier, and are planted about a month sooner. In the accompanying iUo: 
may see bow the yams are set in the ground, and may get a good idea a 



In the oenfxe of the foreground is the chief to whom the plantatum bela 



I* 



THE FEAST OF IN^CHI. 323 

!>y his little boy. As is usual with men of rank in Tonga, he bears in his hand a 
lany-barbed spear, which may either be used as a walking-staff or as a weapon. 
ner is its normal use, but the chiefs sometimes find the advantage of having with 
serviceable weapon. The point of the spear is frequently armed with the barbed 
3 of the sting-ray. When Finow captured by craft the rebel chief whose death 
ning has alr^y been described, his chief difiGiculty was the bone-tipped spear 
lie chief always carried with him, and of which he was temporarily deprived by 
yem. 

of his labourers is talking to him, having in his hand the hoe with which he has 
iking holes in the ground for the reception of the yams. Behind him are more 
Sy employed in cutting the yams in pieces, and planting them in the holes. Just 
the yam plantation is a piece of ground stocked with sugar-canes ; and beyond 
LT-canes is the house of the chief, known by the superiority of its architecture. 
se is built near the sea-shore, and close to the beach a canoe is seen hauled up on 
ort 

greater part of the illustration is occupied with the ingenious spiked fence within 
he stotehooses and dwellings for the Tooas, or peasants, are placed. As may be 
has no doors, but at intervals the fence is only half the usual height and without 
ind is crossed by means of stiles, two of which are given in the illustration, one to 
a exterior and the other the interior of the fence. Close to the further stile is a 
BM^ annoiinded with a fencing to the height of several feet, in order to guard it, 
mrin^ ttom the attacks of pigs and children. 

•^tffUk shed is one of the peasants' houses, under which are seated a number of 
imployed in making mats ; whUe some children are playing and fowls feeding by 
IjBvwaids the further end of the enclosure is shown one of the storehouses. 

as the yams are ripe, the king sends a message to the Tooi-tonga, asking him 

far fhe ceremony, which is generally settled to be on the tenth day after the 

so fhat time may be given for notice to be sent to all the islands. The 

['tte oeremony of Indchi, the yams are dug up and ornamented with scarlet 

of the inner membrane of the pandanus leaf These are in long and 

and are woven spirally over the yams, first in one direction and then the 

r^D piodiioe a neat chequered pattern, and having the ends hanging loose. 

the night is heard the sound of the conch shell, and until midnight the 

answer each other in a song, the men singing, " Eest> doing no work," 

responding, *' Thou shalt not work." About midnight the song ceases ; 

at daybreak, and continues until about eight a.m., accompanied with 

-Uowing. The prohibition of work is so imperative, fhat the people are 

to leave their houses, except for the purpose of assisting in the 

tihe oersmony of In&chi really begins, the people crowding from different 
Zssi-toDga's island towards the capital town, and canoes approaching in all 
■ fiom otter islands. All are in their very best, with new clothes and ribbons ; 
le men cany their most beautiful spears and clubs. Each party carries the yams 
^ts, which are taken to the marly, or large central space of the village, and there 
m with great ceremony. In the marly are ready laid a number of poles, eight or 
t in length, and four inches in diameter, and upon them the men sUng the yams, 
I yam being hnng to the middle of each pole. 

awhile the great chiefs and Matabooles have gone to the grave of the last Tooi- 
iionld it happen to be on the island, or, should he have been buried on another 
he grave of any of his family answers the pui*posa They sit there in a semicircle 
be grave, their heads bowed and their hands clasped, waiting for the procession, 
resently arrives. 

i oome two boys blowing conch shells, and advancing with a slow and solemn 
id behind them come a vast number of men with the yams. Each pole is carried 
nen, <Hie at each end, and, as they walk, they sink at every step, as if overcome 
t weiriit of their boiden. This is to signify that the yams are of such a size that 

t2 




'334 



TONGA. 



the bearers can hardly carry them, and is a sort of symbulized tlianksgiving t< 
for so fine a proapect of harvest. 

As the men come to the grave, they lay the poles and yams on it, and seat tl 
in order before the grave so that they form a line between the chiefs and the y 

Ihis part of the ceremony is sliown in the accompanying illustration. In 
ground are seated the chiefs and Matabooles, with their clubs and spears, while tl 
Bion of pole bearers is seen winding along from the far distance. Two of t 
already laid their yams and poles before the grave, and have seated themselvei 
the grave and the circle of chiefs, while others are just depositing their burde 
same sacred spot Standing by them are the two boys who headed the proce: 
blowing busdy at their conch shell trumpete. In the distance, and on the lei 
the illustration, may be seco the people seated in numbers on the ground. 




CEREMOXlf OF 1.NACU(. 



One of the Tooi-tonga's Mataboole-s then sits between the i)nle-l)earera and 
and makes an oration, in which he gives thanks to the gods lor their bounty, 
for a continuance of it to their oH'spring, the Tooi-tonga. He tlien relires to b 
place, the men take up their poles, and after niarcliing several times round the gi 
return to the mai-ly and again deposit their loads, this time untying the yams 
poles, but leaving the coloured streamers upon them. 

Here the whole of the people seat themselves in a large circle, at which 
tonga presides, even the king himself retiring, and sitting in the back rank 
the remainder of the offerings are brougiit forward, coosbting of mats, gnal 
fish, and various kinds of food. These are divided by one of the Tooi-tongi 
boolea into four equal parte. One of these goes to the gods, and is tt tn 



THE FUNERAL FEAST. 325* 

by the servants of the different priests, and the itimainder is shared by the Tooi- 
and the king, the latter, although of inferior rank, getting the larger portion, because 
i four times as many dependents to feed. 

le proceedings are wound up with the kava-drinking which always accompanies 
eremonies. While the infusion is being prepared, the presiding Mataboole makes a 
I to the people, explaining the rite that has just been concluded, and advising them 
due honour to the gods and their representative the Tooi-tonga. 

HEN this great potentate dies, tliere is a most extravagant feast, which often reduces 
ople to a state of semi-starvation for a loug time, and sometimes threatens an 

famine. In such a case, the tapu is laid upon hogs, cocoa-nuts, and fowls for 
or eight months, or even longer, during which time none but the great chiefs are 
<l to touch theuL Two or three plantations are always exempted, so that there may 
supply for the great chiefs and for the various religious ceremonies. At the 
ition of the stated period, if the crops look well, and the pigs and fowls have 
sed in due proportion, the tapu is taken off with very great ceremony. 
ie of these ceremonies was seen by Mariner at the Hapai Islands, and a very 
JR lite it turned out to be. It was held on two marlies, one belonging to the Tooi- 
and the other to the king. As if to compensate for tlie limited diet of the previous 
h^ food was piled in abundance. On tlie Tooi-tonga's marly were erected four 
k hollow pillars, about four feet in diameter, and made of four poles connected with 
w These were about fifty or sixty feet in height, and each of them was crowned 
ifMked hog. 

■B Idng^s marly, which was about a quarter of a mile from the otlier, was equally 
Replied with food, only in this case the yams were placed in wooden cars or sledges, 
wmdj four hundred half-baked hogs were laid on the ground. The king having 
pdy and the signal given for beginning the proceedings, tlie young chiefs and warriors 
pneoessively to lift the largest hog, and at last, wlien all had failed, it was lifted by 
kMi and tiJcen to the other marly. " In the meantime the trial was going on with 
MBOnd hog; which, being also found too heavy for one man, was carried away by two 
p manner, and so on with the third, fourth, &c., the largest being carried away first, 
ha least last. 

second, third, fourth, &c., afforded more sport than the others, as being a nearer 
ice with a man's strength. Sometimes he had got it nearly upon his shoulder, 

^Us greasy burden slipped througli his arms, and, in his endeavour to save it, 
him down after it. It is an honour to attempt these things, and even the king 
puts his hand to it." 

part of the proceedings was the canying twenty of the largest hogs to tlie 
_ Cb grave, and leaving them there, while the rest, together with the other 
wetre shared among the chiefs, who in their turn distributed them to their 
Untal eveiy man in the island gets a piece of pork and yam. The four great 
of yams were given, one to the king, another to the Tooi-tonga, the third to the 
chi and one or two of the very great chiefs, and the fourth to the gods. The 
tonga also took the cars of yams as a matter of tacit though unacknowledged right. 
i-drinking, dancing, and wrestling concluded the ceremony ; and as soon as the circle 
t up, the tapu was considered as annulled. 

he twenty large hogs which were laid on the grave were left there for several days ; 
IS soon as they showed signs of putridity, they were cut up, and divided among all 
cbose to apply for a share of the meat. 13y rights they belonged to the chiefs, but 
ley were able to procure fresh pork for themselves, they preTen*ed to forego their 
, and divide the tainted meat among the people. 

he ceremony of Mo*ee-mo'ee, or taking off the tapu contracted by touching a chief, 
ilieady been mentioned. The tapu is even contmcted by eating in the presence of a 
rior relation ; but there is a conventional way of getting rid of this tapu by simply 
ng the back upon the superior, who is then considered as not being ceremonially in 
nesence of the inferior. Shoidd a man think that he may have contracted the tapu 



326 TONGA, 

unwittingly, he will not dare to feed himself until he has gone to some chie^ whose Id 
he takes and presses it against his stomach. This rite is called the Fota, or piesm 
Any chief can take away the the tapu contracted by touching an equal or inferior, botl 
no power over that of a superior. Consequently, no one but himself can take awayi 
Tooi-tonga's tapu ; and this proved so inconvenient that whenever the potentate ir 
from his house, he left behind him a consecrated bowl as his representative, and this y 
held to be equally powerful in removing the tapu. The Veacchi adopted a similar pi 
It is a remarkable fact that kava is exempt from all tapu, so that if even the Tooi-ta 
has touched a piece of kava-root, the lowest cook may chew it. 

There is a ceremony which in principle somewhat resembles that of Inachi, Uioi 
it is conducted after a very different manner. Just as the Inachi is an offering to 
gods in general through the Tooi-tonga, so is this ceremony, which is called the Tow4 
a special thanksgiving to Alo-Alo, the god of weather. It is begun in the early pa 
November, when the yams are ripe, and is continued for some tl^ee months, at inter 
of eight or ten days. 

All the islands of Tonga are divided into three distinct portions, namely, the nord 
division, or Hdhagi, the southern division, or Hihifo, and the middle division, or M 
Each of these divisions has orders to prepare a certain amount of food, such as ji 
cocoa-nuts, and the like, and to bring them to the marly. The correct mode of doii^ 
is to bring them on sticks, so that each stick has upon it seven or eight yams, or a 1)4 
of plantains, or a quantity of bananas. If sugar-canes form part of the offering, thcji 
tied in bundles of three or four in each : and all the offerings, no matter what theyl 
be, are piled up in three great heaps, one being erected by the people of each district 

This being done, and a few preliminary matches of boxing and wrestling played, i 
about three hours a small procession appears, composed of eight or ten men seari 
the priest of AIo-Alo, and accompanied by a young girl about eight or nine yeait: 
who represents the god's wife. She is always the daughter of a chief, and genenll 
one of the highest chiefs, and, during the eighty days of the ceremony, she resides at 
temple of Alo-Alo. She has nothing particular to do, except presiding at one or 
feasts and kava-parties. 

The men are all dressed in mats, and have green leaves tied round their necks. 1 
is the dress of humility and sorrow, and is employed in times of mourning for the i 
and supplication for mercy. 

When they have arrived, they seat themselves in a line, having in front of Umi 
great drum, which is kept for this special purpose. They then offer their prayers to J 
Alo, begging for propitious weather and good crops, and after these prayers are condi 
two of the piles of provisions are carried off by the chiefs, and the third is set aside fiif 
gods. Suddenly the great drum is beaten, on which a general dash is made at the pil 
food, every one scrambling for the provisions, and getting as much as he can. Thei 
not the least order in the scramble, and the scene is a most exciting one, the yams h 
torn from the sticks, and the sticks smashed to pieces, while the sugar-canes are bn 
up into fragments. Thus the gods are fed vicariously. 

The women keep prudently out of the way during this struggle, and stand asid 
watch the chief and concluding ceremony. This is nothing more than a geneial 1 
The inhabitants of the island arrange themselves in two divisions, one half %A 
against the other. All engage in this battle, the highest chiefis as well as the b 
cooks taking part in it. There is no respect of persons, the king, or even the Tooi4i 
himself, being assaulted without compunction, and handled as roughly as any of 
common people. 

Severe as is the fighting, it is all conducted with the greatest good humour, ami 
one displays a sign of ill-temper at the injury which he receives. If a man is knoi 
down, he gets up with a smile ; if his arm is broken, he retires from the battle and h 
set, but he never thinks of complaining. The same system is observed in the bozipg 
wrestling matches of which the Tongans are so fond. 

In wrestling matches, for example, it ia not thought polite for aoj 



THE TOW-TOW. 827 

nother ; he ought to give a general challenge, by striking with the right hand the 
of the opposite ann. If Uie challenge be accepted, the antagonists meet very 
id take care to fasten tightly the gnatoo belt that surrounds the waist. They 
t>elt with a hand on each side, and endeavour to throw their antagonist by 

from the ground and flinging him on his back. The vanquished man rises 
to his place among the spectators without showing any displeasure. Only in 
1 Mariner know a man display ill-feeling at being beaten, and in that instance 
though a chief, was looked upon as an ill-bred fellow. 

tor seats himself on the ground for a few seconds, and then retires to his place, 
3elonging to his own side singing, or rather chanting, a song of victory. After a 
he again rises and ofTers another challenge, and if it be accepted by several 

he may select one from them. If they find that they are equally matched^ 
3ff by mutual consent; and sometimes, if a man encounters a chief much 

him, he will generally yield out of respect to the other^s rank. This only 
in single combat, not in the general fight of the Tow-tow festival 
is conducted on similar principles of fair play. The challenger proceeds into 
of the ring, holding one arm stretched out in front and the other behind, and 
deways^ wanging sides at every step. When the challenge is accepted, both 
wrap a piece of cord round their hands and proceed to blows, which are given 

force and rapidity. When one is vanquished, he retires with apparent 
to the ring, and sits to watch the combats of others, knowing that to be 

is not considered a disgrace. When the victor returns to his people, they 
n, but do not sing the chant of victory unless he has knocked his antagonist 
ling is on these occasions considered as equivalent to being killed in real 

in consequence, the song of victory is not sung unless the antagonist has 
) groimd. 

a be beaten in wrestling he may not wrestle a second time in the same day, 
nay box, and vice versd. 

ceremony of Tow-tow, these scrambling, boxing, and wrestling matches are 
every tenth day, and are repeated eight times, so as to make up the eighty 
festival After each battle, those who have touched a superior chief come to 

of the tapu which they have contracted by touching him. Even the Tooi- 
e nose has been flattened, his teeth knocked out, and his face pounded to a 
lere peasant, over whom he has supreme command of life and death, performs 
ceremony with perfect good-humour. 

stration on page 328 represents the concluding scene of this ceremony. In 
nd are seen the two contending parties, one of which is beginning to get the 

the other. In the centre of the illustration, and on the left, are the fragments 
piles, with a few men still scrambling for them, and in the distance the women 
nder the trees, watching the progress of the fight. 

I is not confined to the men, but is practised also by the women, who on this 
r aside the ordinary gentleness and mildness for which they are remarkable. 
Eiin Cook visited Tonga, he was much surprised to see the girls step into the 
3X with as much spirit and determination as had been shown by the men. 
t^ however, carry the combat to such extremes, and if one of them does not 
Id, the combatants are parted by the elder women. Even the merest children 
. similar ftishion, the little girls knocking each other about with hearty good- 

as they are allowed to fight. 

occasion, Finow ordered that all the women who were seated as spectators 
ige in a general fight, after the manner of the men. They seemed nothing 
i the women who lived on the north of the island fought against those who 
I south side. Nearly fifteen himdred women engaged on each side, and fought 
reatest courage for more than an hour, both parties contending with such 
cm that neither could gain a foot of ground ; and at last Finow ordered them 
eing that several ankles had been sprained and limbs broken. 
Kodng and wrestling matches, the Tongans have club-fights on great occasioiuk 



328 TONGA. 

As with the other matches, the combataats are divided ioto two parties, one being sa 
opposite to the other, with a considerable space of ground between them. 

When all is ready, a man jumps up, runs to the people of the opposite side, and 
down in front of them, asking if any, of them will tigbt him. Aa in the boxing 
wrestling matches, to challenge a particular opponent is had manners. If the chall 
be accepted, the combatants walk to the middle of the ring, each attended by his set 




and then settle whether they shall fight after the Tongan or Samoan manner. Tba fi 
mode does not allow a man to strike an antagonist after he ia knocked down, but d 
flourish his club over him in token of victory. By the latter mode he is allowed to 
the fallen man as long as he shows signs of life. 

When the fight is over, the men on the side of the victor chant their song of tzil 
and the conqueror advances to the king, sits down before him in token of respect 
then rises and returns to his own party. On one of these occasions, the young p 
fought no less than fourteen battles, and was victorious in every one of them. 



CHAPTER III. 



SICKNESS— BURIAL— GAMES. 



rarOBB, AND MODK OF OPEBATmG — SACRIFICE OF CHILDBBN — COXStTLTIlCa THK 
^COa^JHi or IM8PIBATI0N 8ACBIFICB OF WIVR8 — FINOW's GOOD SBN8E SUPPOSED CAUSES 

iXB-— unow's funeral — cutting the head — opening and ci/Osing the vault — 

fG 'TBB OBAYX appointment OF A SUCCESSOR — CONCLUDING CEREMONIES IDEAS OF 

X»— -TABIOUB SPORTS AND GAMES — RAT-SHOOTING AND BIRD-CATCHING — FINOW AND THE 
4ailH— BAIX-PLAY — A DANGEROUS STAKE, AND HONOUBABLE PAYMENT — THE LOVEb's 
§ailip A JTATEVS LEGBND. 



r 

:1ie expected^ various ceremonies take place with regard to sickness and burial 
p<nie 18 illy the inferior relations cut off a joint of the little finger as an offering 
HL Sometimes a whole joint is taken off at once, but those who have many 
iatimB remove only a portion, so that they may be able to offer the sacrifice 
nes. In consequence of this superstition, there is scarcely a person in Tonga 
lot lost a considerable portion of the little finger of one or both hands. 
lode of amputating the finger is simple enough. It is laid upon a flat block of 
I the edge of a knife or axe, or even a sharp stone, placed on it. A smart blow 
itih a mallet, and the stump, which bleeds but little in consequence of the nature 
asration, is held over the smoke of fresh grass, so as to check any after bleeding. 
atdon is made to it, and in a week or two it heals without trouble. The Tongans 
5ni to fear this operation, and even little children may be seen quarrelling with 
r for the honour of having it performed upon them. 

1 the illness take an unfavourable turn, instead of a mere finger, a child is 
the gods by being strangled. For example, when Finow fell ill of the malady 
;h he died, and was apparently sifaking, his eldest son took a young child of the 
m its mother's lap, strangled it, and offered it to the gods at various consecrated 
The people look with the greatest compassion on the poor little victim, but 
t it is right to sacrifice a little child who at present is useless to the community, 
not live to be of service, so that they may obtain in exchange the life of a chief 
eded by his people. 

i sacrifice is sometimes made on other occasions, when the anger of some god 
t^ert^d. In To